ZeePedia

UNDERSTANDING LEARNING:Intentional and Incidental Learning, Implications for Marketers

<< CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals
INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MEMORY >>
img
Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
LESSON 31
UNDERSTANDING LEARNING
CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
Understanding:
 The elements of Consumer Learning
 Motivation
 Cues
 Reinforcement
 Behavioral Learning theory
 Classical Conditioning
Learning
Marketers are concerned with how individuals learn because they want to teach them in their roles as consumers
about products; product attributes how to maintain products, what are products' potential benefits, where to buy
them, how to buy them, how to maintain them and how to dispose of them.
Marketers' vital interest lies in teaching consumers effectively to prefer their brands and differentiate their products
from the competitive offerings.
Marketing strategies are based on communicating with consumers:
Directly :through advertisements
Indirectly: through product appearance and packaging, product distribution channels and, pricing
Marketers want their communication to be noted, believed, remembered and recalled by the target potential
consumers segments.
Learning about Learning
Not all theorists agree on how learning takes place it is difficult to come up with a generally accepted definition of
learning, however, Consumer Learning can be thought of as:The process by which individuals acquire the purchase
and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior
Consumer learning is a process that continually evolves, and changes. The change is because of the newly acquired
knowledge (gained from reading, discussion, observation and thinking or factual experience). Newly acquired
knowledge and personal experience serve as feedback. Feedback provides basis for the future behavior in similar
situations
Intentional and Incidental Learning
Intentional Learning is acquired as the result of careful search for information. Incidental Learning is acquired by
accident without much effort. For example some ads may induce learning e.g. new products under familiar brand
names, even the consumers attention may be on a magazine article rather than advertisement on the facing page.
Other ads are sought out and carefully read by consumers contemplating a major purchase decision.
Range of Learning
The term learning encompasses the total range of learning from simple almost reflexive responses to learning
abstract concepts and complex problem solving. All theorists agree that for learning to occur certain basic
elements must be present. These include:
Motivation
Cues
Response
Reinforcement
100
img
Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
1. Motivation
Motivation is the drive that impels and individual to action. Motivation is based on needs and goals. It acts as spur
of learning.
Involvement Theory
Men an women who want to take up bicycle riding for fitness and recreation are motivated to learn all they can
about bike riding and practice often. Conversely individuals who are not interested in bike riding are likely to
ignore all information about bike riding. The degree of relevance or Involvement determines consumer's level of
motivation to search for knowledge and or information about the product or service. This is called the
Involvement Theory.
Implications for Marketers
Uncovering the consumer motivation is one of the prime tasks of marketers, who try to teach motivated consumer
segments why and how their products will fulfill consumer needs
2. Cues
If motives serve to stimulate learning, cues are the stimuli that give direction to these motives. An exotic trip that
includes bike riding may serve as a cue for bike riders who may suddenly recognize that they need a vacation. The
ad is the cue or stimulus that suggests a specific way to satisfy a salient motive. In the market styling, packaging
and store display all serve as cues to help consumers to fulfill their needs in product specific ways.
3. Responses
How individuals react to a drive or a cue ­ how they behave- constitute their response is important. Equally
important, however, is that learning can occur even when responses are not overt.
Need or motive may evoke a whole variety of responses. Cues provide some direction but there are so many cues
competing for the consumer's attention. Which response the consumer makes depends heavily upon previous
learning that in turn depends upon how the previous response has been reinforced.
4. Reinforcement
Reinforcement increases the likelihood that a particular response will occur in the future as the result of particular
cues or stimuli. A product that fulfills the basic need will reinforce the purchase behavior and the consumer will
most likely purchase it again.
Behavioral Learning Theories
Behavior Learning Theories are sometimes referred to as "Stimulus Response Theories". These are based upon the
premise that observable responses to specific external stimuli signal learning. A child who relaxes at the image of
his uncle has learnt the attachment with uncle. Behavior theories are concerned with inputs and outputs of
learning. There are two types of behavioral learning theories popular with the marketers.
Types of Behavioral Learning Theories
Generally, there are two types of behavioral learning theories:
Classical Conditioning
Instrumental (Operant Conditioning)
Conditioning means response to a situation built up through repeated exposure. Ivan Pavlov a Russian
Psychologist was the first to describe conditioning and to propose it as a general model of how learning occurs.
Pavlovian Experiment
Pavlov conducted his famous conditioning experiments in the following three stages:
Stage 1: Unconditioned Stimulus and Unconditioned Response
101
img
Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Stage 2: Repeated Trials of combining conditioned stimulus with Unconditioned Stimulus conditioned
102
img
Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Overview of the Experiment
Implications for Marketers
103
img
Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Three Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning
Three strategic applications of Classical conditioning include:
Repetition
Stimulus Generalization
Stimulus Discrimination
1. Repetition
Repetition increases the strength of association between a conditioned stimulus and a conditioned response.
Researchers suggest there is a limit to repetition to aid retention. Some scholars believe that just three exposures to
an advertisement are needed. This is called, Three Hit Theory
The three exposures to an advertisement pertain to:
1. Make consumer aware of the product
2. Show consumer the relevance of the products
3.  Remind them of product benefits
Others think It may take 11 to 12 hits. Effectiveness of repetition may also be dependent upon the competitive
advertising to which consumer is exposed. The higher the level of competitive advertising, greater is the likelihood
that Interference will take place, causing consumers to forget previous information.
At some point individual can become satiated with numerous exposures. The effect is known as Advertisement
Wear Out. To deal with this phenomenon following measures are usually used:
Cosmetic Variations: Using different backgrounds, different print types and different spokespersons while
keeping the theme same
Substantive Variations: Changes in advertisement content across different variations of ads e.g. two ads that
stress two different attributes of the same product
2. Stimulus Generalization
Classical conditioning theorists believe that learning also depends upon Stimulus Generalization
that means making the same response to somewhat similar stimuli as the conditioned stimulus
Dog could learn to salivate not only to the conditioned stimulus of bell but also to the jangling of keys
Implications for Marketers
Me-Too products are the cheap copies of some established brand of a product. Some times Me-too products
succeed because of the stimulus generalization. Consumers confuse them with original products they have seen
before. Many Cola drinkers can't differentiate between different brands
104
img
Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
3. Stimulus Discrimination
Stimulus Discrimination is the opposite of Stimulus Generalization and results in the selection of specific stimulus
from amongst the similar stimuli. The consumers' ability to choose from amongst the similar stimuli is the basis of
positioning.
105
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer Behavior
  2. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer research
  3. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Marketing Mix, Product, Price
  4. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Customer Value, Perceived Value
  5. VALUE AND RETENTION FOCUSED MARKETING AND CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
  6. CONSUMER RESEARCH:Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research
  7. MAJOR STEPS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS:Design of Primary research
  8. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  9. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES
  10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  11. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION AND ITS BASES:Geographical Segmentation
  13. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION
  14. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: SOCIOCULTURAL SEGMENTATION USE RELATED SEGMENTATION USAGE SITUATION SEGMENTATION
  15. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Intrinsic Cues
  16. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: HYBRID SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES
  17. MARKET SEGMENTATION IMPLEMENTING SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES CULTURE
  18. HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Formal Learning
  19. CULTURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  20. MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Consumer Fieldwork
  21. SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  22. AGE AND GENDER SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  23. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Market Segmentation
  24. SOCIAL CLASS CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Occupation
  25. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Affluent Consumer
  26. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Membership Group
  27. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Shopping Groups
  28. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
  29. CONSUMER PERSONALITY, TRAIT THEORY AND SELF IMAGES
  30. CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals
  31. UNDERSTANDING LEARNING:Intentional and Incidental Learning, Implications for Marketers
  32. INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MEMORY
  33. ATTITUDES:Characteristics of Attitudes, Attitudes have consistency
  34. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE:How attitudes are learned?
  35. ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES:Resolving two conflicting attitudes
  36. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER DECISION MAKING:Decision Complexity
  37. Problem Recognition, Search and Evaluation and Decision and Purchase
  38. Decision and Purchase:Consumer Decision Rules, Output, Relationship Marketing
  39. Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Product Set up and Use
  40. Marketing Implications of Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Understanding
  41. Post Purchase Evaluation:Determinants of Satisfaction, Consumer Complaint Behavior
  42. Post Purchase Dissonance:Dissonance Reduction, Marketing Implications
  43. Consumerism:Roots of Consumerism, The Nature of Consumerism
  44. Consumerism Issues and Responses:Environmental Concerns, Consumer Privacy
  45. Review Consumer Psychology Course:Consumer Research, Consumerism