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CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals

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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
LESSON30
CONSUMER MOTIVATION
CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
Understanding:
 Motivation as a Psychological Force
 Needs
 Goals
 Positive & Negative Motivation
 Rational vs. Emotional Motivation
 Types and systems of Needs
 Hierarchy of Needs Motivation
Consumer Motivation
Savvy companies define their missions in terms of consumer needs they satisfy rather than the products they make
and sell. Consumers basic needs do not change but the products that satisfy them do. Corporate focus on
developing products that will satisfy consumer's needs ensures that the company stays in the forefront of the
search for new and effective solutions
Charles Revson was the builder of a Cosmetic Empire (Revlon). He started by manufacturing the nail polishes. He
did so but first changed the definition of the nail polish for himself and for his consumers. His Nail polish
definition: Nail Polish is a fashion accessory, not merely a nail covering. Revson's Philosophy: Induce women to
use different shades of nail polish to match different outfits, moods and occasions. Result: Women started buying
and using many different colors of nail polishes the same season rather than waiting for the bottle to end to buy
one more and market vastly broadened for the product. Revson started introducing new nail colors every fall and
spring. He used some heavy and effective advertising to persuade women that buying new colors would satisfy
their needs to appear fashionable and attractive. Consequently he developed separate cosmetic lines targeting
different consumer segments. Natural Wonder: Targeting the Youth Market. Marcella Borghese: High-class line
with international flavor. Fire and Ice: Deep red polish.
Revson understood that he was not selling women the nail polish but fantasies that nail polish would attract
attention and bestow class and glamour upon the user.
Motivation in the context of consumers may be best understood with the help of following concepts:
1. Positive/Negative Motivation
Driving force towards some object or condition is positive motivation. Driving force away from some object or
condition. Some psychologists refer to positive drives as needs, wants or desires. Negative drives as fears or
aversions. Even though the positive and negative drives seem to differ dramatically in terms of physical and
sometimes emotional activity, they are similar in that they both serve to initiate and sustain human behavior
Approach object: is a positive goal towards which the behavior id directed and Avoidance object is a negative
goal from which the behavior is directed away.
2. Rational and Emotional Motivation
Rational Motivation is consumers select goals based upon totally objective criteria such as size, weight, price or
miles per gallon. Emotional Motivation implies the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria
(e.g. pride, fear, affection or status)
Needs
Every Individual has needs some are innate others are acquired.
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Innate/Primary Needs
Physiological needs, the needs for food, water, air, clothing, shelter. They are needed to sustain the biological life
Acquired /Secondary Needs
Needs that we learn in response to our culture or environment. These may include needs for self esteem, prestige,
affection, power and learning
Types and Systems of Needs
For many years psychologists interested in human behavior have attempted to develop exhaustive lists of human
needs. Dr. Abraham Maslow, a clinical psychologist, formulated a widely accepted theory of human motivation
based on the notion of universal hierarchy of human needs
Goals
Goals are sought after results of motivated behavior
Types of Goals
Two types of goals may be differentiated:
Generic Goals
Product Specific Goals
Generic Goals include general classes or categories of goals that consumers see as means to fulfill their needs. If a
student tells his parents that he wants to become a doctor, he has stated a general goal. If he says he wants to get a
medical degree from King Edward Medical College, then he has stated a specific goal. Individuals select goals on
the basis of their personal values and they select means and (or behaviors that they believe will help them achieve
their goals).
Goal selection depends upon individuals:
Personal Experiences
Physical Capacity
Prevailing cultural norms and values
Goal's accessibility in the physical and social environment
Example: A girl aspiring to become an airline pilot
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer Behavior
  2. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer research
  3. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Marketing Mix, Product, Price
  4. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Customer Value, Perceived Value
  5. VALUE AND RETENTION FOCUSED MARKETING AND CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
  6. CONSUMER RESEARCH:Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research
  7. MAJOR STEPS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS:Design of Primary research
  8. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  9. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES
  10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  11. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION AND ITS BASES:Geographical Segmentation
  13. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION
  14. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: SOCIOCULTURAL SEGMENTATION USE RELATED SEGMENTATION USAGE SITUATION SEGMENTATION
  15. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Intrinsic Cues
  16. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: HYBRID SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES
  17. MARKET SEGMENTATION IMPLEMENTING SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES CULTURE
  18. HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Formal Learning
  19. CULTURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  20. MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Consumer Fieldwork
  21. SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  22. AGE AND GENDER SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  23. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Market Segmentation
  24. SOCIAL CLASS CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Occupation
  25. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Affluent Consumer
  26. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Membership Group
  27. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Shopping Groups
  28. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
  29. CONSUMER PERSONALITY, TRAIT THEORY AND SELF IMAGES
  30. CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals
  31. UNDERSTANDING LEARNING:Intentional and Incidental Learning, Implications for Marketers
  32. INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MEMORY
  33. ATTITUDES:Characteristics of Attitudes, Attitudes have consistency
  34. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE:How attitudes are learned?
  35. ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES:Resolving two conflicting attitudes
  36. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER DECISION MAKING:Decision Complexity
  37. Problem Recognition, Search and Evaluation and Decision and Purchase
  38. Decision and Purchase:Consumer Decision Rules, Output, Relationship Marketing
  39. Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Product Set up and Use
  40. Marketing Implications of Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Understanding
  41. Post Purchase Evaluation:Determinants of Satisfaction, Consumer Complaint Behavior
  42. Post Purchase Dissonance:Dissonance Reduction, Marketing Implications
  43. Consumerism:Roots of Consumerism, The Nature of Consumerism
  44. Consumerism Issues and Responses:Environmental Concerns, Consumer Privacy
  45. Review Consumer Psychology Course:Consumer Research, Consumerism