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Post Purchase Dissonance:Dissonance Reduction, Marketing Implications

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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Lecture 42
Post Purchase Dissonance
Understanding:
Post Purchase Dissonance
o  Conditions Leading to Dissonance
o  Dissonance Reduction
o  Marketing Implications
Product Disposition - Alternatives
o  Factors Influencing Product Disposition
1. Post Purchase Dissonance
Consumer is uncertain of the wisdom of his decision; he rethinks this decision in the post purchase stage.
Consumers may become dissonant (inharmonious) over a purchase decision as a result of discrepancy between a
consumer's decision and the consumer's prior evaluation
Dissonance theory was derived from two basic principles:
Dissonance is uncomfortable and drive the person to reduce it
Individuals experiencing dissonance will avoid situations that produce more dissonance
Conditions Leading to Dissonance
Dissonance is likely to occur under following conditions:
Minimum threshold of dissonance is passed. Consumers may tolerate a certain level of inconsistency in their
lives until the point is reached
The action is irrevocable. Consumers may not reverse a decision when they have purchased a car
Unselected alternatives have desirable features
There are several desirable alternatives
Available alternatives are quite dissimilar in their qualities
The buyer is committed to his decision because it has psychological significance
There is no pressure applied to the consumer to make the decision
Dissonance Reduction
There several ways in which consumer strives to reduce dissonance. These include:
1. Change the evaluation of alternatives
2. Seek new information to support his choice
3. Change his attitudes
1. Changing Product Evaluations
Consumer may reevaluate the product alternatives. This may be accomplished by consumer's enhancing the
attributes of the product selected and decreasing the importance of unselected products' attributes, that is
consumers seek to polarize alternatives to reduce dissonance. Consumers' reevaluating of the product alternatives
make them view them as more similar than was thought at the purchase stage. Selective retention may allow
consumer to forget positive features of the unselected alternatives and negative features of the selected product
2. Seek new information to support his choice
Consumers may reduce dissonance by seeking additional information in order to confirm the wisdom of their
product choice. Dissonant individuals actively avoid information that would tend to increase their dissonance.
3. Change his attitudes
Consumers may change their attitude to make them consonant with his behavior. Consumers sometimes purchase
a product they initially attributed to negatively through a promotional scheme. This may produce dissonance and
to avoid it they may change their attitude. Motivation to achieve consonance will likely take the form of attitude
change because that is easier than renouncing the product.
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Marketing Implications
1. Confirming Expectations
When the purchase confirms the consumers' expectations, reinforcement takes place. When expectations are not
confirmed cognitive dissonance takes place and the consumer will be likely to reduce the dissonance by somewhat
negative evaluation off the brand. Where a product fails to measure up to the expectations the result may be no
initial sale, no repeat sale or unfavorable word of mouth communication.
The most important is that products meet the expectations of the consumers. Marketers should not build up
expectations unrealistically. Today`s advertisements may seem harmless exaggeration but it may build unrealistic
expectations in the mind of the consumer as a result unfavorable word of mouth may spread about the product.
Advertisers should develop promotions that are consistent with what can the products reasonably deliver
2. Inducing Attitude Change
When attitudes are inconsistent with purchase behavior they are likely to change. Marketers may seek to induce
behavior changes in consumer through various means. Promotional tools including free samples and saving
coupons are frequently used.
There is some evidence that smaller the incentive greater the dissonance and greater the attitude change. The small
inducements force the consumer to confront his purchase behavior with a ready explanation for that. Large
inducements may force the consumer to simply rationalize. A coupon of Rs 5 will produce more of the desired
attitude change than a coupon of Rs. 10.
In case of free samples the acceptance of brand may never take place because the consumer could fail to expose
herself fully to the attitude change from use of the sample. There may be an optimum value range over which
promotional techniques produce desired attitude and behavior change. Beyond that point either too low or too
high they may be relatively ineffective.
3. Reinforcing the Buyers
Consumers post purchase information seeking is usually the result of dissonance. It is prudent to develop special
ads that will reinforce the buyers. Such an approach pays handsome dividends when targeting new buyers. This
approach is especially good when company is launching an innovation.
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
3. Product Disposition - Alternatives
Factors Influencing Product Disposition
Factors that influence product disposition may include:
Psychological Characteristics of the Decision Maker
Factors intrinsic to the Product
Factors intrinsic to the product (color, style, etc)
Situational factors extrinsic to the product (finances, fashion change, etc..)
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer Behavior
  2. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer research
  3. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Marketing Mix, Product, Price
  4. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Customer Value, Perceived Value
  5. VALUE AND RETENTION FOCUSED MARKETING AND CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
  6. CONSUMER RESEARCH:Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research
  7. MAJOR STEPS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS:Design of Primary research
  8. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  9. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES
  10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  11. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION AND ITS BASES:Geographical Segmentation
  13. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION
  14. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: SOCIOCULTURAL SEGMENTATION USE RELATED SEGMENTATION USAGE SITUATION SEGMENTATION
  15. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Intrinsic Cues
  16. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: HYBRID SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES
  17. MARKET SEGMENTATION IMPLEMENTING SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES CULTURE
  18. HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Formal Learning
  19. CULTURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  20. MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Consumer Fieldwork
  21. SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  22. AGE AND GENDER SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  23. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Market Segmentation
  24. SOCIAL CLASS CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Occupation
  25. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Affluent Consumer
  26. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Membership Group
  27. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Shopping Groups
  28. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
  29. CONSUMER PERSONALITY, TRAIT THEORY AND SELF IMAGES
  30. CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals
  31. UNDERSTANDING LEARNING:Intentional and Incidental Learning, Implications for Marketers
  32. INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MEMORY
  33. ATTITUDES:Characteristics of Attitudes, Attitudes have consistency
  34. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE:How attitudes are learned?
  35. ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES:Resolving two conflicting attitudes
  36. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER DECISION MAKING:Decision Complexity
  37. Problem Recognition, Search and Evaluation and Decision and Purchase
  38. Decision and Purchase:Consumer Decision Rules, Output, Relationship Marketing
  39. Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Product Set up and Use
  40. Marketing Implications of Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Understanding
  41. Post Purchase Evaluation:Determinants of Satisfaction, Consumer Complaint Behavior
  42. Post Purchase Dissonance:Dissonance Reduction, Marketing Implications
  43. Consumerism:Roots of Consumerism, The Nature of Consumerism
  44. Consumerism Issues and Responses:Environmental Concerns, Consumer Privacy
  45. Review Consumer Psychology Course:Consumer Research, Consumerism