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Journalistic Writing

ALL ABOUT WORDS:HOW WORDS ARE FORMED?:SUFFIXES

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Journalistic Writing ­ MCM310
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LECTURE 8
ALL ABOUT WORDS
WHAT ARE WORDS MADE OF?
The study of structure of words is called MORPHOLOGY. Look at this sentence:
"The plogs glorped bliply"
MORPHEMES: a morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit that has semantic meaning.
One morpheme: dog, elephant, child
Two morphemes: dog s, elephant s, child ish.
Three morphemes: child ish ness
Six morphemes: anti-dis-establish-ment-arian-ism
Free Morpheme: This can stand alone. E.g. dog, elephant, child, etc.
Bound Morpheme: This can't stand alone. E.g. s, ish, ness, ism, etc
HOW WORDS ARE FORMED?
Word forms
Portmanteau words
Prefixes
Suffixes
Compounding
WORDS FORMS:
WORD FORMS: noun, verb, adjective, and adverb. E.g. decide
We must come to a decision soon.
We beat them decisively.
He can never make up his mind. He is indecisive.
Some more examples:
Beauty = beautiful, beautician, beautify
Pay = payment, payable, payee
Receive = receptionist, receipt, receptive
Hero = heroism, heroically, heroin
Describe = descriptive, description, indescribable
Sense = sensation, insensitive, senseless,
Explain = explanatory, inexplicable
Prophecy = prophet, prophecy
Famous = fame, infamous, infamy
Enthusiasm = Enthusiastically, Enthusiast, enthuse
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PORTMANTEAU: Portmanteau is one derived by combining portions of two or more separate words.
They are blend of two words. So there are two meanings packed into one
Oxbridge = Oxford + Cambridge
Because = by + cause
Brunch = Breakfast + lunch
Camcorder = camera + recorder
Email = electronic + mail
Fortnight = fourteen + nights
Hassle = haggle + tussle
Intercom = internal + communication
PREFIXES: A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its meaning. This is a list
of the most common prefixes in English, together with their basic meaning and some examples. You can
find more detail or precision for each prefix in any good dictionary. The origins of words are extremely
complicated. You should use this list as a guide only, to help you understand possible meanings. But be
very careful, because often what appears to be a prefix is not a prefix at all. Note also that this list does not
include elements like "auto-" or "bio-", because these are "combining forms", not prefixes.
Prefix
Meaning
Examples
a-
also an-
not, without
atheist, anaemic
a-
to, towards
aside, aback
in the process of, in a
a-hunting, aglow
particular state
a-
of
anew
completely
abashed
ab-
also abs-
away, from
abdicate, abstract
ad-
also a-, ac-, af-, ag-
movement to, change
advance, adulterate, adjunct, ascend, affiliate, affirm,
al-, an-, ap-, at-
into,  addition  or
aggravate, alleviate, annotate, apprehend, arrive,
as-, at-
increase
assemble, attend
ante-
before, preceding
antecedent, ante-room
anti-
also ant-
opposing, against, the
anti-aircraft, antibiotic, anticlimax, Antarctic
opposite
be-
all over, all around
bespatter, beset
completely
bewitch, bemuse
having, covered with
bejewelled
affect with (added to
befog
nouns)
cause to be (added to
becalm
adjectives)
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com-
also co-, col-, con-
with,
jointly,
combat, codriver, collude, confide, corrode
, cor-
completely
contra-
against, opposite
contraceptive
counter-
opposition, opposite
counter-attack, counteract
direction
de-
down, away
descend, despair, depend, deduct
completely
denude, denigrate
removal, reversal
de-ice, decamp
dia-
also di-
through, across
diagonal
dis-
also di-
negation,
removal,
disadvantage, dismount, disbud, disbar
expulsion
en-
also em-
put into or on
engulf, enmesh
bring
into
the
enlighten, embitter
condition of
intensification
entangle, enrage
ex-
also e-, ef-
out
exit, exclude, expand
upward
exalt, extol
completely
excruciate, exasperate
previous
ex-wife
extra-
outside, beyond
extracurricular
hemi-
half
hemisphere
hyper-
beyond, more than,
hypersonic, hyperactive
more than normal
hypo-
under
hypodermic, hypothermia
in-
also il-, im-
not, without
infertile, inappropriate, impossible
also il-, im-, ir-
in,  into,
towards,
influence, influx, imbibe
inside
infra-
below
infrared, infrastructure
inter-
between, among
interact, interchange
intra-
inside, within
intramural, intravenous
non-
absence, negation
non-smoker, non-alcoholic
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ob-
also oc-, of-, op-
blocking,
against,
obstruct, occult, offend, oppose
concealing
out-
surpassing, exceeding
outperform
external, away from
outbuilding, outboard
over-
excessively,
overconfident, overburdened, overjoyed
completely
upper,
outer,
over,
overcoat, overcast
above
peri-
round, about
perimeter
post-
after in time or order
postpone
pre-
before in time, place,
pre-adolescent, prelude, precondition
order or importance
pro-
favouring, in support
pro-African
of
acting for
proconsul
motion forwards or
propulsion
away
before in time, place
prologue
or order
re-
again
repaint, reappraise, reawake
semi-
half, partly
semicircle, semi-conscious
sub-
also  suc-,  suf-,
at a lower position
submarine, subsoil
sug-, sup-, sur-,
lower in rank
sub-lieutenant
sus-
nearly, approximately
sub-tropical
syn-
also sym-
in
union,
acting
synchronize, symmetry
together
trans-
across, beyond
transnational, transatlantic
into a different state
translate
ultra-
beyond
ultraviolet, ultrasonic
extreme
ultramicroscopic
un-
not
unacceptable, unreal, unhappy, unmanned
reversal
or
unplug, unmask
cancellation of action
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or state
under-
beneath, below
underarm, undercarriage
lower in rank
undersecretary
not enough
underdeveloped
SUFFIXES
Noun Suffixes: These are common endings for nouns. If you see these endings on a word, then you know it
must be a noun.
-dom
at the end of a word means:
- state or condition
- domain, position, rank
- a group with position, office, or rank
wise+dom means the state of understanding what is good, right and lasting
king+dom means the domain or area belonging to a king.
wisdom(n)
kingdom(n)
-ity
at the end of a word means condition or quality of __________.
capability(n)
capable+ity
means
the
condition
of
being
capable.
flexibility(n)
flexible+ity means the quality of being flexible.
-ment
at the end of a word means act of __________; state of __________;
result of __________.
contentment(n)
content+ment means the state of being satisfied (content).
-sion, -tion
at the end of a word means act of __________; state of __________.
celebrate+tion means the act of celebrating
celebration (n)
-ness
at the end of a word means state of __________.
toughness (n)
tough+ness means the state of being tough.
-ance, -ence
at the end of a word means act of __________; state of __________;
quality of __________.
assistance (n)
assist+ance means act of giving help.
-er, -or
at the end of a word means one who __________; that which
__________.
fighter
(n) fight+er
means
one
who
fights
actor (n)
act+or means one who acts.
-ist
at the end of a word also means one who __________; that which
__________.
violinist (n)
violin+ist means one who plays the violin.
Adjective Suffixes: These are common word endings for adjectives. If you see these ending at the end of a
word, you can be certain it is an adjective.
-ive
at the end of a word means doing or tending toward doing some action
extend+ive means doing something large in range or amount
extensive(adj)
select+ive means tending to select.
selective(adj)
-en
at the end of a word means made of __________.
wooden (adj)
wood+en
means
made
of
wood.
Note: When the word is an adjective, the -en means made of __________.
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We have seen -en at the end of a verb. There it means to make
__________.
-ic
at the end of a word means characteristic of__________; like
__________.
heroic
(adj) hero+ic
means
characteristic
of
a
hero.
poetic (adj)
poet+ic means characteristic of (or like) poets or poetry.
-al
sometimes makes an adjective; when it makes an adjective it means relating
to __________.
financial
(adj) finance+al means relating to finance. (Finance means money.)
manual (adj)
manu+al means relating to the hand. (Manus means hand in Latin.)
-able
at the end of a word means able __________; can __________; or giving
__________.
portable
(adj) port+able  means  can  be  carried;  able  to  be  carried.
pleasurable (adj)
pleasure+able means giving pleasure.
-y
at the end of a word means having __________.
hairy
(adj) hair+y
means
having
hair
(a
lot
of
hair).
rainy (adj)
rain+y means having rain.
-ous
at the end of a word means full of __________; having __________.
mystery+ous means full of mystery.
mysterious (adj)
-ful
at the end of a word means full of __________; having __________.
hope+ful
means
full
of
hope.
hopeful
(adj) beauty+ful
means
full
of
beauty.
beautiful (adj)
Note: The suffix -ful is always spelled with one l; the word full has two.
-less
at the end of a word means without __________.
powerless
(adj) power+less
means
without
power.
homeless(adj)
home+less means without a home.
Verb Suffixes: These are common endings for verbs. If you see these endings on a word, then the word is
most likely a verb.
-en
at the end of a word means to make __________.
brighten
(v) bright+en
means
to
make
bright.
soften (v)
soft+en means to make soft.
-ize
at the end of a word means to make __________.
publicize (v)
public+ize means to make public or to make the public aware of.
-ate
at then end of a word means to have or be characterized by __________.
active+ate
means
to
make
active.
activate(v)
different+ate means to make or show a difference.
differentiate(v)
-ify or -fy
at the end of a word means to cause to become or to make.
simplify(v)
simple+ify means to make simple or simpler.
Adverb Suffixes: This is the most common ending for an adverb. If you see this ending on a word, you can be
fairly certain that it is an adverb. However, keep in mind that not all adverbs end this way.
-ly
at the end of a word almost always makes an adverb; occasionally it will
make an adjective.
quickly (adv)
quick+ly.
COMPOUNDING:
News + stand + paper + clip = newsstand, newspaper, news clip
Flower + petal + bud + pot = flower Patel, flower bud, flower pot
Lady + bug + finger + purse = ladybug, ladyfinger, lady purse
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Eye + color +brow + lid = eye color, eyebrow, eyelid
Hand + bag + shake + glove = Handbag, handshake + hand glove
FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE:
LITERAL AND FIGURATIVE
The robber struck me on the arm with a piece of wood. (literal)
Suddenly a clever idea struck me. (figurative)
1. Sharp knife and sharp tongue.
2. Tea is sweet and sweet baby.
3. Yacht sailed gracefully and he sailed through his exams.
4. Brush your hair and brush up your English.
5. Swollen jaw and swollen head.
6. Combed his hair and combed the jungle.
7. Fish in coastal water and only fish in the sea.
8. Diamonds are expensive and he is a rough diamond.
9. Boat sank and heart sank.
10. Drop an idea. (abandon)
11. A glaring error. (obvious)
12. I ploughed my way through the Mathematics problems.
COLLOCATIONS:
Collocation is the relationship between two words or groups of words that often go together and form a
common expression. If the expression is heard often, the words become 'glued' together in our minds. 'Crystal
clear', 'middle management' 'nuclear family' and 'cosmetic surgery' are examples of collocated pairs of
words. Some words are often found together because they make up a compound noun, for example 'riding
boots' or 'motor cyclist'.
Examples of phrases: a person can be 'locked in mortal combat', meaning involved in a serious fight, or
'bright eyed and bushy tailed', meaning fresh and ready to go; 'red in the face', meaning 'embarrassed', or
'blue in the face' meaning 'angry'. It is not a common expression for someone to be 'yellow in the face' or
'green in the face' however. Therefore 'red' and 'blue' collocate with 'in the face', but 'yellow in the face' or
'green in the face' are probably mistakes.
English has many of these collocated expressions and some linguists (e.g. Khellmer 1991) argue that our mental
lexicon is made up of many collocated words and phrases as well as individual items. Some words have
different collocations which reflect their different meanings, e.g. 'bank' collocates with 'river' and
'investment'.
COLLOCATIONS: TYPES:
1. Verb + noun
throw a party / accept responsibility
2. Adjective + noun
square meal / grim determination
3. Verb + adjective + noun
take vigorous exercise / make steady progress
4. Adverb + verb
strongly suggest / barely see
5. Adverb + adjective
utterly amazed / completely useless
6. Adverb + adjective + noun
totally unacceptable behavior
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Journalistic Writing ­ MCM310
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7. Adjective + preposition
guilty of / blamed for / happy about
8. Noun + noun pay packet / window frame
DENOTATIONS AND CONNOTATIONS:
Denotation: a literal meaning of the word
Connotation: an association (emotional or otherwise) which the word evokes
For example: For some people, the word PIG might have connotations of dirty and smelly; others will think of
inquisitive or cheeky. Moreover, some might see TERRORISTS where others see FREEDOM FIGHTERS.
Another example:
Negative
There are over 2,000 vagrants in the city.
Neutral
There are over 2,000 people with no fixed address in the city.
Positive
There are over 2,000 homeless in the city.
More examples:
Favorable
Neutral
Unfavorable
1.
relaxed
inactive
lazy
2.
prudent
timid
cowardly
3.
modest
shy
mousy
4.
time-tested
old
out-of-date
5.
dignified
reserved
stiff-necked
6.
persevering
persistent
stubborn
7.
up-to-date
new
newfangled
8.
thrifty
conservative
miserly
9.
self-confident
proud
conceited
10.
inquisitive
curious
nosy
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO JOURNALISTIC WRITING:Practical, THINGS TO KNOW
  2. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITERS
  3. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITERS
  4. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITING:Achieve appropriate readability:
  5. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITING:Be concise, Be creative, Be correct
  6. THE PROCESS OF WRITING:INVENTION, WHEN YOU START TO WRITE
  7. THE PROCESS OF WRITING II:ORGANIZING, DRAFTING, REVISING
  8. ALL ABOUT WORDS:HOW WORDS ARE FORMED?:SUFFIXES
  9. DICTIONARY-A WRITER’S LANGUAGE TOOL:KINDS OF INFORMATION
  10. PARTS OF SPEECH:Noun Gender, Noun Plurals, Countable Nouns
  11. BASIC CLAUSE PATTERNS
  12. ACTIVE AND PASSSIVE VOICE
  13. MODIFIERS AND SENTENCE TYPES:COMPOUND SENTENCES
  14. REPORTED SPEECH:Indirect Questions, Direct commands
  15. GRAMMATICAL SENTENCE – ISSUES:SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
  16. GRAMMATICAL SENTENCE – ISSUES II:SENTENCE FRAGMENTS
  17. EFFECTIVE SENTENCE:PARALLELISM, NEEDED WORDS, SHIFTS
  18. STYLE: GUIDELINE AND PITFALLS I:COLLOQUIAL VS FORMAL, CIRCUMLOCUTION
  19. STYLE: GUIDELINE AND PITFALLS II:AMBIGUITY, REDUNDANCY, EUPHEMISM:
  20. PARAGRAPH WRITING: TYPES AND TECHNIQUES:STRUCTURE
  21. PARAGRAPH WRITING: TYPES AND TECHNIQUES:Putting on Our Play
  22. ESSAY WRITING:VARIOUS STRATEGIES FOR ESSAYS, PROMPTS
  23. SIGNAL WORDS:Non word Emphasis Signals
  24. EXPOSITORY WRITING:LOGICAL FALLACIES, APPEAL TO EMOTION
  25. THE WRITING STYLES: REPORT and NARRATIVE WRITING, SHORT REPORTS
  26. THE WRITING STYLES: DESCRIPTIVE AND PERSUASIVE WRITINGS, Observation
  27. RESEARCH WRITING AND DOCUMNETING SOURCES:Handling Long Quotations
  28. Summary and Précis Writing:CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD SUMMARY
  29. Punctuation:THE PERIOD, THE COMMA, THE SEMICOLON, THE COLON
  30. MECHANICS:ABBREVIATIONS, NUMBERS, SPELLING, THE HYPHEN
  31. READING SKILLS FOR WRITERS:EDUCATED READING, STEPS
  32. PARTS OF A NEWSPAPER:Box-out, By-line, Caption, Exclusive, Feature
  33. THE LANGUAGE OF THE NEWSPAPERS II:BROADSHEET NEWSPAPER
  34. News Writing and Style I:WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN A NEWSPAPER
  35. NEWS WRITING II:Accuracy, Clarity, Style, Qualities of Effective Leads
  36. EDITORIAL WRITING:WRITING AN EDITORIAL:STRUCTURING AN EDITORIAL
  37. WRITING FEATURES:GENERATING FEATURE STORY IDEAS
  38. WRITING COLUMNS:Column and a news report, Purpose, Audience
  39. WRITING ARTICLES FOR NEWSPAPERS:The Heading, The Lead
  40. WRITING ANALYSIS:purpose, scope, method, results, recommendations
  41. LETTERS TO EDITORS:Four important aspects about letters, Organizing letters
  42. BROADCAST AND WEB NEWS WRITING:WRITE CONCISELY, BROADCAST STYLE
  43. WRITING PRESS RELEASE, REVIEWS AND OBITUARIES:Summary of Content:
  44. THE ART OF INTERVIEWINGS
  45. FINAL THOUGHTS:Practical, Job-Related, Social, Stimulating, Therapeutic