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UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
LESSON28
UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY
CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
Contents of Chapter No. 5
1. PERSONALITY
The Nature of Personality
Theories of Personality
Freudian Theory
Trait Theory
Brand Personality
Self and Self Image
2. MOTIVATION
Motivation as a Psychological Force
Needs
Goals
Positive & Negative Motivation
Rational VS. Emotional Motivation
Types and Systems of Needs
Hierarchy of Needs
Trio of Needs
3. LEARNING
The elements of Consumer Learning
Motivation
Cues
Response
Reinforcement
Behavioral Learning Theories
Classical Conditioning
Instrumental Conditioning
4. INFORMATION
Information Processing
5. MEMORY
6. ATTITUDES
What Are Attitudes
Attitude Formation
How Attitudes are Learned
Sources of Influence on Attitude Formation
Personality Factors
7. ATTITUDE CHANGE
Strategies of Attitude Change
Changing the Basic Motivational Function
Associating the product with special groups, events or causes
Changing beliefs about Competitor's Products
Understanding:
 The nature of Personality
 Theories of Personality
 Freudian theory
 Trait theory
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Brand Personality
Self and Self Image
Understanding Personality
Consider the following sentences in order to build an introduction to the concept of personality:
My brother has always wanted to be different since the day he was born
Nadeem's approach is always so aggressive
Sarah can never learn to be patient
Marketers have long tried to appeal to consumers in terms of their personality characteristics. What consumers
purchase and when and how they consume are likely to be influenced by personality characteristics
Below are some of the examples of the ways marketers try to create personality appeals through their
advertisements
We are all created equal but after that its up to you (Harley-Davidson Motorcycle)
Never Follow (Audi)
For those who consider conformity as serious road hazard (SAAB 97 X SUV Cars)
Impossible is Nothing (Adidas)
What is Personality
Personality is dual influence of heredity (looks) and early childhood (Experience)? Is it the broader social and
environmental influences? Personality is a a whole or specific individual traits? These are some of the
considerations while trying to define the personality.
Personality may be defined as inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person
responds to his/her environment
Inner Characteristics are distinguishing characteristics of an individual. They may include:
Attributes
Traits
Mannerisms
Personality and Consumer Behavior
Personality is likely to influence an individual's product choices. Identification of personality characteristics
associated with consumer behavior has proven to be highly useful in the development of a firm's market
segmentation strategies.
The Nature of Personality
Three distinct properties are of importance in the study of personality:
1. Personality reflects individual differences
2. Personality is consistent and enduring
3. Personality can change
1. Individual Differences
Inner characteristics of an individual are unique, no two individuals are alike. Many individuals may be similar in
terms of a single personality characteristic but not in terms of others. Some people may be high in
venturesomeness (willing to accept the risk of doing something new). Others may be low (afraid to buy recently
introduced product). If each person were different in terms of all personality traits it would be difficult to group
consumers in segments.
2. Personality is Consistent and Enduring
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Marketers can not change the personality of consumers to conform to their products. If they know which specific
personality characteristic triggers specific consumer response, they can attempt to appeal the relevant traits
inherent in their target group of consumers. Even the personalities remain consistent the consumer behavior varies
because of the psychological, sociological and situational factors that influence behavior.
3. Personality Can Change
An individual's personality may be altered by major life events e.g. an individual's personality changes in response
to major life events e.g. marriage, birth of a child, death of a parent, change of job/or profession. Personality
change may also be a gradual maturing process. Personality stereotypes may change over time also e.g. men's
personality seems not to have changed in the past 50 years, while women have become more masculine during this
time.
Theories of Personality
1. Freudian Theory of Personality
Viennese Psychologist Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality, built upon the premise that
unconscious needs or drives especially biological drives are at the heart of the human motivation and personality
Constituents of Personality
Three Interacting Systems of Personality are:
Id
Ego
Super Ego
ID
Id is the warehouse of primitive and impulsive drives. It is concerned with the basic physiological needs such as
hunger, thirst, etc... for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction without concern with the means of
satisfaction.
Super Ego
Super Ego is individual's internal expression of society's moral and ethical codes of conduct. Super Ego's role is to
see that the individual satisfies need in a socially acceptable manner. It serves as a kind of break that inhibits or
restrains the impulsive force of id.
Ego
Ego is an individual's conscious control. It serves as the internal monitor that balances the impulsive demands of
id and the Sociocultural constraints of Super Ego.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer Behavior
  2. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer research
  3. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Marketing Mix, Product, Price
  4. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Customer Value, Perceived Value
  5. VALUE AND RETENTION FOCUSED MARKETING AND CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
  6. CONSUMER RESEARCH:Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research
  7. MAJOR STEPS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS:Design of Primary research
  8. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  9. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES
  10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  11. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION AND ITS BASES:Geographical Segmentation
  13. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION
  14. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: SOCIOCULTURAL SEGMENTATION USE RELATED SEGMENTATION USAGE SITUATION SEGMENTATION
  15. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Intrinsic Cues
  16. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: HYBRID SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES
  17. MARKET SEGMENTATION IMPLEMENTING SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES CULTURE
  18. HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Formal Learning
  19. CULTURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  20. MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Consumer Fieldwork
  21. SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  22. AGE AND GENDER SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  23. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Market Segmentation
  24. SOCIAL CLASS CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Occupation
  25. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Affluent Consumer
  26. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Membership Group
  27. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Shopping Groups
  28. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
  29. CONSUMER PERSONALITY, TRAIT THEORY AND SELF IMAGES
  30. CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals
  31. UNDERSTANDING LEARNING:Intentional and Incidental Learning, Implications for Marketers
  32. INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MEMORY
  33. ATTITUDES:Characteristics of Attitudes, Attitudes have consistency
  34. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE:How attitudes are learned?
  35. ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES:Resolving two conflicting attitudes
  36. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER DECISION MAKING:Decision Complexity
  37. Problem Recognition, Search and Evaluation and Decision and Purchase
  38. Decision and Purchase:Consumer Decision Rules, Output, Relationship Marketing
  39. Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Product Set up and Use
  40. Marketing Implications of Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Understanding
  41. Post Purchase Evaluation:Determinants of Satisfaction, Consumer Complaint Behavior
  42. Post Purchase Dissonance:Dissonance Reduction, Marketing Implications
  43. Consumerism:Roots of Consumerism, The Nature of Consumerism
  44. Consumerism Issues and Responses:Environmental Concerns, Consumer Privacy
  45. Review Consumer Psychology Course:Consumer Research, Consumerism