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HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Formal Learning

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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
LESSON 18
HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT
ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
Understanding
 How Culture is learnt
 Three forms of Culture Learning
Formal
Informal
Technical
 Advertising & Culture learning
Enhancing Informal Culture Learning
Repetition in Advertising
Movement of Cultural meaning to consumer goods
 Enculturation & Acculturation
 Language & Symbols
 Rituals
Unlike innate biological characteristics (e.g. gender, skin, hair color, intelligence) culture is learned. At an early age
we begin to acquire from our social environment a set of beliefs, values and customs that make up our culture.
1. Three Forms of Cultural Learning
Psychologists and anthropologists have identified three distinct forms of cultural learning.
A. Formal Learning
Adults and older siblings of the family teach a young member how to behave:
Please shake hands with uncle
Say hi to aunty
Wash your hands before eating
Take small bites
B. Informal Learning
A child learns primarily by imitating the behavior of selected others, such as family, friends and TV heroes.
C. Technical Learning
Teachers instruct the child in an educational environment about what should be done, how it should be done and
why it should be done e.g.:
Do your homework every day to learn the course or you will fail
Work hard
Pay attention
Control yourself, focus
Learn discipline
2. Advertising and Cultural Learning
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Advertising can impact all three ways of cultural learning.
Enhancing informal cultural learning
Many product advertisements enhance informal cultural learning by providing the audience with a model of
behavior to imitate. This is especially true for visible or conspicuous products that are evaluated in public settings
e.g. designers clothing
Repetition in Advertising
Repetition creates and reinforces cultural beliefs and values. Many advertisers continually stress the same selected
benefits of their products. Certain product advertisements may reinforce the benefits that consumers want from
the product. They also teach the consumers to expect the same benefits from the product category.
Movement of cultural meaning to consumer goods
Cultural meaning moves from culturally constituted world to consumer goods to the end consumer through
various consumption related vehicles. For example:
How T-Shirts can identify cultural meaning and identity for the wearers
T-Shirts as trophies (as proof of participating in sports)
Self proclaimed labels of belonging to a cultural category
T-Shirts can also be used as a means of self expression
A New York T-Shirt would be worn by a person whop has been to NY, consumers can buy such a T-Shirt
from a local retailer and create the impression that they have been to NY or else they can show their affinity
for the NY
3. Enculturation and Acculturation
Enculturation
Learning of one's own culture is called Enculturation. The process of enculturation may be utilized to position the
products.
Acculturation
The learning of new or foreign culture is called Acculturation. Too many marketers contemplating international
expansion make the strategic error of believing that if their products are liked by the local consumers then every
one will like them. To overcome such a narrow view marketers must go through an acculturation process. They
must learn everything that is relevant about the usage or potential usage of their products and product categories in
the foreign countries in which they plan to operate
4. Language and Symbols
To acquire a common culture the members of a society must be able to communicate with each other through a
common language.
1. Language & Symbols
A symbol is anything that stands for something else. Any word is a symbol. Marketers must use appropriate
symbols to convey desired product images and/or characteristics. Symbols can be verbal or non-verbal. Verbal
symbols may include a TV announcement or an advertisement in the magazine. Non-Verbal communication
involves the use of such symbols as figures, colors, shapes and even textures. Human mind can process symbols. It
is possible for a person to experience cognitively a visualization for a product for example the advertisement of
Skin moisturizing gel may use the images of two landscapes, one of a dry desert without the gel and the other of
rich green landscape with gel
Contradictory Meanings of Symbols
Trademark depicting an old craftsman may depict careful craftsmanship. It may also show an image of outdated
methods and lack of style
Using the Slang Language
An advertiser using slang in the advertisements to attract teenage audience must do so with great care. Slang that is
misused or outdated will symbolically date the marketer's firm and product
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Price and Channels of Distribution as Symbols
Price often implies quality to potential buyers. Type of store is an important symbol of quality. Its promotion,
price and the stores at which the product is available are symbols that communicate ranges of quality to potential
buyers.
2. Rituals
Ritual is a type of symbolic activity consisting of a series of steps (multiple behaviors) occurring in fixed sequence
and repeated over time
Ritualized Behavior
In addition to language and symbols culture includes ritualized experiences and behaviors.
Rituals extend over the human life cycle from birth to death including a host of intermediate experiences
(confirmations, graduation and marriage). Ritualized behavior is rather formal and often scripted behavior.
Importance of Rituals for Marketers
Rituals are replete with ritual artifacts. Ritual artifacts are products that are associated with or somehow enhance
the performance of a ritual. In addition to a ritual there is something called ritualistic behavior? Ritualistic Behavior
is any behavior that is made into a ritual
For example a tennis player may a few times or swing the arm holding the racket in a big arc once or twice before
every serve
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer Behavior
  2. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer research
  3. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Marketing Mix, Product, Price
  4. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Customer Value, Perceived Value
  5. VALUE AND RETENTION FOCUSED MARKETING AND CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
  6. CONSUMER RESEARCH:Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research
  7. MAJOR STEPS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS:Design of Primary research
  8. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  9. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES
  10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  11. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION AND ITS BASES:Geographical Segmentation
  13. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION
  14. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: SOCIOCULTURAL SEGMENTATION USE RELATED SEGMENTATION USAGE SITUATION SEGMENTATION
  15. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Intrinsic Cues
  16. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: HYBRID SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES
  17. MARKET SEGMENTATION IMPLEMENTING SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES CULTURE
  18. HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Formal Learning
  19. CULTURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  20. MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Consumer Fieldwork
  21. SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  22. AGE AND GENDER SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  23. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Market Segmentation
  24. SOCIAL CLASS CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Occupation
  25. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Affluent Consumer
  26. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Membership Group
  27. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Shopping Groups
  28. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
  29. CONSUMER PERSONALITY, TRAIT THEORY AND SELF IMAGES
  30. CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals
  31. UNDERSTANDING LEARNING:Intentional and Incidental Learning, Implications for Marketers
  32. INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MEMORY
  33. ATTITUDES:Characteristics of Attitudes, Attitudes have consistency
  34. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE:How attitudes are learned?
  35. ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES:Resolving two conflicting attitudes
  36. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER DECISION MAKING:Decision Complexity
  37. Problem Recognition, Search and Evaluation and Decision and Purchase
  38. Decision and Purchase:Consumer Decision Rules, Output, Relationship Marketing
  39. Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Product Set up and Use
  40. Marketing Implications of Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Understanding
  41. Post Purchase Evaluation:Determinants of Satisfaction, Consumer Complaint Behavior
  42. Post Purchase Dissonance:Dissonance Reduction, Marketing Implications
  43. Consumerism:Roots of Consumerism, The Nature of Consumerism
  44. Consumerism Issues and Responses:Environmental Concerns, Consumer Privacy
  45. Review Consumer Psychology Course:Consumer Research, Consumerism