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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS

<< QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING >>
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Lesson 10
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS &
DATA COLLECTION METHODS
Qualitative Research seeks to find common patterns of operative values, meanings and behavior across
consumption situations. It tends to be qualitative in nature and is based upon small sample. Qualitative Research
views each consumption situation as unique and non-predictable.
In selecting appropriate type of research format in qualitative study researcher has to take into consideration:
The Purpose of Study
Types of data needed
All the qualitative research methods have roots in Psychoanalytic and Clinical aspects of Psychology. The emphasis
is upon open-ended and free response types of questions to simulate respondents to reveal their innermost
thoughts and beliefs.
Viennese Psychologist Sigmund Freud developed the dynamic theory of personality called Psychoanalysis.
According to Sigmund Freud human behavior springs from unconscious drives and wishes.
They key data collection techniques for qualitative studies are
Depth Interviews
Focus Groups
Discussion Guides
Projective Techniques
Metaphor Analysis
These techniques are regularly used in early studies of attitude research to pinpoint relevant product related beliefs
or attributes and to develop an initial picture of consumer attitudes (especially the beliefs and attributes they
associate with particular products and services).
1. Depth Interviews
A lengthy, generally 30 minutes to one hour non-structured lengthy interview between a respondent and a highly
trained interviewer is called a Depth Interview.
Composition of Depth Interview
Depth Interviews can involve one interviewer and one respondent that is why it is also called one on one
interviews or individual in-depth interviews. They may involve 8-15 participants but in that case it will be called a
Focus group. Groups of 4-5 are referred to as mini groups
Process
The interviewer minimizes his/her own participation after establishing the general subject to be discussed.
Respondents are encouraged to talk freely about their activities, attitudes and interests in addition to the product
category and brand under study. The interviewer may not have a specific set of prescribed questions in mind that
must be asked in order imposed by the questionnaire, instead there is freedom to create questions to probe those
questions that appear relevant and generally try to develop set of data that appear relevant. Transcripts, videotapes
or audiotape recordings of interviews are then studied carefully together with reports of respondents' moods and
any gestures or body language they may have used to convey attitudes or motives
When Appropriate
Depth Interviews are conducted when:
1. Detailed study of individual's behaviors, attitudes, or needs is required
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
2.
The subject matter is likely to be of highly confidential nature (e.g. personal investments)
3.
The subject matter is of emotionally charged or embarrassing nature (e.g. a weight reduction formula)
4.
Certain strong social norms (e.g. child rearing practices)
5.
Detailed understanding of a complicated behavior or decision making patterns (e.g. family planning)
6.
Interviews with professional people
Purposes:
Copy testing:
Respondents might be asked to describe in depth various ads they are shown
Auto Driving:
Researchers show respondents photos, videos and audio tapes of their own shopping behavior and ask them to
explicitly comment on their shopping behaviors
2. Focus Groups
Focus Group consist of 8-12 respondents who meet with a moderator-analyst for a group discussion focused on
particular product or product category
Respondents are encouraged to discuss their interests, attitudes, reactions, motives, lifestyles, feelings about the
product or product category usage experience and so forth
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer Behavior
  2. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer research
  3. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Marketing Mix, Product, Price
  4. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Customer Value, Perceived Value
  5. VALUE AND RETENTION FOCUSED MARKETING AND CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
  6. CONSUMER RESEARCH:Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research
  7. MAJOR STEPS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS:Design of Primary research
  8. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  9. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES
  10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  11. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION AND ITS BASES:Geographical Segmentation
  13. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION
  14. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: SOCIOCULTURAL SEGMENTATION USE RELATED SEGMENTATION USAGE SITUATION SEGMENTATION
  15. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Intrinsic Cues
  16. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: HYBRID SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES
  17. MARKET SEGMENTATION IMPLEMENTING SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES CULTURE
  18. HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Formal Learning
  19. CULTURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  20. MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Consumer Fieldwork
  21. SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  22. AGE AND GENDER SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  23. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Market Segmentation
  24. SOCIAL CLASS CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Occupation
  25. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Affluent Consumer
  26. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Membership Group
  27. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Shopping Groups
  28. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
  29. CONSUMER PERSONALITY, TRAIT THEORY AND SELF IMAGES
  30. CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals
  31. UNDERSTANDING LEARNING:Intentional and Incidental Learning, Implications for Marketers
  32. INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MEMORY
  33. ATTITUDES:Characteristics of Attitudes, Attitudes have consistency
  34. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE:How attitudes are learned?
  35. ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES:Resolving two conflicting attitudes
  36. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER DECISION MAKING:Decision Complexity
  37. Problem Recognition, Search and Evaluation and Decision and Purchase
  38. Decision and Purchase:Consumer Decision Rules, Output, Relationship Marketing
  39. Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Product Set up and Use
  40. Marketing Implications of Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Understanding
  41. Post Purchase Evaluation:Determinants of Satisfaction, Consumer Complaint Behavior
  42. Post Purchase Dissonance:Dissonance Reduction, Marketing Implications
  43. Consumerism:Roots of Consumerism, The Nature of Consumerism
  44. Consumerism Issues and Responses:Environmental Concerns, Consumer Privacy
  45. Review Consumer Psychology Course:Consumer Research, Consumerism