ZeePedia

MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Consumer Fieldwork

<< CULTURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES >>
img
Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
LESSON20
MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
Consumer Field work
Participant Observation
Value Measurement Survey Instrument
Rokeach Survey
The LOV (list of values) Scale
7. Consumer Fieldwork
When examining a specific society, researchers frequently immerse themselves in the environment under study
through consumer field work. As trained researchers they are likely to select a small sample of people from a
particular society and carefully observe their behavior. Based upon their observations researchers can draw
conclusions about values, beliefs and customs of the society under investigation. For example positioning trained
observers in department and clothing stores note how neckties are selected:
Solid VS. Patterned
Stripes VS. Paisley
Degree of search that accompanies choice
Consumers taking necktie off the display, comparing it with other ties and putting it back, before selecting
the necktie that they finally purchase
Field Observations
Field observations take place within natural environment sometimes performed without subject's awareness. Field
Observation focuses upon observation of behavior. The emphasis is upon natural environment and observable
behavior.
Participant Observations
Observers become active members of the environment that they are studying. For example if researchers are
interested in learning how consumers select computer soft ware, they may take sales positions in a computer
superstore to observe directly or even interact with consumers.
Specialized Research Firms
Research forms specializing in studying consumer rituals and values often videotape subjects at work, at home in
the cars, etc... Researcher might ask a teenager about why he buys a certain backpack and may not get a useful
response, however, to get reliable information researcher might observe him during buying and he will learn a few
things.
Nissan Research 1990's
In relation to designing Infinity automobiles, Nissan, discovered the differences between then Japanese and
American notions of luxury. Luxury to Japanese means craving simplicity, while Americans look at it as visible
opulence.
Both field Observations and participant observer research require highly trained researchers who can separate their
own emotions and preferences from what they observe in their professional roles.
Marketers often use other techniques also such as, Depth Interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FGD's), to get
first look at an emerging social trend. In the informal environment of FGD consumer reveal attitudes/behaviors
that may signal a shift in values that in turn might affect the long run market acceptance of a product or service.
FGD's can be used to identify marketing programs that reinforce established consumer loyalty and goodwill. A
common thread in these studies showed that established consumers want to have their loyalty acknowledged in the
form of personalized services.
67
img
Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
8. Value Measurement Surveys
Value Measurement Surveys are used to determining the dominant underlying values of a society.
Traditional View
Anthropologists have traditionally observed the behavior of the members of a specific society and inferred from
such behavior the dominant underlying values of the society.
Modern View
Modern view considers measuring of values directly by means of a survey/questionnaire. Researchers use data
collection instruments called Value Instruments which are used to ask people how they feel about such basic
personal and social concepts as freedom, comfort, national security and peace, etc...
Popular Value Instruments
A variety of popular value instruments have been used in Consumer Behavior including:
 Rokeach Value Survey
 List of Values (LoV)
1. Rokeach Value Survey
Rokeach Value Survey is a self administered value inventory divided into two parts each part measuring different
but complimentary types of personal values. These include:
1. Terminal Values (Goals)
2. Instrumental Values (Ways to get there)
TERMINAL VALUES
Terminal Value items are designed to measure the relative importance of end states of existence or personal goals.
Rokeach Value Survey Terminal
Personal Goals (end states)
A comfortable (prosperous life)
Social Recognition (respect & admiration)
An exciting life (stimulating, active life)
True Friendship (close companionship)
A world at peace (free of war and
Wisdom mature understanding of life)
conflict)
Equality (brotherhood, equal opportunity
A world of beauty (beauty of nature and
for all)
arts)
Freedom (independence and free choice)
Family Security (taking care of loved ones)
Happiness (contentedness)
Mature love (personal and spiritual
intimacy)
National Security (protection from
Self respect (self esteem)
attack)
Pleasure (an enjoyable life)
Sense of accomplishment (lasting
contribution)
Salvation (saved central life
Inner harmony (freedom from inner
conflict)
Instrumental Values
Second part consists of 18 instrumental values, which measure basic approaches an individual might take to reach
end state values.
Approach To Reach An End State (Means To Get There)
68
img
Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Ambitious (hardworking, aspiring)
Imaginative (daring, creative)
Broad Minded (open minded)
Independent (self reliant, self sufficient)
Capable (competent, effective)
Intellectual (intelligent, reflective)
Cheerful (lighthearted, joyful)
Logical (consistent, rational)
Clean (neat, tidy)
Loving (affectionate, tender)
Courageous (standing up for your beliefs)
Obedient (dutiful, respectful)
Forgiving (Willing to pardon others)
Polite (courteous, well mannered)
Helpful (working for the welfare of others)
Responsible (dependable, reliable)
Honest (Sincere, truthful)
Self Controlled (restrained, self disciplined)
Example
Adult Brazilians were categorized into six distinctive value segments
Segment A (13%) of the sample
 Most concerned with:
World peace
Inner harmony
True friendship
 Members involved in:
Domestic oriented activities (gardening, reading, going out with family to visit relatives)
 Because of their less materialistic, hedonistic orientation they may be least prone to experiment with new
products
Segment A (13%) of the sample
Most concerned with:
self centered values such as:
Self respect
Comfortable life
Pleasure, exciting life, sense of accomplishment, social recognition
Least Concerned with:
values related to family:
Such as friendship, love and equality
The self centered achievement oriented pleasure seekers were expected to prefer provocative clothes in
the latest fashion to enjoy an active lifestyle, and be more likely to try new products
2. List of Values (LoV)
The LOV Scale asks consumers to identify their two most important values from a nine-value list such as:
a.  Warm relationship with others
b. Sense of belonging
c.  Sense of accomplishment
69
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer Behavior
  2. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer research
  3. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Marketing Mix, Product, Price
  4. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Customer Value, Perceived Value
  5. VALUE AND RETENTION FOCUSED MARKETING AND CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
  6. CONSUMER RESEARCH:Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research
  7. MAJOR STEPS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS:Design of Primary research
  8. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  9. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES
  10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  11. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION AND ITS BASES:Geographical Segmentation
  13. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION
  14. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: SOCIOCULTURAL SEGMENTATION USE RELATED SEGMENTATION USAGE SITUATION SEGMENTATION
  15. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Intrinsic Cues
  16. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: HYBRID SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES
  17. MARKET SEGMENTATION IMPLEMENTING SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES CULTURE
  18. HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Formal Learning
  19. CULTURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  20. MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Consumer Fieldwork
  21. SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  22. AGE AND GENDER SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  23. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Market Segmentation
  24. SOCIAL CLASS CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Occupation
  25. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Affluent Consumer
  26. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Membership Group
  27. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Shopping Groups
  28. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
  29. CONSUMER PERSONALITY, TRAIT THEORY AND SELF IMAGES
  30. CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals
  31. UNDERSTANDING LEARNING:Intentional and Incidental Learning, Implications for Marketers
  32. INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MEMORY
  33. ATTITUDES:Characteristics of Attitudes, Attitudes have consistency
  34. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE:How attitudes are learned?
  35. ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES:Resolving two conflicting attitudes
  36. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER DECISION MAKING:Decision Complexity
  37. Problem Recognition, Search and Evaluation and Decision and Purchase
  38. Decision and Purchase:Consumer Decision Rules, Output, Relationship Marketing
  39. Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Product Set up and Use
  40. Marketing Implications of Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Understanding
  41. Post Purchase Evaluation:Determinants of Satisfaction, Consumer Complaint Behavior
  42. Post Purchase Dissonance:Dissonance Reduction, Marketing Implications
  43. Consumerism:Roots of Consumerism, The Nature of Consumerism
  44. Consumerism Issues and Responses:Environmental Concerns, Consumer Privacy
  45. Review Consumer Psychology Course:Consumer Research, Consumerism