ZeePedia

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES

<< QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS >>
img
Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Lesson 09
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES
OBJECTIVES:
o  Understanding Attitude
o  Defining the Attitude Scales
o  Learning four types of Attitude Scales:
Liker Scale
1. Satisfaction Measures
2. Importance Scales
Semantic Differential Scale
Behavior Intention Scale
Rank Order Scale
ATTITUDE SCALES
To be successful a company must understand the needs of specific groups of consumers and then satisfy these
needs more effectively than the competition does. Studying consumer behavior in all its ramifications enables
marketers to predict how consumers react to a certain promotional message and to understand why they make
certain decisions they do. So it becomes important for the researchers to understand attitudes of the consumers
Attitude
Attitude is a relatively stable disposition to act in a certain way towards a target objective
Attitude Scale
Instruments used to capture evaluative data. Researchers provide respondents with a list of products or product
attributes for which they are asked to indicate their relative feelings or evaluations
Types of Attitude Scales
Most frequently used attitude scales are:
Likert Scale
Semantic Differential Scale
Behavior Intention Scale
Rank-Order Scale
1. Likert Scale
Likert Scale is easy to prepare and interpret for the researcher and for the respondent to answer. Respondents
check or write the number corresponding to their level of agreement or disagreement with each series of
statements that describes the attitude object under investigation. The scale consists of an equal number of
agreement/disagreement choices on either side of the neutral choice.
Example:
For each of the following statements please check the response that best describes the extent to which you agree
or disagree with the statement
Statements
1
2
3
4
5
Strongly
Somewhat
Neither
Somewhat
Strongly
Agree
Agree
Agree Nor
Disagree
Disagree
Disagree
Its fun to shop on-line
I'm afraid to give my credit
card number on-line
26
img
Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Applications of Likert Scale:
Two widely used applications of Likert Scale are:
1. Satisfaction Measures
Overall how satisfied are you with bank X's on-line banking
Statement
Very
Somewhat
Neither
Somewhat
Very
Satisfied
Satisfied
Satisfied Nor
Dissatisfied
Dissatisfied
Dissatisfied
Overall how satisfied are
you with bank X's on-
line banking
2. Importance Scales
Following list of features are associated with shopping on the internet. For each feature, please check the one
alternative that best describes how important or unimportant is that feature for you
Features
Extremely
Somewhat
Neither
Somewhat
Not at all
Important
Important
Important
Unimportant
Important
Nor
Unimportant
Speed of downloading the order
form
Being able to register with the
site
Benefits of Likert Scale
Principal benefit of Likert Scale is that it gives researcher the option to consider response to each statement
separately or of combining the responses to produce an over-all score s
2. Semantic Differential Scale (SDS)
SDS like Likert scale is easy to construct and administer. The scale typically consists of a series of bi-polar
adjectives e.g. good/bad, hot/cold, like/dislike anchored at the ends of an odd numbered continuum (e.g. 5 point
or 7 point scale). Respondents are asked to evaluate a concept (or product or company) on the basis of each
attribute by checking the point on the continuum that best reflects their feelings or beliefs
Important Features of Semantic Differential Scale:
Odd numbered scale (e.g. 5 point or 7 point scale) is used for keeping a neutral option
Sometimes even numbered scale is used for eliminating the neutral option
Care must be taken to vary the location of the positive and negative terms. When using English
Language positives are kept on the left side because English language is written from left hand side to
right hand side and vice versa in Urdu language.
SDS may be used to develop graphical consumer profiles of the concept under study
SDS profiles are used to compare the consumer perceptions of competitive products and to indicate
areas for product improvement when perceptions of existing products are measured against perceptions
of the ideal product
Example:
Suppose a Carbonated Soft Drinks (CSD) (Cola Drinks) manufacturing company wants to improve the features of
its product according to the taste preferences of target consumers. As a first step they need to know, the taste
profile of an ideal CSD with reference to different taste features. Then they will have to learn what the existing
27
img
Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
taste profile of their CSD is. Once they have the ideal and the existing taste profiles they can compare both
profiles to adjust the existing taste profile according to the ideal taste profile.
To conduct such a research the organization may effectively use Semantic Differential Scale in the following
manner:
The three features of the taste profile under study are:
Strong VS. Light
Sweet VS. Bittern
Served Chilled VS. Room Temperature
The Semantic Differential Scale prepared for the study looked something like the figure below:
Strong
Light
Sweet
Bitter
Served Chilled
Served at Room
Temperature
After the questionnaire was filled by a large number of target consumers, the ideal taste profile turned out to be
something like the figure below:
Strong
Light
Sweet
Bitter
Chilled
Room Temperature
28
img
Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
The same questionnaire was used to learn about the existing taste profile. After the questionnaire was filled by a
large number of target consumers, the existing taste profile turned out to be something like the figure below:
Strong
Light
Sweet
Bitter
Chilled
Room Temperature
Both profiles are compared in the figure below to pin point the differences and it turned out be something like the
figure below:
Strong
Light
Sweet
Bitter
Chilled
Room Temperature
3. Behavior Intention Scale
Behavior Intention Scale measures the likelihood that consumers will act in a certain way in the future, such as
buying the product again or recommending it to a friend. The scales are easy to construct and consumers are asked
to make subjective judgments regarding their future behavior.
Example:
The management of a bank would like to know that how their services will rate with their consumers during the
next six months. To have a reasonably reliable prediction they may use Behavior Intention Scale in the following
manner:
29
img
Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
How likely are you to continue using Bank X's on-line banking for the next 6 months
Definitely will
Probably will continue
Might or might not
Probably will not
Definitely will not
continue
continue
continue
continue
How likely are you to recommend Bank X's on-line banking to a friend
Definitely will
Probably will
Might or might not
Probably will not
Definitely will not
recommend
recommend
recommend
recommend
recommend
4. Rank Order Scale (ROS)
Subjects are asked to rank items such as products (or retail stores or websites) in order of preference in terms of
some criterion, such as over-all quality or value for the money. ROS provide important competitive information
and enable marketers to identify needed areas of improvement in product design and product positioning
Example:
We would like to find out about your preferences regarding the banking methods. Please rank the following
banking methods by placing a "1" in front of the method that you prefer most. A "2" next to your second
preference and continuing until you have ranked all of the methods
Inside the bank
On-line Banking
Banking by Telephone
ATM
Banking by mail
30
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer Behavior
  2. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer research
  3. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Marketing Mix, Product, Price
  4. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Customer Value, Perceived Value
  5. VALUE AND RETENTION FOCUSED MARKETING AND CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
  6. CONSUMER RESEARCH:Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research
  7. MAJOR STEPS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS:Design of Primary research
  8. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  9. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES
  10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  11. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION AND ITS BASES:Geographical Segmentation
  13. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION
  14. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: SOCIOCULTURAL SEGMENTATION USE RELATED SEGMENTATION USAGE SITUATION SEGMENTATION
  15. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Intrinsic Cues
  16. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: HYBRID SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES
  17. MARKET SEGMENTATION IMPLEMENTING SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES CULTURE
  18. HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Formal Learning
  19. CULTURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  20. MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Consumer Fieldwork
  21. SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  22. AGE AND GENDER SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  23. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Market Segmentation
  24. SOCIAL CLASS CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Occupation
  25. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Affluent Consumer
  26. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Membership Group
  27. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Shopping Groups
  28. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
  29. CONSUMER PERSONALITY, TRAIT THEORY AND SELF IMAGES
  30. CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals
  31. UNDERSTANDING LEARNING:Intentional and Incidental Learning, Implications for Marketers
  32. INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MEMORY
  33. ATTITUDES:Characteristics of Attitudes, Attitudes have consistency
  34. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE:How attitudes are learned?
  35. ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES:Resolving two conflicting attitudes
  36. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER DECISION MAKING:Decision Complexity
  37. Problem Recognition, Search and Evaluation and Decision and Purchase
  38. Decision and Purchase:Consumer Decision Rules, Output, Relationship Marketing
  39. Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Product Set up and Use
  40. Marketing Implications of Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Understanding
  41. Post Purchase Evaluation:Determinants of Satisfaction, Consumer Complaint Behavior
  42. Post Purchase Dissonance:Dissonance Reduction, Marketing Implications
  43. Consumerism:Roots of Consumerism, The Nature of Consumerism
  44. Consumerism Issues and Responses:Environmental Concerns, Consumer Privacy
  45. Review Consumer Psychology Course:Consumer Research, Consumerism