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QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS

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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Lesson 08
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS &
DATA COLLECTION METHODS
OBJECTIVES:
UNDERSTANDING
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS
Surveys
Personal Interview Surveys
Telephone Surveys
Mail Surveys
Online Surveys
DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS
Reliability & Validity
Questionnaires
If researchers wish to ask consumers about their purchase preferences and consumption experiences they can do
so:
In person
By mail
By telephone
On-line
1. Types of Surveys
1. Personal Interview Surveys
Most often take place at:
 Home
 Retail shopping areas (Mall Intercepts)
The later referred to as Mall Intercepts are used more frequently than home interviews because of
High incidence of not at home working women
Reluctance of people to allow a stranger in their home
2. Telephone Surveys
Process
Questionnaires are carefully drafted and interviewers are briefed on the calling techniques to engage the
respondents on the telephone. Interviewers build rapport with the respondents and questions are asked and the
responses are noted on the answer sheets. Answer sheets are with the interviewer who marks the respondents'
choices. Answer sheets could be paper based or electronic computer based
Appropriate Timings
Evenings and weekends are appropriate times, however, in Pakistan a large number of females are housewives so
the time after the breakfast and before the ladies start preparing for lunch could also be available
Difficulties involved in Telephone Interviews
Increased use of answering machines makes it difficult to reach the respondents. Caller ID facility on the phone to
screen the calls sometimes plays a hampering role in getting down to the respondents. The situation is made more
complicated by the limited timings during which the respondents can be reached. Reluctance from respondents
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
may be faced to get them on the on telephone for calls that interrupt their general relaxation or TV viewing or
running other house-hold cores time.
Some Marketing Research companies have tried to automate the telephone interviews. The find respondents are
even less willing to interact with an electronic voice than with a live interviewer
3. Mail Surveys
Process:
Mailing Surveys are conducted by sending the questionnaires directly to individuals at their homes. The
questionnaire is properly drafted so that respondents won't have any difficulty in understanding the questions
and/or how to mark the responses
Difficulties:
To understand the difficulties involved in mailing surveys you may consider the question, what will be your
response if you get a questionnaire by mail? Will you read it fill it and then put it in an envelope and send it back
through mail? Chances are a lot of people out there will not be willing to engage in any such exercise. Exactly the
same way the response rate for the mailed questionnaires is very low
Firms use various ways to increase the response rate that include:
Enclosing a self addressed stamped envelope
Asking provocative questions
Sending pre-notification letters and follow-up notes
Setting up Panels of consumers
Panels of consumers are sometimes set up in which a token fee is sometimes paid to the respondents for filling out
the questionnaires. Research companies regularly send surveys to panel members. Sometimes the panel members
are required to keep diaries of their purchases
4. On-line Surveys
Process:
After the widespread adoption of internet in personal life-styles, research companies use this medium frequently
to conduct their surveys. Research companies frequently send their questionnaires to respondents on their e-mail
addresses. Respondents are also directed to the research firm or the product company's web sites through internet
ads.
Difficulties:
Difficulties in on-line surveys involve:
 Low response rates
 Sample is self selected and therefore cannot project large population
Solutions:
Most computer polls ask respondents to complete a profile consisting of demographic questions
Questions about respondents age, locations, academic backgrounds, etc...
These questions enable the researchers to classify the responses to the substantive product or service
Paying the respondents
Respondents go on filling the questionnaires and they get paid for every questionnaire they fill
Benefits of On-line Polls
Certain benefits attached with on-line polling may include:
 Anonymity - that encourages respondents to be more forthright and honest
 Internet polls are wide reaching
 Cost effective
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
5. Comparative Advantages/Disadvantages Mail, Telephone, Personal Interviews and On-line Surveys
Mail
Telephone
Personal
On-Line
Interview
Cost
Low
Moderate
High
Low
Speed
Slow
Immediate
Slow
Fast
Response Rate
Low
Moderate
High
Self Selected
Geographic
Excellent
Good
Difficult
Excellent
Flexibility
Interviewer Bias
N/A
Moderate
Problematic
N/A
Interviewer
N/A
Easy
Difficult
N/A
Supervision
Quality of
Limited
Limited
Excellent
Excellent
Response
2. Data Collection Instruments
Data collection instruments are developed as part of study's total research design to systematize the collection of
data and to ensure that all respondents are asked the same question and in same fashion. Two concepts are
important in this regard
Reliability
A study is reliable if the same question asked of a similar people will produce the same findings. Often a sample is
systematically divided into two halves; each half is given the same questionnaire to fill. If the results from each half
are same result is said to be reliable. This way the questionnaire is said to have split-half reliability
Validity
A study is valid if it does collect the appropriate data needed to answer the questions or objectives stated in the
first stage of the research process.
Quantitative Data Collection Instruments include:
Questionnaires
Attitude Scales
1. Questionnaires
For quantitative research, primary data collection instrument is the questionnaire. Following ar some important
guidelines that need to be considered while wording questions in a questionnaire:
Guidelines for Wording Questions
1. Avoid Leading Questions.
a.  Do you often shop at such cost saving shopping stores as ............
b. Weren't you satisfied at the service you received at ........................ store today
2. Avoid two questions in one
a.  In your view did you save good money and received good services when you visited ......
last Sunday
3. Questions must be clear
a.  Where do you usually shop for your home-office supplies
The term usually is vague
4. Use words that consumers use routinely
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
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a.
Do not use verb "to rectify" use "to correct"
5. Respondents must be able to answer the question
a.  How many newspaper or TV ads for .................... did you read or see during the last
week
6. Respondents must be willing to answer the question
a.  Questions about money, health issues, and personal hygiene can embarrass respondents
and cause them not to answer. Sometimes asking a question in a less personal fashion
might help generate more responses.
Questionnaire Administration
Questionnaires may be administered by:
Field interviewers
Through mail
Internet
Telephone
To Get the Response
Questionnaires must be interesting
Objective
Unambiguous
Easy to complete
Generally not burdensome to complete
To Enhance the Analysis
To enhance the analysis and classification of responses into meaningful categories, questionnaires include both:
Substantive questions relevant to the objectives of study
Pertinent demographic questions
Disguised/Undisguised Questionnaires
Questionnaire can be disguised or undisguised as to its true purpose
 Disguised questionnaire sometimes yields more truthful answers and avoids responses that respondents
may think are expected or sought
Open Ended, Closed Ended Questionnaire
 Open Ended: Requiring answers in the respondents own words
Yield more insightful information
Difficult to analyze and code
Closed Ended: Respondents merely check the answers from the available answers from a list of options
The answers are limited to the existing insights of the researchers
Easy to tabulate and analyze
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer Behavior
  2. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer research
  3. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Marketing Mix, Product, Price
  4. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Customer Value, Perceived Value
  5. VALUE AND RETENTION FOCUSED MARKETING AND CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
  6. CONSUMER RESEARCH:Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research
  7. MAJOR STEPS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS:Design of Primary research
  8. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  9. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES
  10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  11. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION AND ITS BASES:Geographical Segmentation
  13. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION
  14. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: SOCIOCULTURAL SEGMENTATION USE RELATED SEGMENTATION USAGE SITUATION SEGMENTATION
  15. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Intrinsic Cues
  16. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: HYBRID SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES
  17. MARKET SEGMENTATION IMPLEMENTING SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES CULTURE
  18. HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Formal Learning
  19. CULTURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  20. MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Consumer Fieldwork
  21. SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  22. AGE AND GENDER SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  23. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Market Segmentation
  24. SOCIAL CLASS CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Occupation
  25. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Affluent Consumer
  26. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Membership Group
  27. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Shopping Groups
  28. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
  29. CONSUMER PERSONALITY, TRAIT THEORY AND SELF IMAGES
  30. CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals
  31. UNDERSTANDING LEARNING:Intentional and Incidental Learning, Implications for Marketers
  32. INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MEMORY
  33. ATTITUDES:Characteristics of Attitudes, Attitudes have consistency
  34. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE:How attitudes are learned?
  35. ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES:Resolving two conflicting attitudes
  36. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER DECISION MAKING:Decision Complexity
  37. Problem Recognition, Search and Evaluation and Decision and Purchase
  38. Decision and Purchase:Consumer Decision Rules, Output, Relationship Marketing
  39. Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Product Set up and Use
  40. Marketing Implications of Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Understanding
  41. Post Purchase Evaluation:Determinants of Satisfaction, Consumer Complaint Behavior
  42. Post Purchase Dissonance:Dissonance Reduction, Marketing Implications
  43. Consumerism:Roots of Consumerism, The Nature of Consumerism
  44. Consumerism Issues and Responses:Environmental Concerns, Consumer Privacy
  45. Review Consumer Psychology Course:Consumer Research, Consumerism