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CONSUMER RESEARCH:Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research

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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Lesson 06
CONSUMER RESEARCH
(CONSUMER RESEARCH PARADIGMS)
OBJECTIVES:
Understanding the following paradigms of Consumer Research
Qualitative Research
Quantitative Research
Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Research Objectives
1. CONSUMER RESEARCH PARADIGMS
Owing to the earlier business paradigms consumer researchers thought of consumers as logical Individuals who act
rationally to maximize their benefits. They thought consumers purchase the most beneficial product at the lowest
possible cost and the consumers purchase decision is a calculated one.
Eventually the researchers realized that consumers were not always consciously aware of why they made the
decision they did. Even when they were aware of the reasons, they were not willing to reveal.
In 1939, a Viennese Psychologist Ernest Dichter began to use Freudian Psychoanalytic techniques to uncover the
hidden motives of consumers. Psychoanalysis is a dynamic theory of personality that states that human behavior
springs from unconscious drives and wishes.
By late 1950's most consumer researchers adopted Ernest Dichter's technique, which was called "Motivational
Research" ­ essentially a qualitative approach.
As a result of Dichter's work and subsequent research designed to search deep within the consumer's psyche,
consumer researchers today use two different types of research methodology to study consumer behavior:
Quantative Research and,
Qualitative Research
1. Quantitative Research
Quantitative research is descriptive in nature and is used to understand effects of various promotional inputs on
the consumers, thus enabling researchers to predict consumer behavior. The research approach is known as
Positivism. The research methods used in Quantitative research consist of observation, survey techniques and
experiments. Researchers primarily concerned with predicting consumer behavior are called Positivists
2. Qualitative Research
Tends to be qualitative in nature. It is based upon data gathered from small sample. It views each consumption
situation unique and non-predictable. The main emphasis of qualitative research upon understanding consumer
experiences has led to the term Interpretivism. Researchers who adopt this paradigm are called Interpretivists.
They seek to find common patterns of operative values, meanings and behavior across consumption situations.
The methods included in qualitative research are:
Depth Interviews
Focus Groups
Projective Techniques
Metaphor Analysis
Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Marketers often use a combination of qualitative and quantitative research. To discover new ideas and develop
promotional strategy qualitative research findings are used. To predict Consumer reactions to various promotional
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
inputs ideas stemming from qualitative are tested empirically to become the basis for the design of quantitative
research
2. CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS
Major Steps in Consumer Research Process
The major steps in consumer research process include:
1.
Defining the Objectives of Research
2.
Collecting and Evaluating Secondary Data
3.
Designing a Primary Research Study
4.
Collecting Primary Data
5.
Analyzing Data
6.
Preparing Report on Findings
Model of Consumer Research Process
The following figure shows a model researchers use for guiding them in their researches:
Develop Objectives
Collect Secondary Data
Design Quantitative Research
Design Qualitative Research
Method
Method
Screener Questionnaire
Sample Design
Discussion Guide
Data Collection Instruments
Conduct Research
Collect Primary Data
(Using highly trained
(field staff)
interviewers
Exploratory Study
Analyze Data
Analyze Data
Prepare Report
Prepare Report
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer Behavior
  2. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer research
  3. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Marketing Mix, Product, Price
  4. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Customer Value, Perceived Value
  5. VALUE AND RETENTION FOCUSED MARKETING AND CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
  6. CONSUMER RESEARCH:Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research
  7. MAJOR STEPS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS:Design of Primary research
  8. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  9. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES
  10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  11. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION AND ITS BASES:Geographical Segmentation
  13. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION
  14. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: SOCIOCULTURAL SEGMENTATION USE RELATED SEGMENTATION USAGE SITUATION SEGMENTATION
  15. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Intrinsic Cues
  16. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: HYBRID SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES
  17. MARKET SEGMENTATION IMPLEMENTING SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES CULTURE
  18. HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Formal Learning
  19. CULTURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  20. MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Consumer Fieldwork
  21. SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  22. AGE AND GENDER SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  23. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Market Segmentation
  24. SOCIAL CLASS CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Occupation
  25. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Affluent Consumer
  26. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Membership Group
  27. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Shopping Groups
  28. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
  29. CONSUMER PERSONALITY, TRAIT THEORY AND SELF IMAGES
  30. CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals
  31. UNDERSTANDING LEARNING:Intentional and Incidental Learning, Implications for Marketers
  32. INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MEMORY
  33. ATTITUDES:Characteristics of Attitudes, Attitudes have consistency
  34. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE:How attitudes are learned?
  35. ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES:Resolving two conflicting attitudes
  36. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER DECISION MAKING:Decision Complexity
  37. Problem Recognition, Search and Evaluation and Decision and Purchase
  38. Decision and Purchase:Consumer Decision Rules, Output, Relationship Marketing
  39. Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Product Set up and Use
  40. Marketing Implications of Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Understanding
  41. Post Purchase Evaluation:Determinants of Satisfaction, Consumer Complaint Behavior
  42. Post Purchase Dissonance:Dissonance Reduction, Marketing Implications
  43. Consumerism:Roots of Consumerism, The Nature of Consumerism
  44. Consumerism Issues and Responses:Environmental Concerns, Consumer Privacy
  45. Review Consumer Psychology Course:Consumer Research, Consumerism