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CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING

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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Lesson 11
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING,
AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
OBJECTIVES:
Understanding:
Customer Satisfaction Measurement
Sampling
Data Analysis & Reporting Research
Findings
Ethics in Research
Grouping levels of customer satisfaction and its measurement is critical for every company. Marketers use such
data to retain customers, sell more products, and improve the value and quality of their offerings to operate more
efficiently and effectively. Customer Satisfaction measurement includes qualitative and quantitative measures as
well as a variety of contact methods
A. Customer Satisfaction Measures
Measure how satisfied customers are with relevant attributes of the product or service and the relative importance
of these attributes. Generally these surveys include 5-point semantic differential scale, ranging from very satisfied
to very dissatisfied. Research suggests that customers who indicate they are very satisfied (typically a score of 5 on
the satisfaction scale are much more profitable and loyal than the customers who indicate they are satisfied).
Companies striving to get merely satisfied customers are making a crucial mistake
Service Expected VS. The Service Received
Some marketers maintain that Customer Satisfaction is a function of the difference between what they had
expected to get from the product or service purchased and their perceptions of what they received.
Adequate Service VS. Desired Service
Measures the performance of the service received against two expectation levels:
Adequate Service
Desired Service
It also measures the customers' future intentions regarding purchasing the service
Mystery Shoppers
Professional observers who pose as customers in order to interact with and provide un-biased evaluations of the
company's service personnel to identify opportunity for improving productivity and efficiency
Complaint Analysis System
Complaint Analysis System encourages customers to complain about an unsatisfactory product or service. Such
systems provide suggestions for improvement by having the respondents complete the forms asking specific
questions beyond the routine "how was everything" stuff. Sometimes Listening Posts, hotlines are established where
specifically designated employees either listen to customers' comments or actively solicit input from them
Analyzing Customer Defection
This means finding out why customers leave the company intervening when customer behavior shows that they
are going to defect
B. Population
The group of people that a research question pertains to is typically called the population. In some cases, the
population can be easily studied. Example: biographical studies of Pakistani presidents. In most real-world
research scenarios, we cannot study the population per se. Instead, we typically study a subset of the population.
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Sample
The subset of population that is studied is typically called a sample.
Sampling Plan
Sampling plan addresses three questions:
Whom to survey (sampling unit)?
How many to survey (the sample size)?
How to select them (sampling procedures)?
1. Whom to Survey?
Deciding whom to survey requires explicit definition of the universe or boundaries of the market from which the
data are sought so that an appropriate sample can be selected
Example
Youth
18-24 years old
College Going
SEC, A, B and C
2. How Many To Survey?
Size of the sample depends upon two main factors:
Size of the budget
Degree of confidence that the marketer wants to place in findings
Large Sample/Small Sample
The larger the sample, the more likely the responses will reflect the total universe under study. A small sample can
often provide highly reliable findings, depending upon n the sampling procedure adopted. The exact number
needed to achieve a specific level of confidence in the accuracy of findings can be computed with a mathematical
formula.
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Types of Sampling (How to select?)
1. Probability Sampling
Respondents are selected in such a way that every member of population studied has known non-zero chance of
being selected
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
1. Simple Random Sample
Every member of population has a known and equal chance of being selected
2. Systematic Random Sample
A member of population is selected at random and then every nth person is selected
atified Random Sample
The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as age groups) and then random sample is drawn
from each group
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
3. Cluster Area Sample
The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as blocks in a geographical area) and the researcher
draws a sample of the groups to interview
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Non-Probability Sampling
Specific elements from the population under study have been predetermined in a nonrandom fashion on the basis
of the researcher's judgment or decision to select a given number of respondents from a particular group
Types of Non-Probability Sampling
Convenience Sample
The researcher selects the most accessible population members from whom to obtain information (e.g. students in
class room)
1. Judgment Sample
The researcher uses his/her judgment to select population members who are good sources for accurate
information (e.g. experts in the relevant fields of study)
2. Quota Sample
The researcher interviews a prescribed number of people in each of several categories (e.g. 50 men, 50 women)
3. Data Analysis and Reporting Research Findings
Field Staff in Quantitative Research
Qualitative & Quantitative Research
Research Report
Ethics in Research
Field Staff in Quantitative Research
A quantitative study generally uses filed staff that is either recruited and trained directly by the researcher or
contracted from a company that specializes in in conducting field interviews
Qualitative & Quantitative Research
Qualitative Research: The moderator or test administrator usually analyzes the responses received
Quantitative Research: The researcher supervises the analysis:
 Open ended responses are first coded and quantified (i.e. converted into quantified scores)
 Then all of the responses are tabulated and analyzed using sophisticated analysis programs that correlate the
data by selected variables and cluster the data by selected demographic characteristics
Research Report
In both qualitative and quantitative research, the research report includes:
 Brief executive summary if the findings
 May or may not include recommendations for marketing action
 The body of the report includes a full description of the methodology used
 Quantitative research report also includes tables and graphics to support findings
 A sample of questionnaire is usually included in the appendix to enable the management to evaluate the
objectivity of findings
Ethics in Consumer Research
1. Consumer researchers must ensure that studies are objective and free of bias.
An organization opposed to the president of a country may retain a research firm that will generate a
national sample by asking the respondents:
Do you believe that president should be doing a better job at running the country?
Such a study may discover that 65% of the respondents think that president should be doing a better
job.
Another study using the national sample may ask respondents:
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Do you approve or disapprove of the way the president is doing her job?
Such a study may also discover that 65% of the respondents think that president should
be doing a better job. The second study may be more objective because the questions was not stated in a
biased fashion
2. Consumer Researchers must not mistreat respondents
 Avoid unnecessary long interviews stemming from the logic that "as long as we are interviewing this
person we may also try to find out ....
 Lengthy interviews where consumers are held on the phone for more than 30 minutes (often lied to when
they ask how much longer the call is going to take)
 On mall intercepts when the subjects are told that it will only take a few minutes of their time and the
interview goes on for more than 40 minutes
 Sales pitches from telemarketers disguised as research studies must be avoided
3. General Guidelines
 At the start of all surveys, interviewers must clearly identify themselves and the company for which they
are working , explain what the survey entails and state the true expected duration of the interview
 They should reassure the respondents that there are no right or wrong answers
 If the respondents are being paid they should be notified so at the start of the interview
 Privacy of the respondents must be protected and guarded
 Some unethical consumer researchers have sold data about consumers to marketers seeking persons with
specific characteristics that will be targeted as prospective buyers
Key Terms of the Chapter
Attitude Scales
Complaint Analysis
Consumer Panel
Customer Lifetime Value Profiles
Customer Satisfaction Measurement
Depth Interview
Experimentation
Exploratory Study
Focus Groups
Interpretivism
Mail Surveys
Mechanical Observation
Motivational Research
Mystery Shoppers
Non-Probability Samples
Observational Research
Online Surveys
Personal Interview Survey
Physiological Observation
Positivism
Primary Data
Probability Sample
Projective Techniques
Qualitative Research
Reliability
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Research Objectives
Secondary Data (Internal & External)
Test Marketing
Validity
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer Behavior
  2. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer research
  3. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Marketing Mix, Product, Price
  4. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Customer Value, Perceived Value
  5. VALUE AND RETENTION FOCUSED MARKETING AND CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
  6. CONSUMER RESEARCH:Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research
  7. MAJOR STEPS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS:Design of Primary research
  8. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  9. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES
  10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  11. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION AND ITS BASES:Geographical Segmentation
  13. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION
  14. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: SOCIOCULTURAL SEGMENTATION USE RELATED SEGMENTATION USAGE SITUATION SEGMENTATION
  15. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Intrinsic Cues
  16. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: HYBRID SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES
  17. MARKET SEGMENTATION IMPLEMENTING SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES CULTURE
  18. HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Formal Learning
  19. CULTURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  20. MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Consumer Fieldwork
  21. SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  22. AGE AND GENDER SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  23. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Market Segmentation
  24. SOCIAL CLASS CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Occupation
  25. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Affluent Consumer
  26. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Membership Group
  27. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Shopping Groups
  28. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
  29. CONSUMER PERSONALITY, TRAIT THEORY AND SELF IMAGES
  30. CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals
  31. UNDERSTANDING LEARNING:Intentional and Incidental Learning, Implications for Marketers
  32. INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MEMORY
  33. ATTITUDES:Characteristics of Attitudes, Attitudes have consistency
  34. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE:How attitudes are learned?
  35. ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES:Resolving two conflicting attitudes
  36. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER DECISION MAKING:Decision Complexity
  37. Problem Recognition, Search and Evaluation and Decision and Purchase
  38. Decision and Purchase:Consumer Decision Rules, Output, Relationship Marketing
  39. Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Product Set up and Use
  40. Marketing Implications of Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Understanding
  41. Post Purchase Evaluation:Determinants of Satisfaction, Consumer Complaint Behavior
  42. Post Purchase Dissonance:Dissonance Reduction, Marketing Implications
  43. Consumerism:Roots of Consumerism, The Nature of Consumerism
  44. Consumerism Issues and Responses:Environmental Concerns, Consumer Privacy
  45. Review Consumer Psychology Course:Consumer Research, Consumerism