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Advance Computer Architecture
Introduction to FALSIM
Computer Architecture, Organization and Design
Foundations of Computer Architecture, RISC and CISC
Measures of Performance SRC Features and Instruction Formats
ISA, Instruction Formats, Coding and Hand Assembly
Reverse Assembly, SRC in the form of RTL
RTL to Describe the SRC, Register Transfer using Digital Logic Circuits
Thinking Process for ISA Design
Introduction to the ISA of the FALCON-A and Examples
Behavioral Register Transfer Language for FALCON-A, The EAGLE
The FALCON-E, Instruction Set Architecture Comparison
CISC microprocessor:The Motorola MC68000, RISC Architecture:The SPARC
Design Process, Uni-Bus implementation for the SRC, Structural RTL for the SRC instructions
Structural RTL Description of the SRC and FALCON-A
External FALCON-A CPU Interface
Logic Design for the Uni-bus SRC, Control Signals Generation in SRC
Control Unit, 2-Bus Implementation of the SRC Data Path
3-bus implementation for the SRC, Machine Exceptions, Reset
SRC Exception Processing Mechanism, Pipelining, Pipeline Design
Adapting SRC instructions for Pipelined, Control Signals
SRC, RTL, Data Dependence Distance, Forwarding, Compiler Solution to Hazards
Data Forwarding Hardware, Superscalar, VLIW Architecture
Microprogramming, General Microcoded Controller, Horizontal and Vertical Schemes
I/O Subsystems, Components, Memory Mapped vs Isolated, Serial and Parallel Transfers
Designing Parallel Input Output Ports, SAD, NUXI, Address Decoder , Delay Interval
Designing a Parallel Input Port, Memory Mapped Input Output Ports, wrap around, Data Bus Multiplexing
Programmed Input Output for FALCON-A and SRC
Programmed Input Output Driver for SRC, Input Output
Comparison of Interrupt driven Input Output and Polling
Preparing source files for FALSIM, FALCON-A assembly language techniques
Nested Interrupts, Interrupt Mask, DMA
Direct Memory Access - DMA
Semiconductor Memory vs Hard Disk, Mechanical Delays and Flash Memory
Hard Drive Technologies
Arithmetic Logic Shift Unit - ALSU, Radix Conversion, Fixed Point Numbers
Overflow, Implementations of the adder, Unsigned and Signed Multiplication
NxN Crossbar Design for Barrel Rotator, IEEE Floating-Point, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division
CPU to Memory Interface, Static RAM, One two Dimensional Memory Cells, Matrix and Tree Decoders
Memory Modules, Read Only Memory, ROM, Cache
Cache Organization and Functions, Cache Controller Logic, Cache Strategies
Virtual Memory Organization
DRAM, Pipelining, Pre-charging and Parallelism, Hit Rate and Miss Rate, Access Time, Cache
Performance of I/O Subsystems, Server Utilization, Asynchronous I/O and operating system
Difference between distributed computing and computer networks
Physical Media, Shared Medium, Switched Medium, Network Topologies, Seven-layer OSI Model

Artificial Intelligence
Detailed Table of Contents
Introduction
Problem Solving
Genetic Algorithms
Knowledge Representation and Reasoning
Expert Systems
Handling uncertainty with fuzzy systems
Introduction to learning
Planning
Advanced Topics
Conclusion

Assembly Language Programming
Preface
Introduction to Assembly Language Programming
Addressing Modes: Data Declaration, Direct, Register Indirect , Offset Addressing
Branching: Comparison and Conditions, Conditional ,Unconditional Jump
Manipulations: Multiplication Algorithm, Shifting and Rotations, Bitwise Logical Operations
Subroutines: Program Flow, Stack, Saving and Restoring Registers
Display Memory: ASCII Codes, Display Memory Formation, Assembly Language
String Instructions: String Processing, Clearing Screen, String Printing, Length
Software Interrupts: Hooking an Interrupt, BIOS and DOS Interrupts
Real Time Interrupts and Hardware Interfacing
Debug Interrupts: Debugger using single step interrupt, breakpoint interrupt
Multitasking: Concept, Elaborate, Multitasking Kernel as TSR
Video Services: BIOS Video Services, DOS Video Services
Secondary Storage: Storage Access Using BIOS, DOS, Device Drivers
Serial Port Programming: Serial Communication
Protected Mode Programming: VESA Linear Frame Buffer, Interrupt Handling
Interfacing with High Level Languages: Calling Conventions, Calling C from Assembly
Comparison: Motorolla 68K Processors, Sun SPARC Processor

Data Warehousing
Need of Data Warehousing
Why a DWH, Warehousing
The Basic Concept of Data Warehousing
Classical SDLC and DWH SDLC, CLDS, Online Transaction Processing
Types of Data Warehouses: Financial, Telecommunication, Insurance, Human Resource
Normalization: Anomalies, 1NF, 2NF, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE
De-Normalization: Balance between Normalization and De-Normalization
DeNormalization Techniques: Splitting Tables, Horizontal splitting, Vertical Splitting, Pre-Joining Tables, Adding Redundant Columns, Derived Attributes
Issues of De-Normalization: Storage, Performance, Maintenance, Ease-of-use
Online Analytical Processing OLAP: DWH and OLAP, OLTP
OLAP Implementations: MOLAP, ROLAP, HOLAP, DOLAP
ROLAP: Relational Database, ROLAP cube, Issues
Dimensional Modeling DM: ER modeling, The Paradox, ER vs. DM,
Process of Dimensional Modeling: Four Step: Choose Business Process, Grain, Facts, Dimensions
Issues of Dimensional Modeling: Additive vs Non-Additive facts, Classification of Aggregation Functions
Extract Transform Load ETL: ETL Cycle, Processing, Data Extraction, Data Transformation
Issues of ETL: Diversity in source systems and platforms
Issues of ETL: legacy data, Web scrapping, data quality, ETL vs ELT
ETL Detail: Data Cleansing: data scrubbing, Dirty Data, Lexical Errors, Irregularities, Integrity Constraint Violation, Duplication
Data Duplication Elimination and BSN Method: Record linkage, Merge, purge, Entity reconciliation, List washing and data cleansing
Introduction to Data Quality Management: Intrinsic, Realistic, Orr’s Laws of Data Quality, TQM
DQM: Quantifying Data Quality: Free-of-error, Completeness, Consistency, Ratios
Total DQM: TDQM in a DWH, Data Quality Management Process
Need for Speed: Parallelism: Scalability, Terminology, Parallelization OLTP Vs DSS
Need for Speed: Hardware Techniques: Data Parallelism Concept
Conventional Indexing Techniques: Concept, Goals, Dense Index, Sparse Index
Special Indexing Techniques: Inverted, Bit map, Cluster, Join indexes
Join Techniques: Nested loop, Sort Merge, Hash based join
Data mining (DM): Knowledge Discovery in Databases KDD
Data Mining: CLASSIFICATION, ESTIMATION, PREDICTION, CLUSTERING,
Data Structures, types of Data Mining, Min-Max Distance, One-way, K-Means Clustering
DWH Lifecycle: Data-Driven, Goal-Driven, User-Driven Methodologies
DWH Implementation: Goal Driven Approach
DWH Implementation: Goal Driven Approach
DWH Life Cycle: Pitfalls, Mistakes, Tips
Course Project
Contents of Project Reports
Case Study: Agri-Data Warehouse
Web Warehousing: Drawbacks of traditional web sear ches, web search, Web traffic record: Log files
Web Warehousing: Issues, Time-contiguous Log Entries, Transient Cookies, SSL, session ID Ping-pong, Persistent Cookies
Data Transfer Service (DTS)
Lab Data Set: Multi -Campus University
Extracting Data Using Wizard
Data Profiling

Database Management Systems
Table of Contents
Introduction to Databases and Traditional File Processing Systems
Advantages, Cost, Importance, Levels, Users of Database Systems
Database Architecture: Level, Schema, Model, Conceptual or Logical View:
Internal or Physical View of Schema, Data Independence, Funct ions of DBMS
Database Development Process, Tools, Data Flow Diagrams, Types of DFD
Data Flow Diagram, Data Dictionary, Database Design, Data Model
Entity-Relationship Data Model, Classification of entity types, Attributes
Attributes, The Keys
Relationships:Types of Relationships in databases
Dependencies, Enhancements in E-R Data Model. Super-type and Subtypes
Inheritance Is, Super types and Subtypes, Constraints, Completeness Constraint, Disjointness Constraint, Subtype Discriminator
Steps in the Study of system
Conceptual, Logical Database Design, Relationships and Cardinalities in between Entities
Relational Data Model, Mathematical Relations, Database Relations
Database and Math Relations, Degree of a Relation
Mapping Relationships, Binary, Unary Relationship, Data Manipulation Languages, Relational Algebra
The Project Operator
Types of Joins: Theta Join, Equi–Join, Natural Join, Outer Join, Semi Join
Functional Dependency, Inference Rules, Normal Forms
Second, Third Normal Form, Boyce - Codd Normal Form, Higher Normal Forms
Normalization Summary, Example, Physical Database Design
Physical Database Design: DESIGNING FIELDS, CODING AND COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES
Physical Record and De-normalization, Partitioning
Vertical Partitioning, Replication, MS SQL Server
Rules of SQL Format, Data Types in SQL Server
Categories of SQL Commands,
Alter Table Statement
Select Statement, Attribute Allias
Data Manipulation Language
ORDER BY Clause, Functions in SQL, GROUP BY Clause, HAVING Clause, Cartesian Product
Inner Join, Outer Join, Semi Join, Self Join, Subquery,
Application Programs, User Interface, Forms, Tips for User Friendly Interface
Designing Input Form, Arranging Form, Adding Command Buttons
Data Storage Concepts, Physical Storage Media, Memory Hierarchy
File Organizations: Hashing Algorithm, Collision Handling
Hashing, Hash Functions, Hashed Access Characteristics, Mapping functions, Open addressing
Index Classification
Ordered, Dense, Sparse, Multi-Level Indices, Clustered, Non-clustered Indexes
Views, Data Independence, Security, Vertical and Horizontal Subset of a Table
Materialized View, Simple Views, Complex View, Dynamic Views
Updating Multiple Tables, Transaction Management
Transactions and Schedules, Concurrent Execution, Serializability, Lock-Based Concurrency Control, Deadlocks
Incremental Log with Deferred, Immediate Updates, Concurrency Control
Serial Execution, Serializability, Locking, Inconsistent Analysis
Locking Idea, DeadLock Handling, Deadlock Resolution, Timestamping rules

Digital Logic Design
AN OVERVIEW & NUMBER SYSTEMS
Binary to Decimal to Binary conversion, Binary Arithmetic, 1’s & 2’s complement
Range of Numbers and Overflow, Floating-Point, Hexadecimal Numbers
Octal Numbers, Octal to Binary Decimal to Octal Conversion
LOGIC GATES: AND Gate, OR Gate, NOT Gate, NAND Gate
AND OR NAND XOR XNOR Gate Implementation and Applications
DC Supply Voltage, TTL Logic Levels, Noise Margin, Power Dissipation
Boolean Addition, Multiplication, Commutative Law, Associative Law, Distributive Law, Demorgan’s Theorems
Simplification of Boolean Expression, Standard POS form, Minterms and Maxterms
KARNAUGH MAP, Mapping a non-standard SOP Expression
Converting between POS and SOP using the K-map
COMPARATOR: Quine-McCluskey Simplification Method
ODD-PRIME NUMBER DETECTOR, Combinational Circuit Implementation
IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ODD-PARITY GENERATOR CIRCUIT
BCD ADDER: 2-digit BCD Adder, A 4-bit Adder Subtracter Unit
16-BIT ALU, MSI 4-bit Comparator, Decoders
BCD to 7-Segment Decoder, Decimal-to-BCD Encoder
2-INPUT 4-BIT MULTIPLEXER, 8, 16-Input Multiplexer, Logic Function Generator
Applications of Demultiplexer, PROM, PLA, PAL, GAL
OLMC Combinational Mode, Tri-State Buffers, The GAL16V8, Introduction to ABEL
OLMC for GAL16V8, Tri-state Buffer and OLMC output pin
Implementation of Quad MUX, Latches and Flip-Flops
APPLICATION OF S-R LATCH, Edge-Triggered D Flip-Flop, J-K Flip-flop
Data Storage using D-flip-flop, Synchronizing Asynchronous inputs using D flip-flop
Dual Positive-Edge triggered D flip-flop, J-K flip-flop, Master-Slave Flip-Flops
THE 555 TIMER: Race Conditions, Asynchronous, Ripple Counters
Down Counter with truncated sequence, 4-bit Synchronous Decade Counter
Mod-n Synchronous Counter, Cascading Counters, Up-Down Counter
Integrated Circuit Up Down Decade Counter Design and Applications
DIGITAL CLOCK: Clocked Synchronous State Machines
NEXT-STATE TABLE: Flip-flop Transition Table, Karnaugh Maps
D FLIP-FLOP BASED IMPLEMENTATION
Moore Machine State Diagram, Mealy Machine State Diagram, Karnaugh Maps
SHIFT REGISTERS: Serial In/Shift Left,Right/Serial Out Operation
APPLICATIONS OF SHIFT REGISTERS: Serial-to-Parallel Converter
Elevator Control System: Elevator State Diagram, State Table, Input and Output Signals, Input Latches
Traffic Signal Control System: Switching of Traffic Lights, Inputs and Outputs, State Machine
Traffic Signal Control System: EQUATION DEFINITION
Memory Organization, Capacity, Density, Signals and Basic Operations, Read, Write, Address, data Signals
Memory Read, Write Cycle, Synchronous Burst SRAM, Dynamic RAM
Burst, Distributed Refresh, Types of DRAMs, ROM Read-Only Memory, Mask ROM
First In-First Out (FIFO) Memory
LAST IN-FIRST OUT (LIFO) MEMORY
THE LOGIC BLOCK: Analogue to Digital Conversion, Logic Element, Look-Up Table
SUCCESSIVE –APPROXIMATION ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERTER

E-Commerce
Table of Contents
E-COMMERCE
WHAT IS A NETWORK
HOW MANY CLASS A, B, C NETWORKS AND HOSTS ARE POSSIBLE
NETWORKING DEVICES
BASICS OF HTML 1
BASICS OF HTML 2
TEXT BOXES, CHECK BOXES, RADIO BUTTONS
FRAMES AND IMAGES IN HTML
TAG ATTRIBUTES, SOUNDS FILES, ANIMATIONS
STYLE SHEETS 1
STYLE SHEETS 2
SOME USEFUL STYLE SHEETS PROPERTIES
JAVA SCRIPTING 1
JAVA SCRIPTING 2
JAVA SCRIPTING 3
JAVA SCRIPTING AND XML
CLIENT AND SERVER SIDE PROCESSING OF DATA
APPLETS, CGI SCRIPTS
MAINTAINING STATE IN A STATELESS SYSTEM
INTEGRATION WITH ERP SYSTEMS
FIREWALLS
CRYPTOGRAPHY
HASH FUNCTION AND MESSAGE DIGEST
SYMMETRIC KEY ALGORITHMS
VIRTUAL PIN PAYMENT SYSTEM
E-CASH PAYMENT SYSTEM 1
E-CASH PAYMENT SYSTEM 2
SECURE SOCKET LAYER (SSL)
E-BUSINESS: DISADVANTAGES OF E-BUSINESS
E-BUSINESS REVENUE MODELS
E-MAIL MARKETING
CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM)
META INFORMATION
DATA MINING
CONFIDENCE AND SUPPORT
ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI)
PERSONAL FINANCE ONLINE
SUPPLY CHAIN
PORTER’S MODEL OF COMPETITIVE RIVALRY
BARRIERS TO INTERNATIONAL E-COMMERCE
ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS ORDINANCE, 2002 - 1
ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS ORDINANCE, 2002 - 2
ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS ORDINANCE, 2002 - 3
GLOBAL LEGAL ISSUES OF E-COMMERCE - 1
GLOBAL LEGAL ISSUES OF E-COMMERCE - 2

Human Computer Interaction
Table of Contents
RIDDLES FOR THE INFORMATION AGE, ROLE OF HCI
DEFINITION OF HCI, REASONS OF NON-BRIGHT ASPECTS, SOFTWARE APARTHEID
AN INDUSTRY IN DENIAL, SUCCESS CRITERIA IN THE NEW ECONOMY
GOALS & EVOLUTION OF HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION
DISCIPLINE OF HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION
COGNITIVE FRAMEWORKS: MODES OF COGNITION, HUMAN PROCESSOR MODEL, GOMS
HUMAN INPUT-OUTPUT CHANNELS, VISUAL PERCEPTION
COLOR THEORY, STEREOPSIS, READING, HEARING, TOUCH, MOVEMENT
COGNITIVE PROCESS: ATTENTION, MEMORY, REVISED MEMORY MODEL
COGNITIVE PROCESSES: LEARNING, READING, SPEAKING, LISTENING, PROBLEM SOLVING, PLANNING, REASONING, DECISION-MAKING
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ACTIONS: MENTAL MODEL, ERRORS
DESIGN PRINCIPLES:
THE COMPUTER: INPUT DEVICES, TEXT ENTRY DEVICES, POSITIONING, POINTING AND DRAWING
INTERACTION: THE TERMS OF INTERACTION, DONALD NORMAN’S MODEL
INTERACTION PARADIGMS: THE WIMP INTERFACES, INTERACTION PARADIGMS
HCI PROCESS AND MODELS
HCI PROCESS AND METHODOLOGIES: LIFECYCLE MODELS IN HCI
GOAL-DIRECTED DESIGN METHODOLOGIES: A PROCESS OVERVIEW, TYPES OF USERS
USER RESEARCH: TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH, ETHNOGRAPHIC INTERVIEWS
USER-CENTERED APPROACH, ETHNOGRAPHY FRAMEWORK
USER RESEARCH IN DEPTH
USER MODELING: PERSONAS, GOALS, CONSTRUCTING PERSONAS
REQUIREMENTS: NARRATIVE AS A DESIGN TOOL, ENVISIONING SOLUTIONS WITH PERSONA-BASED DESIGN
FRAMEWORK AND REFINEMENTS: DEFINING THE INTERACTION FRAMEWORK, PROTOTYPING
DESIGN SYNTHESIS: INTERACTION DESIGN PRINCIPLES, PATTERNS, IMPERATIVES
BEHAVIOR & FORM: SOFTWARE POSTURE, POSTURES FOR THE DESKTOP
POSTURES FOR THE WEB, WEB PORTALS, POSTURES FOR OTHER PLATFORMS, FLOW AND TRANSPARENCY, ORCHESTRATION
BEHAVIOR & FORM: ELIMINATING EXCISE, NAVIGATION AND INFLECTION
EVALUATION PARADIGMS AND TECHNIQUES
DECIDE: A FRAMEWORK TO GUIDE EVALUATION
EVALUATION
EVALUATION: SCENE FROM A MALL, WEB NAVIGATION
EVALUATION: TRY THE TRUNK TEST
EVALUATION – PART VI
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EVALUATION AND USABILITY
BEHAVIOR & FORM: UNDERSTANDING UNDO, TYPES AND VARIANTS, INCREMENTAL AND PROCEDURAL ACTIONS
UNIFIED DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT, CREATING A MILESTONE COPY OF THE DOCUMENT
DESIGNING LOOK AND FEEL, PRINCIPLES OF VISUAL INTERFACE DESIGN
PRINCIPLES OF VISUAL INFORMATION DESIGN, USE OF TEXT AND COLOR IN VISUAL INTERFACES
OBSERVING USER: WHAT AND WHEN HOW TO OBSERVE, DATA COLLECTION
ASKING USERS: INTERVIEWS, QUESTIONNAIRES, WALKTHROUGHS
COMMUNICATING USERS: ELIMINATING ERRORS, POSITIVE FEEDBACK, NOTIFYING AND CONFIRMING
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL: AUDIBLE FEEDBACK, OTHER COMMUNICATION WITH USERS, IMPROVING DATA RETRIEVAL
EMERGING PARADIGMS, ACCESSIBILITY
WEARABLE COMPUTING, TANGIBLE BITS, ATTENTIVE ENVIRONMENTS

Information Systems
Table of Contents
Need for information, Sources of Information: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Sources
Data vs. Information, Information Quality Checklist
Size of the Organization and Information Requirements
Hierarchical organization, Organizational Structure, Culture of the Organization
Elements of Environment: Legal, Economic, Social, Technological, Corporate social responsibility, Ethics
Manual Vs Computerised Information Systems, Emerging Digital Firms
Open-Loop System, Closed Loop System, Open Systems, Closed Systems, Level of Planning
Components of a system, Types of Systems, Attributes of an IS/CBIS
Infrastructure: Transaction Processing System, Management Information System
Support Systems: Office Automation Systems, Decision Support Systems, Types of DSS
Data Mart: Online Analytical Processing (OLAP), Types of Models Used in DSS
Organizational Information Systems, Marketing Information Systems, Key CRM Tasks
Manufacturing Information System, Inventory Sub System, Production Sub System, Quality Sub system
Accounting & Financial Information Systems, Human Resource Information Systems
Decision Making: Types of Problems, Type of Decisions
Phases of decision-making: Intelligence Phase, Design Phase, Choice Phase, Implementation Phase
Planning for System Development: Models Used for and Types of System Development Life-Cycle
Project lifecycle vs. SDLC, Costs of Proposed System, Classic lifecycle Model
Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD), Design of the information flow, data base, User Interface
Incremental Model: Evaluation, Incremental vs. Iterative
Spiral Model: Determine Objectives, Alternatives and Constraints, Prototyping
System Analysis: Systems Analyst, System Design, Designing user interface
System Analysis & Design Methods, Structured Analysis and Design, Flow Chart
Symbols used for flow charts: Good Practices, Data Flow Diagram
Rules for DFD’s: Entity Relationship Diagram
Symbols: Object-Orientation, Object Oriented Analysis
Object Oriented Analysis and Design: Object, Classes, Inheritance, Encapsulation, Polymorphism
Critical Success Factors (CSF): CSF vs. Key Performance Indicator, Centralized vs. Distributed Processing
Security of Information System: Security Issues, Objective, Scope, Policy, Program
Threat Identification: Types of Threats, Control Analysis, Impact analysis, Occurrence of threat
Control Adjustment: cost effective Security, Roles & Responsibility, Report Preparation
Physical vs. Logical access, Viruses, Sources of Transmissions, Technical controls
Antivirus software: Scanners, Active monitors, Behavior blockers, Logical intrusion, Best Password practices, Firewall
Types of Controls: Access Controls, Cryptography, Biometrics
Audit trails and logs: Audit trails and types of errors, IS audit, Parameters of IS audit
Risk Management: Phases, focal Point, System Characterization, Vulnerability Assessment
Control Analysis: Likelihood Determination, Impact Analysis, Risk Determination, Results Documentation
Risk Management: Business Continuity Planning, Components, Phases of BCP, Business Impact Analysis (BIA)
Web Security: Passive attacks, Active Attacks, Methods to avoid internet attacks
Internet Security Controls, Firewall Security SystemsIntrusion Detection Systems, Components of IDS, Digital Certificates
Commerce vs. E-Business, Business to Consumer (B2C), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), E-Government
Supply Chain Management: Integrating systems, Methods, Using SCM Software
Using ERP Software, Evolution of ERP, Business Objectives and IT
ERP & E-commerce, ERP & CRM, ERP– Ownership and sponsor ship
Ethics in IS: Threats to Privacy, Electronic Surveillance, Data Profiling, TRIPS, Workplace Monitoring

Introduction to Computing
INTRODUCTION
EVOLUTION OF COMPUTING
World Wide Web, Web’s structure, genesis, its evolution
Types of Computers, Components, Parts of Computers
List of Parts of Computers
Develop your Personal Web Page: HTML
Microprocessor, Bus interface unit, Data & instruction cache memory, ALU
Number systems, binary numbers, NOT, AND, OR and XOR logic operations
structure of HTML tags, types of lists in web development
COMPUTER SOFTWARE: Operating Systems, Device Drivers, Trialware
Operating System: functions, components, types of operating systems
Forms on Web pages, Components of Forms, building interactive Forms
APPLICATION SOFTWARE: Scientific, engineering, graphics, Business, Productivity, Entertainment, Educational Software
WORD PROCESSING: Common functions of word processors, desktop publishing
Interactivity to Forms, JavaScript, server-side scripts
ALGORITHMS
ALGORITHMS: Pseudo code, Flowcharts
JavaScript and client-side scripting, objects in JavaScript
Low, High-Level, interpreted, compiled, structured & object-oriented programming languages
Software Design and Development Methodologies
DATA TYPES & OPERATORS
SPREADSHEETS
FLOW CONTROL & LOOPS
DESIGN HEURISTICS. Rule of thumb learned through trial & error
WEB DESIGN FOR USABILITY
ARRAYS
COMPUTER NETWORKS: types of networks, networking topologies and protocols
THE INTERNET
Variables: Local and Global Variables
Internet Services: FTP, Telnet, Web, eMail, Instant messaging, VoIP
DEVELOPING PRESENTATIONS: Effective Multimedia Presentations
Event Handlers
GRAPHICS & ANIMATION
INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS: techniques for designing Artificial Intelligent Systems
Mathematical Functions in JavaScript
DATA MANAGEMENT
DATABASE SOFTWARE: Data Security, Data Integrity, Integrity, Accessibility, DBMS
String Manipulations:
CYBER CRIME
Social Implications of Computing
IMAGES & ANIMATION
THE COMPUTING PROFESSION
THE FUTURE OF COMPUTING
PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY
REVIEW & WRAP-UP of Introduction to Computing

Introduction to Programming
What is programming
System Software, Application Software, C language
C language: Variables, Data Types, Arithmetic Operators, Precedence of Operators
C++: Examples of Expressions, Use of Operators
Flow Charting, if/else structure, Logical Operators
Repetition Structure (Loop), Overflow Condition, Infinite Loop, Properties of While loop, Flow Chart
Do-While Statement, for Statement, Increment/decrement Operators
Switch Statement, Break Statement, Continue Statement, Rules for structured Programming/Flow Charting
Functions in C: Structure of a Function, Declaration and Definition of a Function
Header Files, Scope of Identifiers, Functions, Call by Value, Call by Reference
Arrays: Initialization of Arrays, Copying Arrays, Linear Search
Character Arrays: Arrays Comparisonm, Sorting Arrays Searching arrays, Functions arrays, Multidimensional Arrays
Array Manipulation, Real World Problem and Design Recipe
Pointers: Declaration of Pointers, Bubble Sort Example, Pointers and Call By Reference
Introduction, Relationship between Pointers and Arrays, Pointer Expressions and Arithmetic, Pointers Comparison, Pointer, String and Arrays
Multi-dimensional Arrays, Pointers to Pointers, Command-line Arguments
String Handling, String Manipulation Functions, Character Handling Functions, String Conversion Functions
Files: Text File Handling, Output File Handling
Sequential Access Files, Random Access Files, Setting the Position in a File, seekg() and tellg() Functions
Structures, Declaration of a Structure, Initializing Structures, Functions and structures, Arrays of structures, sizeof operator
Bit Manipulation Operators, AND Operator, OR Operator, Exclusive OR Operator, NOT Operator Bit Flags Masking Unsigned Integers
Bitwise Manipulation and Assignment Operator, Programming Constructs
Pre-processor, include directive, define directive, Other Preprocessor Directives, Macros
Dynamic Memory Allocation, calloc, malloc, realloc Function, Dangling Pointers
History of C/C++, Structured Programming, Default Function Arguments
Classes and Objects, Structure of a class, Constructor
Classes And Objects, Types of Constructors, Utility Functions, Destructors
Memory Allocation in C++, Operator and Classes, Structures, Function in C++,
Declaration of Friend Functions, Friend Classes
Difference Between References and Pointers, Dangling References
Operator Overloading, Non-member Operator Functions
Overloading Minus Operator, Operators with Date Class, Unary Operators
Assignment Operator, Self Assignmentm, Pointer, Conversions
Dynamic Arrays of Objects, Overloading new and delete Operators
Source and Destination of streams, Formatted Input and Output, Buffered Input/Output
Stream Manipulations, Manipulators, Non Parameterized Manipulators, Formatting Manipulation
Overloading Insertion and Extraction Operators
User Defined Manipulator, Static keyword, Static Objects
Pointers, References, Call by Value, Call by Reference, Dynamic Memory Allocation
Advantages of Objects as Class Members, Structures as Class Members
Overloading Template Functions, Template Functions and Objects
Class Templates and Nontype Parameters, Templates and Static Members
Matrices, Design Recipe, Problem Analysis, Design Issues and Class Interface
Matrix Constructor, Matrix Class, Utility Functions of Matrix, Input, Transpose Function
Operator Functions: Assignment, Addition, Plus-equal, Overloaded Plus, Minus, Multiplication, Insertion and Extraction

Software Engineering - II
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION
The Software Engineering Discipline
Guiding Principles
Overview of Software Engineering Education Knowledge
Guidelines for SE Curriculum Design and Delivery
Courses and Course Sequences
Adaptation to Alternative Environments
Program Implementation and Assessment
Bibliography for Software Engineering Education
Detailed Descriptions of Proposed Courses
Contributors, Reviewers and Index

Software Project Management
Introduction & Fundamentals
Goals of Project management
Project Dimensions, Software Development Lifecycle
Cost Management, Project vs. Program Management, Project Success
Project Management’s nine Knowledge Areas
Team leader, Project Organization, Organizational structure
Project Execution Fundamentals Tracking
Organizational Issues and Project Management
Managing Processes: Project Plan, Managing Quality, Project Execution, Project Initiation
Project Execution: Product Implementation, Project Closedown
Problems in Software Projects, Process- related Problems
Product-related Problems, Technology-related problems
Requirements Management, Requirements analysis
Requirements Elicitation for Software
The Software Requirements Specification
Attributes of Software Design, Key Features of Design
Software Configuration Management Vs Software Maintenance
Quality Assurance Management, Quality Factors
Software Quality Assurance Activities
Software Process, PM Process Groups, Links, PM Phase interactions
Initiating Process: Inputs, Outputs, Tools and Techniques
Planning Process Tasks, Executing Process Tasks, Controlling Process Tasks
Project Planning Objectives, Primary Planning Steps
Tools and Techniques for SDP, Outputs from SDP, SDP Execution
PLANNING: Elements of SDP
Life cycle Models: Spiral Model, Statement of Requirement, Data Item Descriptions
Organizational Systems
ORGANIZATIONAL PLANNING, Organizational Management Tools
Estimation - Concepts
Decomposition Techniques, Estimation – Tools
Estimation – Tools
Work Breakdown Structure
WBS- A Mandatory Management Tool
Characteristics of a High-Quality WBS
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
WBS- Major Steps, WBS Implementation, high level WBS tasks
Schedule: Scheduling Fundamentals
Scheduling Tools: GANTT CHARTS, PERT, CPM
Risk and Change Management: Risk Management Concepts
Risk & Change Management Concepts
Risk Management Process
Quality Concept, Producing quality software, Quality Control
Managing Tasks in Microsoft Project 2000
Commissioning & Migration

Theory of Automata
Table of Contents
What does automata mean, Introduction to languages
Kleene Star Closure, Recursive definition of languages
Regular Expression, Recursive definition of Regular Expression
Equivalent Regular Expressions
Finite Automaton
Equivalent FAs
FA corresponding to finite languages
Examples of TGs: accepting all strings
Generalized Transition Graphs
Nondeterminism, Kleene’s Theorem
Proof(Kleene’s Theorem Part II)
Kleene’s Theorem Part III
Concatenation of FAs
Closure of an FA
Nondeterministic Finite Automaton, Converting an FA to an equivalent NFA
NFA with Null String
NFA and Kleene’s Theorem
NFA corresponding to Concatenation of FAs
Distinguishable strings and Indistinguishable strings
Finite Automaton with output, Moore machine
Mealy machine
Equivalent machines
Mealy machines in terms of sequential circuit
Regular languages, Complement of a language
Nonregular languages
Pumping Lemma
Pumping Lemma version II
Pseudo theorem
Decidability
finiteness of a language
Context Free Grammar (CFG), CFG terminologies
Trees
Polish Notation (o-o-o)
Total language tree, Regular Grammar
Null Production
Chomsky Normal Form (CNF)
A new format for FAs
Nondeterministic PDA
PDA corresponding to CFG
Conversion form of PDA
Conversion Form, Joints of the machine
Row language, Nonterminals
Non-Context-Free language, Pumping lemma for CFLs
Decidablity, Parsing Techniques
Turing machine

Web Design and Development
JAVA FEATURES
Java Virtual Machine & Runtime Environment
Learning Basics of JAVA
JAVA: Object Oriented Programming
JAVA: Inheritance
JAVA: Collections
JAVA: Intro to Exceptions
JAVA: Streams
JAVA: Modification of Address Book Code
JAVA: Graphical User Interfaces
JAVA: Event Handling
JAVA: More Examples of Handling Events
JAVA: Problem in Last Code Example
Java Database Connectivity
JAVA: More on JDBC
JAVA: Result Set
JAVA: Meta Data
Java Graphics
JAVA: How to Animate
JAVA Applets
JAVA: Socket Programming
JAVA: Serialization
JAVA: Multithreading 1
JAVA: Multithreading 2
JAVA Web Application Development
Java Servlets
JAVA: Creating a Simple Web Application in Tomcat
JAVA: Servlets Lifecycle
JAVA: More on Servlets
JAVA: Dispatching Requests
JAVA: Session Tracking 1
JAVA: Session Tracking 2
JAVA: AddressBook Case Study Using Sevlets
Java Server Pages 1
JavaServer Pages 2
Java Server Pages 3
JAVA: JSP Action Elements and Scope
JAVA: JSP Custom Tags
JAVA: MVC + Case Study
JAVA: MVC Model 2 Architecture
JAVA: Layers and Tiers
JAVA: Expression Language
JAVA: JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL)
JAVA: Client Side Validation & JavaServer Faces (JSF)
JAVA: JavaServer Faces

Advanced Financial Accounting
ACCOUNTING FOR INCOMPLETE RECORDS
PRACTICING ACCOUNTING FOR INCOMPLETE RECORDS
CONVERSION OF SINGLE ENTRY IN DOUBLE ENTRY ACCOUNTING SYSTEM
SINGLE ENTRY CALCULATION OF MISSING INFORMATION
SINGLE ENTRY CALCULATION OF MARKUP AND MARGIN
ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS FROM INCOMPLETE RECORDS
DEPARTMENTAL ACCOUNTS 1
DEPARTMENTAL ACCOUNTS 2
BRANCH ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS
BRANCH ACCOUNTING
BRANCH ACCOUNTING - STOCK AND DEBTOR SYSTEM
STOCK AND DEBTORS SYSTEM
INDEPENDENT BRANCH
BRANCH ACCOUNTING 1
BRANCH ACCOUNTING 2
ESSENTIALS OF PARTNERSHIP
Partnership Accounts Changes in partnership firm
COMPANY ACCOUNTS 1
COMPANY ACCOUNTS 2
Problems Solving
COMPANY ACCOUNTS
RETURNS ON FINANCIAL SOURCES
IASB’S FRAMEWORK
ELEMENTS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
EVENTS AFTER THE BALANCE SHEET DATE
PROVISIONS, CONTINGENT LIABILITIES AND CONTINGENT ASSETS
ACCOUNTING POLICIES, CHANGES IN ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES AND ERRORS 1
ACCOUNTING POLICIES, CHANGES IN ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES AND ERRORS 2
BORROWING COST
EXCESS OF THE CARRYING AMOUNT OF THE QUALIFYING ASSET OVER RECOVERABLE AMOUNT
EARNINGS PER SHARE
Earnings per Share
DILUTED EARNINGS PER SHARE
GROUP ACCOUNTS
Pre-acquisition Reserves
GROUP ACCOUNTS: Minority Interest
GROUP ACCOUNTS: Inter Company Trading (P to S)
GROUP ACCOUNTS: Fair Value Adjustments
GROUP ACCOUNTS: Pre-acquistion Profits, Dividends
GROUP ACCOUNTS: Profit & Loss
GROUP ACCOUNTS: Minority Interest, Inter Co.
GROUP ACCOUNTS: Inter Co. Trading (when there is unrealized profit)
Comprehensive Workings in Group Accounts Consolidated Balance Sheet

Corporate Finance
INTRODUCTION TO SUBJECT
COMPARISON OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
TIME VALUE OF MONEY
Discounted Cash Flow, Effective Annual Interest Bond Valuation - introduction
Features of Bond, Coupon Interest, Face value, Coupon rate, Duration or maturity date
TERM STRUCTURE OF INTEREST RATES
COMMON STOCK VALUATION
Capital Budgeting Definition and Process
METHODS OF PROJECT EVALUATIONS, Net present value, Weighted Average Cost of Capital
METHODS OF PROJECT EVALUATIONS 2
METHODS OF PROJECT EVALUATIONS 3
ADVANCE EVALUATION METHODS: Sensitivity analysis, Profitability analysis, Break even accounting, Break even - economic
Economic Break Even, Operating Leverage, Capital Rationing, Hard & Soft Rationing, Single & Multi Period Rationing
Single period, Multi-period capital rationing, Linear programming
Risk and Uncertainty, Measuring risk, Variability of return–Historical Return, Variance of return, Standard Deviation
Portfolio and Diversification, Portfolio and Variance, Risk–Systematic & Unsystematic, Beta – Measure of systematic risk, Aggressive & defensive stocks
Security Market Line, Capital Asset Pricing Model – CAPM Calculating Over, Under valued stocks
Cost of Capital & Capital Structure, Components of Capital, Cost of Equity, Estimating g or growth rate, Dividend growth model, Cost of Debt, Bonds, Cost of Preferred Stocks
Venture Capital, Cost of Debt & Bond, Weighted average cost of debt, Tax and cost of debt, Cost of Loans & Leases, Overall cost of capital – WACC, WACC & Capital Budgeting
When to use WACC, Pure Play, Capital Structure and Financial Leverage
Home made leverage, Modigliani & Miller Model, How WACC remains constant, Business & Financial Risk, M & M model with taxes
Problems associated with high gearing, Bankruptcy costs, Optimal capital structure, Dividend policy
Dividend and value of firm, Dividend relevance, Residual dividend policy, Financial planning process and control
Budgeting process, Purpose, functions of budgets, Cash budgets–Preparation & interpretation
Cash flow statement Direct method Indirect method, Working capital management, Cash and operating cycle
Working capital management, Risk, Profitability and Liquidity - Working capital policies, Conservative, Aggressive, Moderate
Classification of working capital, Current Assets Financing – Hedging approach, Short term Vs long term financing
Overtrading – Indications & remedies, Cash management, Motives for Cash holding, Cash flow problems and remedies, Investing surplus cash
Miller-Orr Model of cash management, Inventory management, Inventory costs, Economic order quantity, Reorder level, Discounts and EOQ
Inventory cost – Stock out cost, Economic Order Point, Just in time (JIT), Debtors Management, Credit Control Policy
Cash discounts, Cost of discount, Shortening average collection period, Credit instrument, Analyzing credit policy, Revenue effect, Cost effect, Cost of debt o Probability of default
Effects of discounts–Not effecting volume, Extension of credit, Factoring, Management of creditors, Mergers & Acquisitions
Synergies, Types of mergers, Why mergers fail, Merger process, Acquisition consideration
Acquisition Consideration, Valuation of shares
Assets Based Share Valuations, Hybrid Valuation methods, Procedure for public, private takeover
Corporate Restructuring, Divestment, Purpose of divestment, Buyouts, Types of buyouts, Financial distress
Sources of financial distress, Effects of financial distress, Reorganization
Currency Risks, Transaction exposure, Translation exposure, Economic exposure
Future payment situation – hedging, Currency futures – features, CF – future payment in FCY
CF–future receipt in FCY, Forward contract vs. currency futures, Interest rate risk, Hedging against interest rate, Forward rate agreements, Decision rule
Interest rate future, Prices in futures, Hedging–short term interest rate (STIR), Scenario–Borrowing in ST and risk of rising interest, Scenario–deposit and risk of lowering interest rates on deposits, Options and Swaps, Features of opti
FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET’S OPTIONS
Calculating financial benefit–Interest rate Option, Interest rate caps and floor, Swaps, Interest rate swaps, Currency swaps
Exchange rate determination, Purchasing power parity theory, PPP model, International fisher effect, Exchange rate system, Fixed, Floating
FOREIGN INVESTMENT: Motives, International operations, Export, Branch, Subsidiary, Joint venture, Licensing agreements, Political risk

Financial Accounting
Introduction to Financial Accounting
Basic Concepts of Business: capital, profit, budget
Cash Accounting and Accrual Accounting
Business entity, Single and double entry book-keeping, Debit and Credit
Rules of Debit and Credit for Assets, Liabilities, Income and Expenses
flow of transactions, books of accounts, General Ledger balance
Cash book and bank book, Accounting Period, Trial Balance and its limitations
Profit & Loss account from trial balance, Receipt & Payment, Income & Expenditure and Profit & Loss account
Assets and Liabilities, Balance Sheet from trial balance
Sample Transactions of a Company
Sample Accounts of a Company
THE ACCOUNTING EQUATION
types of vouchers, Carrying forward the balance of an account
ILLUSTRATIONS: Ccarrying Forward of Balances
Opening Stock, Closing Stock
COST OF GOODS SOLD STATEMENT
DEPRECIATION
GROUPINGS OF FIXED ASSETS
CAPITAL WORK IN PROGRESS 1
CAPITAL WORK IN PROGRESS 2
REVALUATION OF FIXED ASSETS
Banking transactions, Bank reconciliation statements
RECAP
Accounting Examples with Solutions
RECORDING OF PROVISION FOR BAD DEBTS
SUBSIDIARY BOOKS
A PERSON IS BOTH DEBTOR AND CREDITOR
RECTIFICATION OF ERROR
STANDARD FORMAT OF PROFIT & LOSS ACCOUNT
STANDARD FORMAT OF BALANCE SHEET
DIFFERENT BUSINESS ENTITIES: Commercial, Non-commercial organizations
SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP
Financial Statements Of Manufacturing Concern
Financial Statements of Partnership firms
INTEREST ON CAPITAL AND DRAWINGS
DISADVANTAGES OF A PARTNERSHIP FIRM
SHARE CAPITAL
STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY
Financial Statements of Limited Companies
Financial Statements of Limited Companies
CASH FLOW STATEMENT 1
CASH FLOW STATEMENT 2
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF LISTED, QUOTED COMPANIES
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF LISTED COMPANIES
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF LISTED COMPANIES

Financial Statement Analysis
ACCOUNTING & ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES
Dual Aspect of Transactions
Rules of Debit and Credit
Steps in Accounting Cycle
Preparing Balance Sheet from Trial Balance
Business transactions
Adjusting Entry to record Expenses on Fixed Assets
Preparing Financial Statements
Closing entries in Accounting Cycle
Income Statement
Balance Sheet
Cash Flow Statement
Preparing Cash Flows
Additional Information (AI)
Cash flow from Operating Activities
Operating Activities’ portion of cash flow statement
Cash flow from financing Activities
Notes to Financial Statements
Charging Costs of Inventory to Income Statement
First-in-First - out (FIFO), Last-in-First-Out (LIFO)
Depreciation Accounting Policies
Accelerated-Depreciation method
Auditor’s Report, Opinion, Certificate
Management Discussion & Analyses (MD&A)
TYPES OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
Incorporation of business
Authorized Share Capital, Issued Share Capital
Book Values of equity, share
SUMMARY
SUMMARY
Analysis of income statement and balance sheet:
COMMON –SIZE AND INDEX ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS BY RATIOS
ACTIVITY RATIOS
Liquidity of Receivables
LEVERAGE, DEBT RATIOS
PROFITABILITY RATIOS
Analysis by Preferred Stockholders
Efficiency of operating cycle, process
STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY SECTION OF THE BALANCE SHEET 1
STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY SECTION OF THE BALANCE SHEET 2
BALANCE SHEET AND INCOME STATEMENT RATIOS
Financial Consultation Case Study
ANALYSIS OF BALANCE SHEET & INCOME STATEMENT
SUMMARY OF FINDGINS

Fundamentals of Auditing
AN INTRODUCTION
AUDITORS’ REPORT
Advantages and Disadvantages of Auditing
OBJECTIVE AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES GOVERNING AN AUDIT OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
What is Reasonable Assurance
LEGAL CONSIDERATION REGARDING AUDITING
Appointment, Duties, Rights and Liabilities of Auditor
LIABILITIES OF AN AUDITOR
BOOKS OF ACCOUNT & FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Contents of Balance Sheet
ENTITY AND ITS ENVIRONMENT AND ASSESSING THE RISKS OF MATERIAL MISSTATEMENT
Business Operations
Risk Assessment Procedures & Sources of Information
Measurement and Review of the Entity’s Financial Performance
Definition & Components of Internal Control
Auditing ASSIGNMENT
Benefits of Internal Control to the entity
Flow Charts and Internal Control Questionnaires
Construction of an ICQ
Audit evidence through Audit Procedures
SUBSTANTIVE PROCEDURES
Concept of Audit Evidence
SUFFICIENT APPROPRIATE AUDIT EVIDENCE AND TESTING THE SALES SYSTEM
Control Procedures over Sales and Debtors
Control Procedures over Purchases and Payables
TESTING THE PURCHASES SYSTEM
TESTING THE PAYROLL SYSTEM
TESTING THE CASH SYSTEM
Controls over Banking of Receipts
Control Procedures over Inventory
TESTING THE NON-CURRENT ASSETS
VERIFICATION APPROACH OF AUDIT
VERIFICATION OF ASSETS
LETTER OF REPRESENTATION VERIFICATION OF LIABILITIES
VERIFICATION OF EQUITY
VERIFICATION OF BANK BALANCES
VERIFICATION OF STOCK-IN-TRADE AND STORE & SPARES
AUDIT SAMPLING
STATISTICAL SAMPLING
CONSIDERING THE WORK OF INTERNAL AUDITING
AUDIT PLANNING
PLANNING AN AUDIT OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Audits of Small Entities
AUDITOR’S REPORT ON A COMPLETE SET OF GENERAL PURPOSE FINANCIALSTATEMENTS
MODIFIED AUDITOR’S REPORT

Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management
INTRODUCTION OF INVESTMENT
THE ROLE OF THE CAPITAL MARKETS
THE NASDAQ STOCK MARKET
Blue Chip Stocks, Income Stock, Cyclical Stocks, Defensive Stocks
MARKET MECHANICS
FUNDAMENTAL STOCK ANALYSIS
BEYOND FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS
What is Technical Analysis
Indicators with Economic Justification
Dow Theory
VALUATION PHILOSOPHIES
Ratio Analysis
INVESTMENT RATIOS
Bottom-Up, Top-Down Approach to Fundamental Analysis
The Industry Life Cycle
COMPANY ANALYSIS
Analyzing a Company’s Profitability
Objective of Financial Statements
RESEARCH PHILOSPHY
What Is An Investment Company
Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs)
COMMON STOCK: ANALYSIS AND STRATEGY
THE EFFICIENT MARKET HYPOTHESIS (EMH)
Behavioral Finance
MARKET INDEXES
POPULAR INDEXES
BOND PRINCIPLES
BOND PRICING AND RETURNS
Accrued Interest
BOND RISKS
UNDERSTANDING RISK AND RETURN
TYPES & SOURCES OF RISK
Measuring Risk
ANALYZING PORTFOLIO RISK
Building a Portfolio Using Markowitz Principles
Capital Market Theory: Assumptions, The Separation Theorem
Risk-Free Asset, Estimating the SML
Formulate an Appropriate Investment Policy
EVALUATION OF INVESTMENT PERFORMANCE
THE ROLE OF DERIVATIVE ASSETS
THE FUTURES MARKET
Using Futures Contracts: Hedgers
Financial Futures: Short Hedges, Long Hedges
Risk Management, Risk Transfer, Financial Leverage
OVERVIEW

Taxation Managment
AN OVERVIEW OF TAXATION
What is Fiscal Policy, Canons of Taxation
Type of Taxes, Taxation Management
BASIC FEATURES OF INCOME TAX
STATUTORY DEFINITIONS
IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS
DETERMINATION OF LEGAL STATUS OF A PERSON
HEADS OF INCOME
Rules to Prevent Double Derivation of Income and Double Deductions
Agricultural Income
Computation of Income, partly Agricultural,
Foreign Government Officials
Exemptions and Tax Concessions
RESIDENTIAL STATUS & TAXATION 1
RESIDENTIAL STATUS & TAXATION 2
Important Points Regarding Income
Geographical Source of Income
Taxation of Foreign-Source Income of Residents
Exercises on Determination of Income 1
Exercises on Determination of Income 2
SALARY AND ITS COMPUTATION
Definition of Salary
Significant points regarding Salary
Tax credits on Charitable Donations
Investment in Shares
SALARY AND ITS COMPUTATION EXERCISES 1
SALARY AND ITS COMPUTATION EXERCISES 2
SALARY AND ITS COMPUTATION EXERCISES 3
Tax treatment of Gratuity
Gratuity Exercise
PROVIDENT FUND
Exemptions on Business income, Treatment of Speculation Business
Deductions Allowed & Not Allowed
Deductions: Special Provisions, Depreciation
Methods of Accounting
Taxation of Resident Company
Taxation of Companies: Exercises
Computation of Capital Gain
Disposals Not Chargeable To Tax
TAX RETURNS & ASSESSMENT OF INCOME UNIVERSAL SELF ASSESSMENT SCHEME
Normal Assessment, USAS, Provisional Assessment, Best Judgment Assessment
ADVANCE TAX COLLECTION & RECOVERY OF TAX PENALTIES & PROSECUTION
What is Value Added Tax (VAT)?
SALES TAX
SALES TAX RETURNS

Change Management
Introduction to Change Management
BENEFITS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT
KURT LEWIN MODEL: ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
IMPLICATIONS OF KURT LEWIN MODEL
SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS
TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
Life cycle theory
Teleological theories of Change
Dialectical theories of change
A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY AND PLANNING
LIMITATION OF DIALECTICS; DA AND DI
THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY
FURTHER APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY T
GREINER’S MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL– EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION
GROWTH RATE OF THE INDUSTRY
COORDINATION
ORGANISATION ECOLOGY
CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIES
FOOTNOTES TO ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE
SOME COMPLEXITIES OF CHANGE
ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION
PROSPECTORS
SKELETAL MODEL OF ADAPTATIONq
STRATEGIC CHANGE
Management Styles and Roles
SYMBOLIC PROCESSES
COMMUNICATING CHANGE

Human Resource Development
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and its Dimensions, Targets of Development
FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR:Attitudes, Personality, Emotional Intelligence
PERCEPTION:Attribution Theory, Shortcuts Frequently Used in Judging Others
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:Why Choose Big Five Framework?, THE OUTCOME OF FIVE FACTOR MODEL
FIVE FACTOR MODEL:The Basis of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior, Intrinsic Motivation and Values
MOTIVATION:EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION, Designing Motivating Jobs
The Motivation Process:HOW TO MOTIVATE A DIVERSE WORKFORCE?,
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION:PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
THE WORLD BEYOND WORDS:DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, MINDFUL LISTENING
TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:EGO STATES, Parent Ego State, Child Ego State
TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS:Complementary Transactions, Crossed Transactions, Ulterior Transactions
NEURO-LINGUISTIC-PROGRAMMING
CREATE YOUR OWN BLUEPRINT
LEADERSHIP:ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOCRACY
LEADERSHIP:Environment and Strategic Leadership Link, Concluding Remarks
UNDERSTANDING GROUP BEHAVIOR:Stages of Group Development, Advantages of Group Decision Making
UNDERSTANDING TEAM BEHAVIOR:TYPES OF TEAMS, Characteristics of Effective Teams,
EMOTIONAL FACET:PHYSICAL FACET
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & THE ROLE OF GOVERNACE:Rule of Law, Transparency,
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and Its Dimensions, Targets of Development
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI):Methodology,
REPORTS:Criticisms of Freedom House Methodology, GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS
SECTORS OF A SOCIETY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS:PUBLIC SECTOR, PRIVATE SECTOR
NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS):Types, Methods, Management, Citizen organization
HEALTH SECTOR:Health Impact of the Lebanon Crisis, Main Challenges,
A STUDY ON QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
ADULT EDUCATION:Lifelong learning
THE PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADULT EDUCATION:Problems of Adult Literacy, Strategies for Educating Adults for the Future
TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:VET Internationally, Technical Schools
ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL FORMATION AND PERFORMANCE OF A UNIVERSITY
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION:Social responsibility, Curriculum content
ENVIRONMENT:Dark Greens and Light Greens, Environmental policy instruments
HDI AND GENDER SENSITIVITY:Gender Empowerment Measure
THE PLIGHT OF INDIAN WOMEN:
ENTREPRENEURSHIP:Characteristics of entrepreneurship, Advantages of Entrepreneurship
A REVISIT OF MODULE I & II
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & ECONOMIC GROWTH (1975 TO 2003):
PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP:Origins, The Desired Outcomes of PPPs
PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP):Situation in Pakistan,
DEVOLUTION REFORMS – A NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT:
GOOD GOVERNANCE:Participation, Rule of law, Accountability
MACROECONOMIC PROFILE OF A COUNTRY: EXAMPLE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN
COORDINATION IN GOVERNANCE: AN EXAMPLE OF EU, The OMC in Social Inclusion
MOBILIZING REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: THE ASEAN UNIVERSITY NETWORK, A CASE STUDY
GOVERNMENT PRIORITIES AND POLICIES:Role of Government, Socio Cultural Factors in Implementing HRD Programs

Conflict Managment
INTRODUCTION TO CONFLICT:Dispute, Legal Dispute, Call the police
DISPUTE RESOLUTION 1:Positive affect in Negotiation, Alternative Dispute Resolution
DISPUTE RESOLUTION II:Adjudication, Litigation, Mediation-Arbitration
PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT I:Pedagogical development, Pressures against Innovation
PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT II:Cultural beliefs about interpersonal conflict, Why strategies of change fail
CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS:Who Needs to Know About Conflict Diagnosis?, Steps in Conflict Diagnosis
RECURRENT THEMES IN CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS I:The Seven Steps of Social Behavior, Seven steps to diagnose conflict
RECURRENT THEMES IN CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS II:Themes of Conflict Diagnosis
DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT I:Description of Conflict, Identifying Interpersonal Conflict
DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT II:Step 1 for Conflict Diagnosis, interpersonal or intrapersonal
SOURCES AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT I:Main Sources of Conflict, Discussing major sources of conflict
SOURCES AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT II
INTEREST ANALYSIS I:Analyzing your interests, Analyzing the other disputant’s interests
INTEREST ANALYSIS II:What are interests?, Tips for Interest Trees
INTEREST ANALYSIS II:Principles and values, Basic Human Needs
ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT I, Premises of Deutsch’s Theory
ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT II:Techniques to transform competitive conflict into cooperative
TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE I:What is Mistrust,Trust and business,Three levels of trust
TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE II:Advantages of high trust level, Building of trust
ASSESSING IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT I:Motivation to seek vengeance, Mistrust
ASSESSING THE IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVING THE CONFLICT II:Disempowered Disputant, Unpleasant Disputant
ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE I:Dual Concern Model, Dominating or competition style
ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE:Dual Concern Model, Tactics Used In Integrating
ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS:Conflict and Power, Kinds of power in the Relationship Domain
ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS II:Sources of Relationship Power, Context and Power
POWER, CONFLICT, AND BATNA III:Role of Third Party in BATNA, Dealing with Power Imbalance
STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT I:Stereotyping, Stereotyping in Interpersonal Conflict
STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT:Categories of Diversity Issues, Seven Mental Processes to Prove Stereotypes
STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY AND CONFLICT III:Individual Difference and Social Category, Cultural differences in values
MEDIATION I:When is mediation required, Processes Related to Mediation, Product of Mediation
MEDIATION II:Important distinguishing factors, More Advantages and Disadvantages of Pure Mediation
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION I:Efficiency Consideration, Conflict Management and Prevention
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION II:Quality of Consent, Effects on the parties to mediation
PROCESS OF MEDIATION:Stages of Mediation, Facilitative tactics in mediation
LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION I:Characteristics of mediation, Confidentiality
LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION II:Role of ethics in mediation, 8 Dimensions of Ethics in Mediation
ARBITRATION I:Ways to Resolve Conflict, Advantages of Arbitration, Disadvantages of Arbitration
ARBITRATION II:Varieties of Arbitration, Process of Arbitration, Contents of Arbitration Act
NON BINDING EVALUATION:Disadvantage, Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation
NON BINDING EVALUATION II:Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation, Advantages and disadvantages of Non-binding Evaluation
MIXED AND MULTIMODAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION:Six System Design Principles, Extensions of Dispute Systems Design
POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS I:Introduction, Necessity of conflict diagnosis, Using conflict diagnosis
POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS II:Proposed Contents of a Clients’ Interview, Impediments to use facilitative mediation
PANCHAYAT, LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM, AND ADR, Definitions of Panchayat, Definition of Jirga
SUMMARY AND MESSAGE OF THE COURSE:Definitions of conflict, Negotiation, Meditation, Adjudication

Human Relations
HUMAN RELATIONS:Some Guidelines for Effective Human Relations, Communication has 3meanings
CULTURE AND PERSONALITY:Definition of sub culture, Definition of Personality, Types of Persons
PERSONALITY AND STRESS:Personality, PERSONAL TOOLS TO CONTROL STRESS
PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR:Three concepts of personality, Bias in Perception
PERCEPTION AND GROUP BEHAVIOR:Characteristics of Groups, Individual and Group Behavior
ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR:Types of Attitudes, Steps to turn attitude into action
PERSONAL MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT:Needs and Motivation, Self-discipline and motivation
SOLVING PROBLEMS SKILLFULLY:Problem solving and cognition, Ways to solve problems
CREATIVITY IN PROBLEM SOLVING:Barriers to creativity, Tips to solve problems creatively
HANDLING PERSONAL ISSUES:Self-Defeating Behaviour, Positive attitude to tackle personal problems
CONFLICT RESOLUTION:WHY SO MUCH CONFLICT EXISTS, TECHNIQUES FOR RESOLVING CONFLICTS
COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS:Process of communication, Improving gender barriers to communication
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION:To improve listening skills, Types of organizational communication
UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION STYLES:Modeling communication style, Sociability continuum
SELF-ESTEEM:Building process of self-esteem, Self-esteem and public image
BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE:The importance of self-confidence and self-efficacy, Balanced Self-Confidence:
BECOMING A LEADER-1:Assessing leadership role, Traits and Characteristics of Effective Leaders
BECOMING A LEADER-II:Theories of leadership, Developing leadership potential
GLOBALIZATION AND CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES:Religious Values and Bicultural Identities
IMPROVING CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE:Strategies to improve cross-cultural relations, More steps to improve Cultural Relations
BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH MANAGERS:Impressing your manager, Coping with a problem manager
BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CO-WORKERS:Make Co-workers feel important, Maintain Honest and Open Relationships
BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CUSTOMERS:Salesperson Represents the Business, Approaching the Customer, Excuses vs. Objections
CHOOSING A CAREER-1:Ten Myths about Choosing a Career, Attitude toward and Perceptions about Myself
CHOOSING A CAREER-II:Choosing a career and developing a portfolio Career, Suggestions for career Preparation
FINDING A JOB:Targeting your job search, The Internet and Résumé Database Services, Extreme Job Hunting
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESUME:Major types of resumes, Electronic Submission of the Résumé
IMPROVING INTERVIEW SKILLS:Successful interview, Knowing the employer or Organization
IMPROVING WORK HABITS-1:Reasons of procrastination, Techniques for Reducing Procrastination
IMPROVING WORK HABITS-2:Developing the proper attitudes and values, Time-management techniques
NEW MODEL OF CAREER ADVANCEMENT:Career portability, HUMAN RELATIONS SELF-ASSESSMENT
TAKING CONTROL OF YOURSELF:Develop Outstanding Interpersonal Skills, Business etiquettes
EXERTING CONTROL ON OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT:Important communication tip, Exerting control over the outside world
MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-1:Your personal financial plan, Steps in budget making
MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-2:Basic investment principles, Tolerance for Investment Risks, Types of investments
ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-1:Finding happiness and enhancing your personal life, The key to happiness
ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-2:The Five Principles of Psychological Functioning, Your mind and Happiness
ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-3:Need for intimacy, Working out issues with relationships
APATHY AND ITS REMEDIES:Let us try to understand the various definitions of apathy, Coping strategies for apathy
ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-1:Influence of Culture, Common ethical problems
ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-2:Common ethical problems, Guidelines for Behaving Ethically
HELPING OTHERS GROW:Being a Nurturing, Positive Person, A list of mentoring behaviour, Coaching skills and techniques
REVIEW-I:What is a Human Relation?, Meanings of Communication, Two types of stress, Some personal problem, Communication style
REVIEW-II:Steps to build self-confidence, Globalization, Building Good Relations with Co-workers, Good work habits
REVIEW-III:New model of career advancement, Choosing your investment, Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People

Human Resource Management
INTRODUCTION TO HRM:Growing Importance of HRM, Road Map of the Course
ESSENTIALS OF MANAGEMENT:Concepts and Essential of Management, Manager’s Roles
ORGANIZATION AND COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATION:Open versus Closed Systems, The Hawthorne Studies
PEOPLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR:Why to work in organizations?, The Goals of Organizational Behavior
INDIVIDUAL VS. GROUP BEHAVIOR:What Are Roles?, Problem solving Team
PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Records and Administration, Competitive Advantage
HRM IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT:Productivity, New Trends at Work Place
How organization Cultivate a Diverse Workforce, STEPS TOWARD MANAGEMENT OF DIVERSITY
FUNCTIONS AND ENVIRONMENT OF HRM:Compensation and Benefits, Safety And Health, Interrelationships of HRM Functions
LINE AND STAFF ASPECTS OF HRM:Authority, Line versus Staff Authority, Staff Manager
LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR DECISIONS:Doing the Right Thing, Affirmative Action, Unintended Consequences
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP):Benefits of HR Planning, Forecasting Human Resource Availability
STRATEGIC PLANNING AND HRIS:HR’s Strategic Role, Human Resource Information System, Common HRIS Functions
JOB ANALYSIS:Purposes of the job Analysis, Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
JOB ANALYSIS:Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information, Observation, Source of Data
JOB ANALYSIS (CONTD.):SURPLUS OF EMPLOYEES FORECASTED, Diversity through Recruiting Efforts
SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT, Quantity of the Applicants, Quality of the Applicants
SELECTION:Initial Screening, Advantages of Successful Screening
SELECTION TESTS:Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests, Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
SELECTION PROCESS… CONTD:Background Investigations, Physical Exam, Selecting Managers
SOCIALIZATION:Compensation and Benefits, Team Membership, Stages in socialization Process, Training and Development Trends
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:Learning, Phases of Training, Why Transfer of Training Fails
MAXIMIZING LEARNING:Following up on Training, Repetition, Feedback, Purposes of T & D
CAREER MANAGEMENT:Individual career planning, Career Planning and Development Methods
PERFORMANCE:Determinants of Job Performance, Why is performance measured?, Performance Management
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:What to Evaluate, The Appraisal Interview, PROBLEMS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
JOB EVALUATION AND PRICING:THE APPRAISAL PERIOD, Ranking method,
COMPENSATION SYSTEM:Pay, Job Pricing, Compensation: An Overview, Compensation Surveys
BENEFITS:Total Compensation, Discretionary Benefits (Voluntary), Workplace Flexibility
ROLE OF MONEY IN PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES:Types of Pay-for-Performance Plans, Empower Employees
MOTIVATION:The Motivation Process, Motivational Theories, Challenges of motivating employees
OCCUPATION, HEALTH & SAFETY:Physical Conditions, Accident Investigation, Smoking in The work place
STRESS MANAGEMENT:Symptoms of Stress, Managing Stress,
COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATION:Burnout, Social Support at Work & Home, Communication in organization, Meetings
TRADE UNIONS:Collective Bargaining, The HRM Department in a Nonunion Setting, Phases of Labor Relations
CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION:Transitions in Conflict Thought, Individual Conflict Management Styles
POWER AND POLITICS:Sources of Power, Advantages and Disadvantages of PowerPower and Politics in Context
EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND DISCIPLINE:Contractual Rights, Management Rights, Disciplining Employees,
DISCIPLINE (CONT...):Factors to Consider when Disciplining, Disciplinary Guidelines, Employee Separations
LEADERSHIP:The Leader’s Behavior, Situational Theories of Leadership, Becoming a Leader
REVISION (LESSON 12-21):Plans, Job Specification, Human resource planning, Selection Process, Corporate Culture
REVISION (LESSON 22-26):Training, Case Study Method, Training, Performance
REVISION (LESSON 27-35):Classification Method, Compensation, Empowerment, Mediation
INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF HRM:Global Corporation, Type of staff members, Approaches to Global Staffing
CONCLUSION & REVIEW:Strategies for Gaining Competitive Advantage, High-performance Work System

Advertising and Promotion
INTRODUCTION TO ADVERTISING:Its growing importance, Explanation of Personal and non-personal selling
INTRODUCTION TO ADVERTISING:ADVANTAGES, Communication, Information, Various Media
INTRODUCTION TO ADVERTISING:FUNCTIONS OF ADVERTISING, IMPACT OF ADVERTISING
ADVERTISING AND SOCIETY:PRACTICAL BENEFITS, ETHICS IN ADVERTISING, Marketplace & Market space
MARKETING TOOLS:COMPONENTS OF MARKETING MIX, PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE (PLC) CURVE
MARKETING TOOLS:SWOT Analysis, Contents & Structure, ROLE & FUNCTION OF ADVERTISING
ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF ADVERTISING:Structure of an Advertising Agency, How to Select an Advertising Agency
ADVERTISING PLANNING:ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES, Types of Advertising, Positioning Strategies
POSITIONING:BRANDING, 7 Steps of Creative Process, UNIVERSAL ADVERTISING STANDARDS
ADVERTISING MESSAGE:Message Content, BASIC TERMS & CONCEPTS
ADVERTISING BUDGET:4 Methods to determine, ADVERTISING RESEARCH, ADVERTISING RESEARCH
ADVERTISING REACH:BROAD COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVES, ADVERTISING COPY METHODS, MEDIA RESEARCH
PRE – PLACEMENT EVALUATION:ACCOUNT PLANNING, MARKET, COMPETITION
WORKING OF ADVERTISING:12 Steps to develop effective campaign, SOURCE or THE ADVERTISER
ADVERTISING RESPONSE HIERARCHY MODELS:AIDA MODEL, PROCESS REQUIRED TO GET BIG IDEA
PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES:Procedure to Handle Problems, In brief, Eight principles apply to consumer behavior
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR:ADVERTISING APEALS, MEDIA MIX DECISIONS, Target Rating Point (TRP)
CREATIVITY IN ADVERTISING:Three aspects are most accepted, Four Rules of Creativity
COPY WRITER:CHARACTERISTICS OF COPYWRITER, IMPORTANCE OF LANGUAGE
WHY ADVERTISING:Advertising & Market Education, ADVERTISEMENT CAMPAIGNS
METHODS TO APPRECIATE A PROBLEM:SPONSORSHIP—an important tool, Special Characteristics
IMPORTANT TOOL OF ADVERTISING:TELEVISION ADVERTISING, TRANSIT ADVERTISING
ONLINE ADVERTISING:Banners, Logos, Email Ads, Keywords on Search Engines, New Developments
ONLINE ADVERTISING:Structural Challenges, Adobe Photoshop, JAVA, HTML, DHTML, ASP & JSP
SALES PROMOTION:Consumer Oriented Promotion, HOW TO USE TRADE PROMOTION, Dealing with the Trade
PUBLICITY:PERSONAL SELLING, ROLE OF SALES PERSON, FUTURE OF GLOBAL ADVERTISING
MARKETING ENVIRONMENT:Competitors, The Target Buyer, Segmenting your Market, FUTURE OF MARKET GROWTH
MARKETING PLAN:Situational Analysis, Macro – Environment Situation, Marketing Objectives, Financial Objectives
MARKETING PLAN:PROMOTING BUSINESS IN LOW COST, SUPPLY CHAIN, BUYER IDENTIFICATION
HOW TO BE GOOD CLIENTS:CHANNEL BUYERS, HOW TO BE GOOD CLIENTS 14 RULES
CLIENT – AGENCY RELATIONSHIP:HOW TO KEEP CLIENTS (10 Ways), Three Points for Consideration
CLIENT – AGENCY RELATIONSHIP:ADVERTISING WITHOUT AN AGENCY, LOGO AND CORPORATE IDENTITY
NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING:AD PRODUCTION,TYPES OF NEWSPAPER ADS, CIRCULATION
OTHER ADVERTISING MEDIUM:HOW TO USE MAGAZINES, HOW TO USE RADIO, Daypart buying options
UTILITY OF VARIOUS MEDIA:TAPE OR FILM, UTILITY OF TV, DIRECT MAIL PACKAGE
OTHER ADVERTISING MEDIA:POINT OF PURCHASE (POP), TRANSIT ADVERTISING, LIMITS OF ADVERTISING
CONTINUOUS TRACKING:PLANNING CAMPAIGN, HOW TO UNDERSTAND ADS, ASK BASIC QUESTIONS
SEASONAL ADVERTISING:MAXIMIZING IMPACT, THE WEB ADVERTISING, MEASURING ADVERTISING
COMPONENTS OF ADVERTISING:BUY - OLOGY OF MIND, BUY - OLOGY OF MIND
CRITICISM ON ADVERTISING:SHOULD ADVERTISING BE ABOLISHED,
EFFECT OF ADVERTISING:HOW TO PROMPT AWARENESS, CREATING DESIGN THAT SELLS
CREATING EFFECTIVE DESIGN:LANGUAGE OF TYPOGRAPHY, HEADLINES THAT COMMUNICATE
WORKSHEETS:DEMOGRAPHICS OF YOUR TARGET, YOUR COMPETITOR
GLOSSARY OF ADVERTISING:ACCOUNT EXECUTIVE, PROOF, VOICE OVER
CONCEPT OF AN AD:HOW TO DEVELOP A CONCEPT OF AN AD

Brand Management
UNDERSTANDING BRANDS – INTRODUCTION:Functions of Brand Management, Sales forecast, Brand plan
INTRODUCTION:Brand Value and Power, Generate Profits and Build Brand Equity
BRAND MANIFESTATIONS/ FUNDAMENTALS:Brand identity, Communication, Differentiation
BRAND MANIFESTATIONS/ FUNDAMENTALS:Layers/levels of brands, Commitment of top management
BRAND CHALLENGES:Consumer Revolt, Media Cost and Fragmentation, Vision
STRATEGIC BRAND MANAGEMENT:Setting Objectives, Crafting a Strategy, The Brand Mission
BRAND VISION:Consensus among management, Vision Statement of a Fast Food Company, Glossary of terms
BUILDING BRAND VISION:Seek senior management’s input, Determine the financial contribution gap
BUILDING BRAND VISION:Collect industry data and create a brand vision starter, BRAND PICTURE,
BRAND PICTURE:Brand Value Pyramid, Importance of being at pinnacle, From pinnacle to bottom
BRAND PERSONA:Need-based segmentation research, Personality traits through research
BRAND CONTRACT:The need to stay contemporary, Summary
BRAND CONTRACT:How to create a brand contract?, Brand contract principles, Understand customers’ perspective
BRAND CONTRACT:Translate into standards, Fulfill Good Promises, Uncover Bad Promises
BRAND BASED CUSTOMER MODEL:Identify your competitors, Compare your brand with competition
BRAND BASED CUSTOMER MODEL:POSITIONING, Product era, Image Era, An important factor
POSITIONING:Strong Positioning, Understanding of components through an example
POSITIONING:Clarity about target market, Clarity about point of difference
POSITIONING – GUIDING PRINCIPLES:Uniqueness, Credibility, Fit
POSITIONING – GUIDING PRINCIPLES:Communicating the actual positioning, Evaluation criteria, Coining the message
BRAND EXTENSION:Leveraging, Leveraging, Line Extension in detail, Positive side of line extension
LINE EXTENSION:Reaction to negative side of extensions, Immediate actions for better managing line extensions
BRAND EXTENSION/ DIVERSIFICATION:Why extend/diversify the brand,
POSITIONING – THE BASE OF EXTENSION:Extending your target market, Consistency with brand vision
DEVELOPING THE MODEL OF BRAND EXTENSION:Limitations, Multi-brand portfolio, The question of portfolio size
BRAND PORTFOLIO:Segment variance, Constraints, Developing the model – multi-brand portfolio
BRAND ARCHITECTURE:Branding strategies, Drawbacks of the product brand strategy, The umbrella brand strategy
BRAND ARCHITECTURE:Source brand strategy, Endorsing brand strategy, What strategy to choose?
CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION:Components of channel performance, Value thru product benefits
CREATING VALUE:Value thru cost-efficiency, Members’ relationship with brand, Power defined
CO BRANDING:Bundling, Forms of communications, Advertising and Promotions
CUSTOMER RESPONSE HIERARCHY:Brand-based strategy, Methods of appropriations
ADVERTISING:Developing advertising, Major responsibilities
ADVERTISING:Message Frequency and Customer Awareness, Message Reinforcement
SALES PROMOTIONS:Involvement of sales staff, Effects of promotions, Duration should be short
OTHER COMMUNICATION TOOLS:Public relations, Event marketing, Foundations of one-to-one relationship
PRICING:Strong umbrella lets you charge premium, Factors that drive loyalty
PRICING:Market-based pricing, Cost-based pricing
RETURN ON BRAND INVESTMENT – ROBI:Brand dynamics, On the relevance dimension
BRAND DYNAMICS:On the dimension of knowledge, The importance of measures
BRAND – BASED ORGANIZATION:Benefits, Not just marketing but whole culture, Tools to effective communication
SERVICE BRANDS:The difference, Hard side of service selling, Solutions
BRAND PLANNING:Corporate strategy and brands, Brand chartering, Brand planning process
BRAND PLANNING PROCESS:Driver for change (continued), Brand analysis
BRAND PLAN:Objectives, Need, Source of volume, Media strategy, Management strategy

Customer Relationship Management

International Marketing
OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETING:Domestic marketing, Multinational marketing, Globalization of markets
INETRNATIONAL MARKETING PROCESS:Situation Analysis, Implementation and Control, Relationship
INETRNATIONAL MARKETING PROCESS:The Product Concept, The Societal Marketing Concept
INETRNATIONAL MARKETING PROCESS
ENGAGING IN INETRNATIONAL MARKETS:Expansion of technology, Merchandize export and import
INTERNATIONAL TRADE & INVESTMENT THEORIES:Theory of Comparative Advantage, Country Similarity Theory
INTERNATIONAL TRADE & INVESTMENT THEORIES:Global Strategic Rivalry Theory,
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS:Foreign exchange info
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS:The Product
FOREIGN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS:Political systems in the world, Political risks in international markets
FOREIGN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS:Types of legal systems,
FOREIGN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS:Conciliation, Mediation, Global relevance
ROLE OF GOVERNMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Industry-level needs, Promotion of exports by governments
INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTS:The concept of culture, Attitudes & beliefs,
INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTS:Culture is a human medium
DETERMINING EXPORT POTENTIAL IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Political Environment
DETERMINING EXPORT POTENTIAL IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Product Potential
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:market structure, Implementing the research plan
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:Identify alternative information sources
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:Issues with primary global research:
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:Problems with data, Comparative Analysis
MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Export intermediaries, Export and import management
MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Licensing contract, Licensing risks
MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:The franchiser’s balance,
MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Forms of countertrade, Specialized entry modes
MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Demand factors, Political factors
MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Drivers behind successful joint ventures
MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Distribution agreements, Critical mass & optimism traps
INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIC ALLIANCES:Impetus for international alliances, Management of strategic alliances
INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETS:Model of Consumer BehaviorThe Buyer Decision Process
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MARKETS:Nature of buying unit, Major influences on international business buyers
INTERNATIONAL TARGET MARKETING:Market segmentation, Market positioning
INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION:Geographic, Behavioral, Situational factors
INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION:Basis for country segmentation, Stages of economics development
INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION:Cultural Variables,
INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION:Market coverage strategy, Socio-economic variables
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MIX - PRODUCT POLICY:Individual product decisions, Branding
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MIX – PRODUCT POLICY:
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MIX - PRODUCT POLICY:Modular Approach
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MIX – PRODUCT POLICY:Issues in labeling, Pricing, Distribution
INTRODUCING NEW PRODUCTS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:The new product development process
PRICING IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Factors influencing international pricing,
ITERNATIONAL MARKETING CHANNELS:Channel membership, Vertical marketing, Control over distribution
PROMOTING IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Advertising, Direct marketing, Public Relationing
REVISION

Marketing Management
BENCH MARK OF MARKETING:CONSUMER, CUSTOMER, GLOBAL MARKETS, Right Price
CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE MANAGEMENT:NEED, DEMAND, CEM TECHNIQUES AND STEPS
MARKETING ORIENTATION-1:APPLICATION OF THE CONCEPT, CORE COMPETENCY,
MARKETING ORIENTATION-2:THE PRODUCTION CONCEPT, TARGET MARKET, PROFITABILITY
INFLUENCE OF MARKETING ENVIRONMENT ON MARKETING DECISIONS:CONTROLLABLE FACTORS, MONITORING
MARKETING DECISIONS:Price Decisions, Promotion Decisions
MARKETING PLAN:Title page, Executive Summary
MARKETING PLAN – Contd...:Current Situation - Market Analysis, Marketing Strategy - Product
STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING:Innovation Strategies, Horizontal Integration
STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING:Market Leader, COST LEADERSHIP STRATEGY
PRODUCT:Core Benefit, Tangible Product or Service, Product differentiation,
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE (PLC):Growth stage, Decline stage, Management of the cycle,
NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT (NPD):The process, Commercialization,
NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT (NPD):COMMERCIALIZATION

Principles of Marketing
PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING:Introduction of Marketing, How is Marketing Done?
ROAD MAP:UNDERSTANDING MARKETING AND MARKETING PROCESS
MARKETING FUNCTIONS:CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT
MARKETING IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND EVOLUTION OF MARKETING:End of the Mass Market
MARKETING CHALLENGES IN THE 21st CENTURY:Connections with Customers
STRATEGIC PLANNING AND MARKETING PROCESS:Setting Company Objectives and Goals
PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS:MARKETING PROCESS,Marketing Strategy Planning Process
MARKETING PROCESS:Analyzing marketing opportunities, Contents of Marketing Plan
MARKETING ENVIRONMENT:The Company’s Microenvironment, Customers
MARKETING MACRO ENVIRONMENT:Demographic Environment, Cultural Environment
ANALYZING MARKETING OPPORTUNITIES AND DEVELOPING STRATEGIES:MIS, Marketing Research
THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:Developing the Research Plan, Research Approaches
THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS (Continued):CONSUMER MARKET
CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR:Model of consumer behavior, Cultural Factors
CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR (CONTINUED):Personal Factors, Psychological Factors
BUSINESS MARKETS AND BUYING BEHAVIOR:Market structure and demand
MARKET SEGMENTATION:Steps in Target Marketing, Mass Marketing
MARKET SEGMENTATION (CONTINUED):Market Targeting, How Many Differences to Promote
Product:Marketing Mix, Levels of Product and Services, Consumer Products
PRODUCT:Individual product decisions, Product Attributes, Branding
PRODUCT:NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS, Idea generation, Test Marketing
NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT:PRODUCT LIFE- CYCLE STAGES AND STRATEGIES
KEY TERMS:New-product development, Idea generation, Product development
Price the 2nd P of Marketing Mix:Marketing Objectives, Costs, The Market and Demand
PRICE THE 2ND P OF MARKETING MIX:General Pricing Approaches, Fixed Cost
PRICE THE 2ND P OF MARKETING MIX:Discount and Allowance Pricing, Segmented Pricing
PRICE THE 2ND P OF MARKETING MIX:Price Changes, Initiating Price Increases
PLACE- THE 3RD P OF MARKETING MIX:Marketing Channel, Channel Behavior
LOGISTIC MANAGEMENT:Push Versus Pull Strategy, Goals of the Logistics System
RETAILING AND WHOLESALING:Customer Service, Product Line, Discount Stores
KEY TERMS:Distribution channel, Franchise organization, Distribution center
PROMOTION THE 4TH P OF MARKETING MIX:Integrated Marketing Communications
ADVERTISING:The Five M’s of Advertising, Advertising decisions
ADVERTISING:SALES PROMOTION, Evaluating Advertising, Sales Promotion
PERSONAL SELLING:The Role of the Sales Force, Builds Relationships
SALES FORCE MANAGEMENT:Managing the Sales Force, Compensating Salespeople
SALES FORCE MANAGEMENT:DIRECT MARKETING, Forms of Direct Marketing
DIRECT MARKETING:PUBLIC RELATIONS, Major Public Relations Decisions
KEY TERMS:Public relations, Advertising, Catalog Marketing
CREATING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE:Competitor Analysis, Competitive Strategies
GLOBAL MARKETING:International Trade System, Economic Environment
E-MARKETING:Internet Marketing, Electronic Commerce, Basic-Forms
MARKETING AND SOCIETY:Social Criticisms of Marketing, Marketing Ethics
MARKETING:BCG MATRIX, CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, PRODUCT AND SERVICES
A NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT:PRICING STRATEGIES, GLOBAL MARKET PLACE

Business Ethics
INTRODUCTION:Business Issues
INTRODUCTION (CONTD.)
THEORY OF ETHICAL RELATIVISM
MORAL DEVELOPMENTS AND MORAL REASONING
MORAL REASONING:Arguments For and Against Business Ethics
MORAL RESPONSIBILITY AND BLAME
UTILITARIANISM:Utilitarianism: Weighing Social Costs and Benefits
UTILITARIANISM (CONTD.):rule utilitarianism, Rights and Duties
UNIVERSALIZABILITY & REVERSIBILITY:Justice and Fairness
EGALITARIANS’ VIEW
JOHN RAWLS' THEORY OF JUSTICE:The Ethics of Care
THE ETHICS OF CARE:Integrating Utility, Rights, Justice, and Caring
THE ETHICS OF CARE (CONTD.):Morality in International Contexts
MORALITY IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXTS:Free Markets and Rights: John Locke
FREE MARKET & PLANNED ECONOMY:FREE TRADE THEORIES
LAW OF NATURE:Theory of Absolute Advantage, Comparative Advantage
FREE MARKETS AND UTILITY: ADAM SMITH:Free Trade and Utility: David Ricardo
RICARDO & GLOBALIZATION:Ricardo’s Assumptions, Conclusion
FREE MARKET ECONOMY:Mixed Economy, Bottom Line for Business
COMPETITION AND THE MARKET:Perfect Competition
PERFECT COMPETITION
MONOPOLY COMPETITION:Oligopolistic Competition
OLIGOPOLISTIC COMPETITION:Crowded and Mature Market
OLIGOPOLIES AND PUBLIC POLICY:Ethic & Environment, Ozone depletion
WORLDWATCH FIGURES:Population Year, Agriculture, Food and Land Use
FORESTS AND BIODIVERSITY:The Ethics of Pollution Control
THE ETHICS OF POLLUTION CONTROL:Toxic Chemicals in Teflon
THE ETHICS OF POLLUTION CONTROL
THE ETHICS OF POLLUTION CONTROL:Recommendations to Managers
COST AND BENEFITS:Basis of social audit, Objectives of social audit
COST AND BENEFITS:The Ethics of Conserving Depletable Resources
COST AND BENEFITS:The Club of Rome
THE ETHICS OF CONSUMER PRODUCTION AND MARKETING:DSA Comments
THE ETHICS OF CONSUMER PRODUCTION AND MARKETING:Should Consumers Bear More Responsibility?
THE CONTRACT VIEW OF BUSINESS' DUTIES TO CONSUMERS
THE CONTRACT VIEW OF BUSINESS' DUTIES TO CONSUMERS:The Due Care Theory
THE SOCIAL COSTS VIEW OF THE MANUFACTURER’S DUTIES
ADVERTISING ETHICS:The Benefits of Advertising, The harm done by advertising
ADVERTISING ETHICS:Basic Principles, Evidence, Remedies, Puffery
ADVERTISING IN TODAY’S SOCIETY:Psychological tricks
ADVERTISING IN TODAY’S SOCIETY:Criticism of Galbraith's Work
ADVERTISING IN TODAY’S SOCIETY:Medal of Freedom
ADVERTISING IN TODAY’S SOCIETY:GENERAL RULES, Substantiation
ADVERTISING IN TODAY’S SOCIETY:Consumer Privacy, Accuracy
THE ETHICS OF JOB DISCRIMINATION:Job Discrimination: Its Nature

Change Management
COURSE ORIENTATION:Course objectives, Reading material, Scope of the subject
BENEFITS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT:Traditional management domain
KURT LEWIN MODEL: ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Change Movement, Refreeze
IMPLICATIONS OF KURT LEWIN MODEL:Sequence of event also matters, A Critical Look
SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS:Strategic change, Logical incrementalism
TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Micro-changes, Organisation Development
THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
LIFE CYCLE THEORY:Unit of Change, Mode of change, Organisation death
TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of change, Mode of Change, Limitations
DIALECTICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of Change, Strategic planning
A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY AND PLANNING:
LIMITATION OF DIALECTICS; DA AND DI:Overview of application of dialectics
THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY:Managerial focus
FURTHER APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES:Criticism
GREINER’S MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL– EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION
GROWTH RATE OF THE INDUSTRY:CREATIVITY, DIRECTION, DELEGATION
COORDINATION:COLLABORATION, The Crisis
ORGANISATION ECOLOGY:Structural Inertia, Internal Structural Arrangements, External Factors
CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIES:Extent of Environmental Selection, Determinants of Vital Rates,
FOOTNOTES TO ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE:Stable Processes of Change, Rule Following, Conflict
SOME COMPLEXITIES OF CHANGE:Superstitious Learning, Solution Driven Problems
ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION:The Entrepreneurial problem, The Administrative Problem
PROSPECTORS:Analyzer, Reactors, Adaptation and Strategic Management
SKELETAL MODEL OF ADAPTATION:Determinants of Adaptive ability, The Process of Adaptation
STRATEGIC CHANGE:Nature of Change, The Importance of Context, Force field Analysis
Management Styles and Roles:Change Agent Roles, Levers for managing strategic Change
SYMBOLIC PROCESSES:Political Processes, COMMUNICATING CHANGE, Change Tactics
STRATEGIC CHANGE:Pettigrew & Whipp’s Typology, Context on X-axis (Why of change)
STRATEGIC CHANGE:Attributes of SOC Model, Implications for Management
STRATEGIC CHANGE:Flow of Information, Recruitment, SOC Process
Determinants of a Successful Change Management:Environmental, Management Orientation, Management Orientation
Higgins 08 S Model – An Adaptation from Waterman’s Seven S model:Strategy, Systems and Processes, Resources
IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
WHY IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIC CHANGE IS SO DIFFICULT?:Change Typology, Technical Change
IMPLEMENTATION APPROACHES:Attributes of incremental change,
IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Definition of Leadership, Follower Work Facilitation
IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Recognize the challenge
IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
IMPLEMENTATION: PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL:Features of Radical Change, Theory of P-E model
CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION: OD MODELS:The Transactional Factors
CULTURE, VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Significance and Role of Values, Values Compete
ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES, CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Issues in Change Management

Cost and Management Accounting
COST CLASSIFICATION AND COST BEHAVIOR INTRODUCTION:COST CLASSIFICATION,
IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGIES:Cost Center, Profit Centre, Differential Cost or Incremental cost
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS:Inventory, Direct Material Consumed, Total Factory Cost
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS:Adjustment in the Entire Production, Adjustment in the Income Statement
PROBLEMS IN PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS:Gross Profit Margin Rate, Net Profit Ratio
MORE ABOUT PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS:Conversion Cost
MATERIAL:Inventory, Perpetual Inventory System, Weighted Average Method (W.Avg)
CONTROL OVER MATERIAL:Order Level, Maximum Stock Level, Danger Level
ECONOMIC ORDERING QUANTITY:EOQ Graph, PROBLEMS
ACCOUNTING FOR LOSSES:Spoiled output, Accounting treatment, Inventory Turnover Ratio
LABOR:Direct Labor Cost, Mechanical Methods, MAKING PAYMENTS TO EMPLOYEES
PAYROLL AND INCENTIVES:Systems of Wages, Premium Plans
PIECE RATE BASE PREMIUM PLANS:Suitability of Piece Rate System, GROUP BONUS SYSTEMS
LABOR TURNOVER AND LABOR EFFICIENCY RATIOS & FACTORY OVERHEAD COST
ALLOCATION AND APPORTIONMENT OF FOH COST
FACTORY OVERHEAD COST:Marketing, Research and development
FACTORY OVERHEAD COST:Spending Variance, Capacity/Volume Variance
JOB ORDER COSTING SYSTEM:Direct Materials, Direct Labor, Factory Overhead
PROCESS COSTING SYSTEM:Data Collection, Cost of Completed Output
PROCESS COSTING SYSTEM:Cost of Production Report, Quantity Schedule
PROCESS COSTING SYSTEM:Normal Loss at the End of Process
PROCESS COSTING SYSTEM:PRACTICE QUESTION
PROCESS COSTING SYSTEM:Partially-processed units, Equivalent units
PROCESS COSTING SYSTEM:Weighted average method, Cost of Production Report
COSTING/VALUATION OF JOINT AND BY PRODUCTS:Accounting for joint products
COSTING/VALUATION OF JOINT AND BY PRODUCTS:Problems of common costs
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING:Contribution Margin, Marginal cost per unit
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING:Contribution and profit
COST – VOLUME – PROFIT ANALYSIS:Contribution Margin Approach & CVP Analysis
COST – VOLUME – PROFIT ANALYSIS:Target Contribution Margin
BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS – MARGIN OF SAFETY:Margin of Safety (MOS), Using Budget profit
BREAKEVEN ANALYSIS – CHARTS AND GRAPHS:Usefulness of charts
WHAT IS A BUDGET?:Budgetary control, Making a Forecast, Preparing budgets
Production & Sales Budget:Rolling budget, Sales budget
Production & Sales Budget:Illustration 1, Production budget
FLEXIBLE BUDGET:Capacity and volume, Theoretical Capacity
FLEXIBLE BUDGET:ANALYSIS OF COST BEHAVIOR, Fixed Expenses
TYPES OF BUDGET:Format of Cash Budget,
Complex Cash Budget & Flexible Budget:Comparing actual with original budget
FLEXIBLE & ZERO BASE BUDGETING:Efficiency Ratio, Performance budgeting
DECISION MAKING IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING:Spare capacity costs, Sunk cost
DECISION MAKING:Size of fund, Income statement
DECISION MAKING:Avoidable Costs, Non-Relevant Variable Costs, Absorbed Overhead
DECISION MAKING CHOICE OF PRODUCT (PRODUCT MIX) DECISIONS
DECISION MAKING CHOICE OF PRODUCT (PRODUCT MIX) DECISIONS:MAKE OR BUY DECISIONS

Entrepreneurship
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP:DEFINITION OF ENTREPRENEUR
THE NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP:Possibility of New Venture Formation
ENTREPRENEURIAL PROCESS/START UPS:GOVERNMENT AS AN INNOVATOR
THE ENTREPRENEURIAL AND ENTREPRENEURIAL MIND:ENTREPRENEURIAL PROCESS
THE ENTREPRENEURIAL AND ENTREPRENEURIAL MIND (continued…)
THE ENTREPRENEURIAL AND ENTREPRENEURIAL MIND (continued…):CLIMATE FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP
THE ENTREPRENEURIAL AND ENTREPRENEURIAL MIND (continued…):PROBLEMS AND SUCCESSFUL EFFORTS
THE INDIVIDUAL ENTREPRENEUR:ENTREPRENEURIAL BACKGROUND AND CHARACTERISTICS
THE INDIVIDUAL ENTREPRENEUR (continued…):Personal Values, Work History, MOTIVATION
THE INDIVIDUAL ENTREPRENEUR (continued…):ROLE MODELS AND SUPPORT SYSTEMS
INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES:INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES, Minority interests
INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES (continued…):DIRECT FOREIGN INVESTMENT
INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES (continued…):BARRIERS TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE
INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES (continued…):ENTREPRENEURIAL PARTNERING
INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES (continued…):SOURCES OF NEW IDEAS
CREATIVITY AND THE BUSINESS IDEA:METHODS OF GENERATING NEW IDEAS, CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING
CREATIVITY AND THE BUSINESS IDEA:PRODUCT PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
LEGAL ISSUES FOR THE ENTREPRENEUR:NEED FOR A LAWYER, PATENTS
LEGAL ISSUES FOR THE ENTREPRENEUR:TRADEMARKS, LICENSING
LEGAL ISSUES FOR THE ENTREPRENEURS:PRODUCT SAFETY AND LIABILITY, INSURANCE
CREATING AND STARTING THE VENTURE:WHAT IS THE BUSINESS PLAN, PRESENTING THE PLAN
CREATING AND STARTING THE VENTURE (Continued….):WRITING THE BUSINESS PLAN
CREATING AND STARTING THE VENTURE (Continued….):
CREATING AND STARTING THE VENTURE (Continued….):WHY SOME BUSINESS PLANS FAIL, MARKETING PLAN
THE MARKETING PLAN:MARKET RESEARCH FOR THE NEW VENTURE
THE MARKETING MIX:STEPS IN PREPARING THE MARKETING PLAN
THE ORGANIZATIONAL PLAN:DEVELOPING THE MANAGEMENT TEAM, LEGAL FORMS OF BUSINESS
THE ORGANIZATIONAL PLAN (Continued….)
THE ORGANIZATIONAL PLAN (Continued….):THE LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY
THE FINANCIAL PLAN:OPERATING AND CAPITAL BUDGETS
THE FINANCIAL PLAN (Continued….):PRO FORMA INCOME STATEMENTS, PRO FORMA CASH FLOW
PRO FORMA SOURCES AND USES OF FUNDS:PERSONAL FUNDS, FAMILY AND FRIENDS
PRO FORMA SOURCES AND USES OF FUNDS:COMMERCIAL BANKS
BANK LENDING DECISIONS:SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION LOANS
SOURCES OF CAPITAL:GOVERNMENT GRANTS
SOURCES OF CAPITAL:PRIVATE PLACEMENT, BOOTSTRAP FINANCING
CAPITAL SOURCES IN PAKISTAN:PROVINCIAL LEVEL INSTITUTIONS, FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
PREPARING FOR THE NEW VENTURE LAUNCH: EARLY MANAGEMENT DECISIONS (Continued….)
PREPARING FOR THE NEW VENTURE LAUNCH: EARLY MANAGEMENT DECISIONS (Continued….)
PREPARING FOR THE NEW VENTURE LAUNCH: EARLY MANAGEMENT DECISIONS (Continued….)
PREPARING FOR THE NEW VENTURE LAUNCH: EARLY MANAGEMENT DECISIONS (Continued….)
PREPARING FOR THE NEW VENTURE LAUNCH: EARLY MANAGEMENT DECISIONS (Continued….)
NEW VENTURE EXPANSION STRATEGIES AND ISSUES:JOINT VENTURES, ACQUISITIONS
NEW VENTURE EXPANSION STRATEGIES AND ISSUES (Continued….):DETERMINING THE PRICE FOR AN ACQUISITION
ENTREPRENEURSHIP & PAKISTAN:GENDER DEVELOPMENT STATUS WOMAN AS AN ENTREPRENEUR IN PAKISTAN

Financial Management
INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT:Corporate Financing & Capital Structure,
OBJECTIVES OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, FINANCIAL ASSETS AND FINANCIAL MARKETS:Real Assets, Bond
ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS:Basic Financial Statements, Profit & Loss account or Income Statement
TIME VALUE OF MONEY:Discounting & Net Present Value (NPV), Interest Theory
FINANCIAL FORECASTING AND FINANCIAL PLANNING:Planning Documents, Drawback of Percent of Sales Method
PRESENT VALUE AND DISCOUNTING:Interest Rates for Discounting Calculations
DISCOUNTING CASH FLOW ANALYSIS, ANNUITIES AND PERPETUITIES:Multiple Compounding
CAPITAL BUDGETING AND CAPITAL BUDGETING TECHNIQUES:Techniques of capital budgeting, Pay back period
NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) AND INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (IRR):RANKING TWO DIFFERENT INVESTMENTS
PROJECT CASH FLOWS, PROJECT TIMING, COMPARING PROJECTS, AND MODIFIED INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (MIRR)
SOME SPECIAL AREAS OF CAPITAL BUDGETING:SOME SPECIAL AREAS OF CAPITAL BUDGETING, SOME SPECIAL AREAS OF CAPITAL BUDGETING
CAPITAL RATIONING AND INTERPRETATION OF IRR AND NPV WITH LIMITED CAPITAL.:Types of Problems in Capital Rationing
BONDS AND CLASSIFICATION OF BONDS:Textile Weaving Factory Case Study, Characteristics of bonds, Convertible Bonds
BONDS’ VALUATION:Long Bond - Risk Theory, Bond Portfolio Theory, Interest Rate Tradeoff
BONDS VALUATION AND YIELD ON BONDS:Present Value formula for the bond
INTRODUCTION TO STOCKS AND STOCK VALUATION:Share Concept, Finite Investment
COMMON STOCK PRICING AND DIVIDEND GROWTH MODELS:Preferred Stock, Perpetual Investment
COMMON STOCKS – RATE OF RETURN AND EPS PRICING MODEL:Earnings per Share (EPS) Pricing Model
INTRODUCTION TO RISK, RISK AND RETURN FOR A SINGLE STOCK INVESTMENT:Diversifiable Risk, Diversification
RISK FOR A SINGLE STOCK INVESTMENT, PROBABILITY GRAPHS AND COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION
2- STOCK PORTFOLIO THEORY, RISK AND EXPECTED RETURN:Diversification, Definition of Terms
PORTFOLIO RISK ANALYSIS AND EFFICIENT PORTFOLIO MAPS
EFFICIENT PORTFOLIOS, MARKET RISK AND CAPITAL MARKET LINE (CML):Market Risk & Portfolio Theory
STOCK BETA, PORTFOLIO BETA AND INTRODUCTION TO SECURITY MARKET LINE:MARKET, Calculating Portfolio Beta
STOCK BETAS &RISK, SML& RETURN AND STOCK PRICES IN EFFICIENT MARKS:Interpretation of Result
SML GRAPH AND CAPITAL ASSET PRICING MODEL:NPV Calculations & Capital Budgeting
RISK AND PORTFOLIO THEORY, CAPM, CRITICISM OF CAPM AND APPLICATION OF RISK THEORY:Think Out of the Box
INTRODUCTION TO DEBT, EFFICIENT MARKETS AND COST OF CAPITAL:Real Assets Markets, Debt vs. Equity
WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL (WACC):Summary of Formulas
BUSINESS RISK FACED BY FIRM, OPERATING LEVERAGE, BREAK EVEN POINT& RETURN ON EQUITY
OPERATING LEVERAGE, FINANCIAL LEVERAGE, ROE, BREAK EVEN POINT AND BUSINESS RISK
FINANCIAL LEVERAGE AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE:Capital Structure Theory
MODIFICATIONS IN MILLAR MODIGLIANI CAPITAL STRUCTURE THEORY:Modified MM - With Bankruptcy Cost
APPLICATION OF MILLER MODIGLIANI AND OTHER CAPITAL STRUCTURE THEORIES:Problem of the theory
NET INCOME AND TAX SHIELD APPROACHES TO WACC:Traditionalists -Real Markets Example
MANAGEMENT OF CAPITAL STRUCTURE:Practical Capital Structure Management
DIVIDEND PAYOUT:Other Factors Affecting Dividend Policy, Residual Dividend Model
APPLICATION OF RESIDUAL DIVIDEND MODEL:Dividend Payout Procedure, Dividend Schemes for Optimizing Share Price
WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT:Impact of working capital on Firm Value, Monthly Cash Budget
CASH MANAGEMENT AND WORKING CAPITAL FINANCING:Inventory Management, Accounts Receivables Management:
SHORT TERM FINANCING, LONG TERM FINANCING AND LEASE FINANCING:
LEASE FINANCING AND TYPES OF LEASE FINANCING:Sale & Lease-Back, Lease Analyses & Calculations
MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS:Leveraged Buy-Outs (LBO’s), Mergers - Good or Bad?
INTERNATIONAL FINANCE (MULTINATIONAL FINANCE):Major Issues Faced by Multinationals
FINAL REVIEW OF ENTIRE COURSE ON FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT:Financial Statements and Ratios

International Business
Introduction to Business
INTRODUCTION:CONCEPT OF BUSINESS, KINDS OF INDSTRY, TYPES OF TRADE
ORGANIZATIONAL BOUNDARIES AND ENVIRONMENTS:THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
BUSINESS ORGANIZATION:Sole Proprietorship, Joint Stock Company, Combination
SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS:ADVANTAGES OF SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP
PARTNERSHIP AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS:ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PARTNERSHIP
PARTNERSHIP (Continued):KINDS OF PARTNERS, PARTNERSHIP AT WILL
PARTNERSHIP (Continued):PARTNESHIP AGREEMENT, CONCLUSION, DUTIES OF PARTNERS
ORGANIZATIONAL BOUNDARIES AND ENVIRONMENTS:ETHICS IN THE WORKPLACE, SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
JOINT STOCK COMPANY:PRIVATE COMPANY, PROMOTION STAGE, INCORPORATION STAGE
LEGAL DOCUMENTS ISSUED BY A COMPANY:MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION, CONTENTS OF ARTICLES
WINDING UP OF COMPANY:VOLUNTARY WIDNIGN UP, KINDS OF SHARE CAPITAL
COOPERATIVE SOCIETY:ADVANTAGES OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETY
WHO ARE MANAGERS?:THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS, BASIC MANAGEMENT SKILLS
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Human Resource Planning
STAFFING:STAFFING THE ORGANIZATION
STAFF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT:Typical Topics of Employee Training, Training Methods
BUSINESS MANAGER’S RESPONSIBILITY PROFILE:Accountability, Specific responsibilities
COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS:THE LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR MANAGEMENT, DEALING WITH ORGANIZED LABOR
COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS (Continued):MOTIVATION IN THE WORKPLACE
STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING JOB SATISFACTION AND MORALE
MANAGERIAL STYLES AND LEADERSHIP:Changing Patterns of Leadership
MARKETING:What Is Marketing?, Marketing: Providing Value and Satisfaction
THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT:THE MARKETING MIX, Product differentiation
MARKET RESEARCH:Market information, Market Segmentation, Market Trends
MARKET RESEARCH PROCESS:Select the research design, Collecting and analyzing data
MARKETING RESEARCH:Data Warehousing and Data Mining
LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF STUDENTS EARNING LOWER LEVEL CREDIT:Discussion Topics, Market Segmentation
UNDERSTANDING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR:The Consumer Buying Process
THE DISTRIBUTION MIX:Intermediaries and Distribution Channels, Distribution of Business Products
PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION:Transportation Operations, Distribution as a Marketing Strategy
PROMOTION:Information and Exchange Values, Promotional Strategies
ADVERTISING PROMOTION:Advertising Strategies, Advertising Media
PERSONAL SELLING:Personal Selling Situations, The Personal Selling Process
SALES PROMOTIONS:Publicity and Public Relations, Promotional Practices in Small Business
THE PRODUCTIVITY:Responding to the Productivity Challenge, Domestic Productivity
THE PLANNING PROCESS:Strengths, Weaknesses, Threats
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT:Planning for Quality, Controlling for Quality
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (continued):Tools for Total Quality Management
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (continued):Process Re-engineering, Emphasizing Quality of Work Life
BUSINESS IN DIGITAL AGE:Types of Information Systems, Telecommunications and Networks
NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION MODES:Body Movement, Facial Expressions
BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS:Organization as a System
ACCOUNTING:Accounting Information System, Financial versus Managerial Accounting
TOOLS OF THE ACCOUNTING TRADE:Double-Entry Accounting, Assets
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT:The Role of the Financial Manager, Short-Term (Operating) Expenditures

Introduction to Public Administration
INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS – I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS – II:Contributors of This Approach
HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION – I:Moghul Period, British Period
HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION – II
CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
PLANNING – I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
PLANNING – II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
PLANNING COMMISSION AND PLANNING DEVELOPMENT:Functions, Approval Authority
DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
SELECTION AND TRAINING AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS:Performance Evaluation,
PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
TEAM – I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
TEAM – II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
COMMUNICATION – I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
COMMUNICATION – II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
DEVOLUTION PLAN – I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
DEVOLUTION PLAN – II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA – I
MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA – II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management

Knowledge Management
Leadership and Team Management
INTRODUCTION, ORGANIZATION THE STAGE FOR LEADERSHIP:Challenges, Value creation
FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS:People in the Process, Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce
LEADERSHIP:Characteristics of Successful Leader, Why Study Leadership?
LEADERSHIP (CONTD.):Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail, Why Leaders Fail?
MANAGERS VS LEADERS:Characteristics, Effective Leadership, Respect for Diversity
FOLLOWER-SHIP:Importance of Followers, Follower-ship Style
LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Strategies for Cultivating Exemplary Followers, Important Traits of Leaders
LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.):Qualities of Leaders, Self-Confidence, Integrity
LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES:Personal Characteristics of Leaders, Managerial Grid
CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory
TRANSACTIONAL, CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Visionary Leadership
THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL:Personality, Situation, Heredity, Environment
ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY:Job Satisfaction, Work Situation, Self - Monitoring
BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI):Sub-Categories Defined, Information Gathering
SITUATIONAL FACTORS:Social and psychological climate, Culture of the organization
BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?:Mission Statement, Leading oneself
BECOMING A LEADER:Elements of Leadership, CONCEPT OF POWER,
UNDERSTANDING POWER:Sources of Power, Responses to the Use of Power, Managing Political Behavior
LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE:Positional Power, Being an Effective Leader
LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT:Power sharing and Empowerment, Share Information
MOTIVATION:Guidelines for Delegating, Human Resource Approach
MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:What Factors Diminish Motivation in the Workplace
LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:Communication & the Four Management Functions
REVIEW-1:Organizational Performance, That is the Role of Management?, Leaders Vs Managers
GROUP & TEAM CONCEPT:Groups versus Teams, Deciding When to Use a Team
TEAM DYNAMICS:Stages of Group Development, Problem-Solving Teams, Benefits of Teams
BUILDING THE TEAM:Leadership success requires, Strategies for Team Building
A TEAM-BASED ORGANIZATION:Basic Steps, Span of Control, Categories of Decisions
DECISION MAKING:Categories of Decisions, The Decision-Making Process
TEAM DECISION MAKING:Team Problem Solving Techniques, Concept of QC
EFFECTIVE TEAM COMMUNICATION:Team/Group Communications
CONFLICT IN TEAM:Sources of Conflict, Scarcity of Resources, Dysfunctional Outcomes
TRAINING/LEARNING OF TEAM:Training Methods, Phases of Learning Cycles
LEARNING ORGANIZATION:A Litmus Test, Work Relations
REWARDING & RECOGNIZING TEAMWORK:Compensating Teams, Individual or Team Rewards?
MANAGING/LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS:Communications in Virtual Organizations, Virtual Leadership
EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETINGS:Better Meetings, Meeting Roles, Meeting Room Facilities
LEADING TEAM:Team Leadership Structures, Leadership Demands and Duties, Leadership Direction
REVIEW-II:Types of Teams, Characteristics of High Performance Teams, Sources of Conflict
STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP:Strategic Management, Determining Strategic Direction, Developing Human Capital:
LEADING CHANGE:Dynamics of Change, Change Models, Unfreeze
CREATIVE LEADERSHIP:Awaken Your Senses, How Might These Definitions Be Integrated
ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP:Character Traits Reflect Ethics, Manifests Honesty
LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: WHAT COMES NEXT:Benefits of Teams, Ethical Leadership,
TEAMWORK: LEARNING FROM NATURE:Social Behavior, Termites, Learning from Nature

Management of Financial Institutions
Financial Environment & Role of Financial Institutions:FINANCIAL MARKETS &INSTITUTIONS
FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS:Non Banking Financial Companies
CENTRAL BANK:Activities and responsibilities, Interest Rate Interventions
POLICY INSTRUMENTS:Open Market Operations, Capital Requirements
BALANCE OF TRADE:Balance of Payments Equilibrium, Public Policy and Financial Stability
STATE BANK OF PAKISTAN:History, Regulation of Liquidity, Departments
STATE BANK OF PAKISTAN - VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS:Banking Inspection Department
STATE BANK OF PAKISTAN - VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS (Contd.):Debt Management
STATE BANK OF PAKISTAN - VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS (Contd.):Training Programs by SBP
STATE BANK OF PAKISTAN - VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS (Contd.):Human Resources Department
MAJOR DRIVERS OF FINANCIAL INDUSTRY:GLOBAL FINANCIAL SYSTEM, The World Bank
INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS:ADB Projects in Pakistan, Paris Club
PAKISTAN ECONOMIC AID & DEBT:Macroeconomic Stability, Strengthening Institutions
INCREASING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT:Industrial Sector, Managing the Debt
ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS:Services Typically Offered by Banks, Types of banks
ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS:Types of investment banks, The Management of the Banks
ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS:Public perceptions of banks, Capital adequacy, Liquidity
ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS:Problem bank management, BANKING SECTOR REFORMS
ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKING:Private Deposit Insurance,
BRANCH BANKING IN PAKISTAN:Remittances, Online Fund Transfer
ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN MICRO FINANCE SECTOR
Mutual funds:Types of international mutual funds, Mutual funds vs. other investments
Mutual Funds:Criticism of managed mutual funds, Money Market Fund
Mutual Funds:Balanced Funds, Growth Funds, Specialized Funds, Measuring Risks
Mutual Funds:Cost of Ownership, Redemption Fee, Reports to Shareholders
Mutual Funds:Internet Fraud, The Pyramid Scheme, How to Avoid Investment Fraud
Mutual Funds:Investing In International Mutual Funds, How to Pre-Select a Mutual Fund
Role of Investment Banks:Recent evolution of the business, Possible conflicts of interest
Letter of Credit:Elements of a Letter of Credit, Commercial Invoice, Tips for Exporters
Letter of Credit and International Trade:Terminology, Risks in International Trade
Foreign Exchange & Financial Institutions:Investment management firms, Exchange Traded Fund
Foreign Exchange:Factors affecting currency trading, Economic conditions include
Leasing Companies:Basic Purpose of Leasing, Technological Benefits
The Leasing Sector in Pakistan and its Role in Capital Investment
Role of Insurance Companies:Indemnification, Insurer’s business model
Role of Insurance Companies:Life insurance and saving
Role of financial Institutions in Agriculture Sector:What is “Revolving Credit Scheme”?
Agriculture Sector and Financial Institutions of Pakistan:What is SMEs
Can Government of Pakistan Lay a Pivotal Role in this Sector?:Business Environment
Financial Crimes:Process of Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing
DFIs & Risk Management:Managing Credit Risk, Managing Operational Risk
Banking Fraud & Misleading Activities:Rogue Traders, Uninsured Deposits
The Collapse of ENRON:Auditing Issues, Corporate Governance Issues, Corrective Actions
Classic Financial Scandals:Corruption, Discovery, Black Wednesday
RECAP:FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS, CENTRAL BANK,

Money and Banking
TEXT AND REFERENCE MATERIAL & FIVE PARTS OF THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM
FIVE CORE PRINCIPLES OF MONEY AND BANKING:Time has Value
MONEY & THE PAYMENT SYSTEM:Distinctions among Money, Wealth, and Income
OTHER FORMS OF PAYMENTS:Electronic Funds Transfer, E-money
FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES:Indirect Finance, Financial and Economic Development
FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS & FINANCIAL MARKETS:Primarily Stores of Value
FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS:The structure of the financial industry
TIME VALUE OF MONEY:Future Value, Present Value
APPLICATION OF PRESENT VALUE CONCEPTS:Compound Annual Rates
BOND PRICING & RISK:Valuing the Principal Payment, Risk
MEASURING RISK:Variance, Standard Deviation, Value at Risk, Risk Aversion
EVALUATING RISK:Deciding if a risk is worth taking, Sources of Risk
BONDS & BONDS PRICING:Zero-Coupon Bonds, Fixed Payment Loans
YIELD TO MATURIRY:Current Yield, Holding Period Returns
SHIFTS IN EQUILIBRIUM IN THE BOND MARKET & RISK
BONDS & SOURCES OF BOND RISK:Inflation Risk, Bond Ratings
TAX EFFECT & TERM STRUCTURE OF INTEREST RATE:Expectations Hypothesis
THE LIQUIDITY PREMIUM THEORY:Essential Characteristics of Common Stock
VALUING STOCKS:Fundamental Value and the Dividend-Discount Model
RISK AND VALUE OF STOCKS:The Theory of Efficient Markets
ROLE OF FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES:Pooling Savings
ROLE OF FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES (CONTINUED):Providing Liquidity
BANKING:The Balance Sheet of Commercial Banks, Assets: Uses of Funds
BALANCE SHEET OF COMMERCIAL BANKS:Bank Capital and Profitability
BANK RISK:Liquidity Risk, Credit Risk, Interest-Rate Risk
INTEREST RATE RISK:Trading Risk, Other Risks, The Globalization of Banking
NON- DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS:Insurance Companies, Securities Firms
SECURITIES FIRMS (Continued):Finance Companies, Banking Crisis
THE GOVERNMENT SAFETY NET:Supervision and Examination
THE GOVERNMENT'S BANK:The Bankers' Bank, Low, Stable Inflation
LOW, STABLE INFLATION:High, Stable Real Growth
MEETING THE CHALLENGE: CREATING A SUCCESSFUL CENTRAL BANK
THE MONETARY BASE:Changing the Size and Composition of the Balance Sheet
DEPOSIT CREATION IN A SINGLE BANK:Types of Reserves
MONEY MULTIPLIER:The Quantity of Money (M) Depends on
TARGET FEDERAL FUNDS RATE AND OPEN MARKET OPERATION
WHY DO WE CARE ABOUT MONETARY AGGREGATES?The Facts about Velocity
THE FACTS ABOUT VELOCITY:Money Growth + Velocity Growth = Inflation + Real Growth
THE PORTFOLIO DEMAND FOR MONEY:Output and Inflation in the Long Run
MONEY GROWTH, INFLATION, AND AGGREGATE DEMAND
DERIVING THE MONETARY POLICY REACTION CURVE
THE AGGREGATE DEMAND CURVE:Shifting the Aggregate Demand Curve
THE AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE:Inflation Shocks
EQUILIBRIUM AND THE DETERMINATION OF OUTPUT AND INFLATION
SHIFTS IN POTENTIAL OUTPUT AND REAL BUSINESS CYCLE THEORY

Organization Development
The Challenge for Organizations:The Growth and Relevance of OD
OD: A Unique Change Strategy:OD consultants utilize a behavioral science base
What an “ideal” effective, healthy organization would look like?:
The Evolution of OD:Laboratory Training, Likert Scale, Scoring and analysis,
The Evolution of OD:Participative Management, Quality of Work Life, Strategic Change
The Organization Culture:Adjustment to Cultural Norms, Psychological Contracts
The Nature of Planned Change:Lewin’s Change Model, Case Example: British Airways
Action Research Model:Termination of the OD Effort, Phases not Steps
General Model of Planned Change:Entering and Contracting, Magnitude of Change
The Organization Development Practitioner:External and Internal Practitioners
Creating a Climate for Change:The Stabilizer Style, The Analyzer Style
OD Practitioner Skills and Activities:Consultant’s Abilities, Marginality
Professional Values:Professional Ethics, Ethical Dilemmas, Technical Ineptness
Entering and Contracting:Clarifying the Organizational Issue, Selecting an OD Practitioner
Diagnosing Organizations:The Process, The Performance Gap, The Interview Data
Organization as Open Systems:Equifinality, Diagnosing Organizational Systems
Diagnosing Organizations:Outputs, Alignment, Analysis
Diagnosing Groups and Jobs:Design Components, Outputs
Diagnosing Groups and Jobs:Design Components, Fits
Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic information:Methods for Collecting Data, Observations
Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic information:Sampling, The Analysis of Data
Designing Interventions:Readiness for Change, Techno-structural Interventions
Leading and Managing Change:Motivating Change, The Life Cycle of Resistance to Change
Leading and managing change:Describing the Core Ideology, Commitment Planning
Evaluating and Institutionalizing Organization Development Interventions:Measurement
Evaluating and Institutionalizing Organization Development Interventions:Research Design
Evaluating and Institutionalizing Organization Development Interventions
Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Group Process
Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Leadership and Authority, Group Interventions
Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Third-Party Interventions
Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Team Building, Team Building Process
Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Team Management Styles
Organization Process Approaches:Application Stages, Microcosm Groups
Restructuring Organizations:Structural Design, Process-Based Structures
Restructuring Organizations:Downsizing, Application Stages, Reengineering
Employee Involvement:Parallel Structures, Multiple-level committees
Employee Involvement:Quality Circles, Total Quality Management
Work Design:The Engineering Approach, Individual Differences, Vertical Loading
Performance Management:Goal Setting, Management by Objectives, Criticism of MBO
Developing and Assisting Members:Career Stages, Career Planning, Job Pathing
Developing and Assisting Members:Culture and Values, Employee Assistance Programs
Organization and Environment Relationships:Environmental Dimensions, Administrative Responses
Organization Transformation:Sharing the Vision, Three kinds of Interventions
The Behavioral Approach:The Deep Assumptions Approach
Seven Practices of Successful Organizations:Training, Sharing Information

Organizational Behaviour
Principles of Management
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM’S VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTER’S MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
ORGANIZING
JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
MASLOW’S NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY

Production Operations Management
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT:Decision Making
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT:Strategy
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT:Service Delivery System
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT:Productivity
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT:The Decision Process
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT:Demand Management
Roadmap to the Lecture:Fundamental Types of Forecasts, Finer Classification of Forecasts
Time Series Forecasts:Techniques for Averaging, Simple Moving Average Solution
The formula for the moving average is:Exponential Smoothing Model, Common Nonlinear Trends
The formula for the moving average is:Major factors in design strategy
The formula for the moving average is:Standardization, Mass Customization
The formula for the moving average is:DESIGN STRATEGIES
The formula for the moving average is:Measuring Reliability, AVAILABILITY
The formula for the moving average is:Learning Objectives, Capacity Planning
The formula for the moving average is:Efficiency and Utilization, Evaluating Alternatives
The formula for the moving average is:Evaluating Alternatives, Financial Analysis
PROCESS SELECTION:Types of Operation, Intermittent Processing
PROCESS SELECTION:Basic Layout Types, Advantages of Product Layout
PROCESS SELECTION:Cellular Layouts, Facilities Layouts, Importance of Layout Decisions
DESIGN OF WORK SYSTEMS:Job Design, Specialization, Methods Analysis
LOCATION PLANNING AND ANALYSIS:MANAGING GLOBAL OPERATIONS, Regional Factors
MANAGEMENT OF QUALITY:Dimensions of Quality, Examples of Service Quality
SERVICE QUALITY:Moments of Truth, Perceived Service Quality, Service Gap Analysis
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT:Determinants of Quality, Responsibility for Quality
TQM QUALITY:Six Sigma Team, PROCESS IMPROVEMENT
QUALITY CONTROL & QUALITY ASSURANCE:INSPECTION, Control Chart
ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING:CHOOSING A PLAN, CONSUMER’S AND PRODUCER’S RISK
AGGREGATE PLANNING:Demand and Capacity Options
AGGREGATE PLANNING:Aggregate Planning Relationships, Master Scheduling
INVENTORY MANAGEMENT:Objective of Inventory Control, Inventory Counting Systems
INVENTORY MANAGEMENT:ABC Classification System, Cycle Counting
INVENTORY MANAGEMENT:Economic Production Quantity Assumptions
INVENTORY MANAGEMENT:Independent and Dependent Demand
INVENTORY MANAGEMENT:Capacity Planning, Manufacturing Resource Planning
JUST IN TIME PRODUCTION SYSTEMS:Organizational and Operational Strategies
JUST IN TIME PRODUCTION SYSTEMS:Operational Benefits, Kanban Formula
JUST IN TIME PRODUCTION SYSTEMS:Secondary Goals, Tiered Supplier Network
SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT:Logistics, Distribution Requirements Planning
SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT:Supply Chain Benefits and Drawbacks
SCHEDULING:High-Volume Systems, Load Chart, Hungarian Method
SEQUENCING:Assumptions to Priority Rules, Scheduling Service Operations
PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Project Life Cycle, Work Breakdown Structure
PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Computing Algorithm, Project Crashing, Risk Management
Waiting Lines:Queuing Analysis, System Characteristics, Priority Model

Project Management
INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Broad Contents, Functions of Management
CONCEPTS, DEFINITIONS AND NATURE OF PROJECTS:Why Projects are initiated?, Project Participants
CONCEPTS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT:THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM, Managerial Skills
PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES:Systems, Programs, and Projects
PROJECT LIFE CYCLES:Conceptual Phase, Implementation Phase, Engineering Project
THE PROJECT MANAGER:Team Building Skills, Conflict Resolution Skills, Organizing
THE PROJECT MANAGER (CONTD.):Project Champions, Project Authority Breakdown
PROJECT CONCEPTION AND PROJECT FEASIBILITY:Feasibility Analysis
PROJECT FEASIBILITY (CONTD.):Scope of Feasibility Analysis, Project Impacts
PROJECT FEASIBILITY (CONTD.):Operations and Production, Sales and Marketing
PROJECT SELECTION:Modeling, The Operating Necessity, The Competitive Necessity
PROJECT SELECTION (CONTD.):Payback Period, Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
PROJECT PROPOSAL:Preparation for Future Proposal, Proposal Effort
PROJECT PROPOSAL (CONTD.):Background on the Opportunity, Costs, Resources Required
PROJECT PLANNING:Planning of Execution, Operations, Installation and Use
PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Outside Clients, Quality Control Planning
PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Elements of a Project Plan, Potential Problems
PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Sorting Out Project, Project Mission, Categories of Planning
PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Identifying Strategic Project Variables, Competitive Resources
PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Responsibilities of Key Players, Line manager will define
PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):The Statement of Work (Sow)
WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE:Characteristics of Work Package
WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE:Why Do Plans Fail?
SCHEDULES AND CHARTS:Master Production Scheduling, Program Plan
TOTAL PROJECT PLANNING:Management Control, Project Fast-Tracking
PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT:Why is Scope Important?, Scope Management Plan
PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT:Project Scope Definition, Scope Change Control
NETWORK SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES:Historical Evolution of Networks, Dummy Activities
NETWORK SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES:Slack Time Calculation, Network Re-planning
NETWORK SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES:Total PERT/CPM Planning, PERT/CPM Problem Areas
PRICING AND ESTIMATION:GLOBAL PRICING STRATEGIES, TYPES OF ESTIMATES
PRICING AND ESTIMATION (CONTD.):LABOR DISTRIBUTIONS, OVERHEAD RATES
PRICING AND ESTIMATION (CONTD.):MATERIALS/SUPPORT COSTS, PRICING OUT THE WORK
QUALITY IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Value-Based Perspective, Customer-Driven Quality
QUALITY IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT (CONTD.):Total Quality Management
PRINCIPLES OF TOTAL QUALITY:EMPOWERMENT, COST OF QUALITY
CUSTOMER FOCUSED PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Threshold Attributes
QUALITY IMPROVEMENT TOOLS:Data Tables, Identify the problem, Random method
PROJECT EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH ENHANCED PRODUCTIVITY:Messages of Productivity, Productivity Improvement
COST MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN PROJECTS:Project benefits, Understanding Control
COST MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN PROJECTS:Variance, Depreciation
PROJECT MANAGEMENT THROUGH LEADERSHIP:The Tasks of Leadership, The Job of a Leader
COMMUNICATION IN THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Cost of Correspondence, CHANNEL
PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT:Components of Risk, Categories of Risk, Risk Planning
PROJECT PROCUREMENT, CONTRACT MANAGEMENT, AND ETHICS IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Procurement Cycles

SME Management
THE HISTORY:Cottage Industry, CONCEPT OF SMALL BUSINESS
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SMALL AND BIG BUSINESS:The SME’S in Pakistan
THE ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIPS IN SMEs:Focus and Perseverance Guide the Entrepreneur
THE ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIPS IN SMEs:Kinds of Entrepreneurs
SMALL ENTREPRENEURS IN PAKISTAN:National Approaches
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMES IN PAKISTAN:The Industrial History of Pakistan
GOVERNMENT’S EFFORT TOWARDS SME DEVELOPMENT:Financing Programs
THIS LECTURE DEFINES THE ROLE OF NGOS AND SMEDA:Mission Statement
ISSUES AND POLICY DEVELOPMENT FOR SME:Monitoring Developments
ISSUES IN SME DEVELOPMENT:Business Environment, Taxation Issues
LABOR ISSUES:Delivery of Assistance and Access to Resources, Finance
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:Market and Industry Information, Monitoring Developments
MARKET AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION:Measuring Our Success, Gender Development
LONG TERM ISSUES:Law and Order, Intellectual Property Rights, Infrastructure
THE START UP PROCESS OF A SMALL ENTERPRISE:Steps in Innovative Process
TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY:Market Feasibility, Market Testing
FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY:Financial resources and other costs, Cash Flow Analysis
ASSESSMENT OF PERSONAL REQUIREMENTS AND ORGANIZATIONAL CAPABILITIES:Analysis of Competition
Post Operative Problems of a New Enterprise:Environmental Causes
HOW TO APPROACH LENDERS:Bank’s Lending Criteria, Specific Purpose, Be Well Prepared
WHAT A BANK NEEDS TO KNOW ABOUT YOU:General Credentials, Financial Situation
COMMERCIAL INFORMATION:Checklist for Feasibility Study, The Market
GUARANTEES OR COLLATERAL YOU CAN OFFER:Typical Collateral
Aspects of Financial Management:WINNING THE CASH FLOW WAR, The Realization Concept
MEANING OF WORKING CAPITAL:Gross Working Capital, Net Working Capital
RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND TRAINING:Job Description, Job Specification
SELECTION AND HIRING THE RIGHT CANDIDATE:Application Blank, Orientation
TRAINGING AND DEVELOPMENT:Knowledge, Methods of Training
CONDITIONS THAT STIMULATE LEARNING:Limitations of Performance Appraisal, Discipline
QUALITY CONTROL:Two Aspects of Quality, Manufactured Quality
QUALITY CONTROL:International Quality Standards, MARKETING
MARKETING:Marketing Function, MARKETING PROCESS - STEPS
MARKETING:Controllable Variable, Marketing Uncontrollable, Marketing Mix
MARKETING:Demerits of Product Mix, Development of new product, SMEDA
ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY:Training programmes, Publications
ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY:Measure to Undertake for Promoting Framework.
EXPORT POTENTIAL OF SME IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES I:Commonly Seen Assistance Programme
EXPORT POTENTIAL OF SME IN DEVELOPING Countries. II:At the national level
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO):WTO Agreements: Salient Features
WTO MINISTERIAL CONFERENCES:PAKISTAN AND WTO
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) PAKISTAN & WTO. II:International Treaties
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) PAKISTAN & WTO. III:Agriculture
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO):PAKISTAN & WTO. III
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO):CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS:Financing Tool, Financing Tool

Strategic Management
NATURE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT:Interpretation, Strategy evaluation
KEY TERMS IN STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT:Adapting to change, Mission Statements
INTERNAL FACTORS & LONG TERM GOALS:Strategies, Annual Objectives
BENEFITS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT:Non- financial Benefits, Nature of global competition
COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGIC MODEL:Mission statement, Narrow Mission:
CHARACTERISTICS OF A MISSION STATEMENT:A Declaration of Attitude
EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT:The Nature of an External Audit, Economic Forces
KEY EXTERNAL FACTORS:Economic Forces, Trends for the 2000’s USA
EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT (KEY EXTERNAL FACTORS):Political, Governmental, and Legal Forces
TECHNOLOGICAL FORCES:Technology-based issues
INDUSTRY ANALYSIS:Global challenge, The Competitive Profile Matrix (CPM)
IFE MATRIX:The Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) Matrix, Internal Audit
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT:Planning, Organizing, Motivating, Staffing
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT:Customer Analysis, Product and Service Planning, Pricing
INTERNAL ASSESSMENT (FINANCE/ACCOUNTING):Basic Types of Financial Ratios
ANALYTICAL TOOLS:Research and Development, The functional support role
THE INTERNAL FACTOR EVALUATION (IFE) MATRIX:Explanation
TYPES OF STRATEGIES:The Nature of Long-Term Objectives, Integration Strategies
TYPES OF STRATEGIES:Horizontal Integration, Michael Porter’s Generic Strategies
TYPES OF STRATEGIES:Intensive Strategies, Market Development, Product Development
TYPES OF STRATEGIES:Diversification Strategies, Conglomerate Diversification
TYPES OF STRATEGIES:Guidelines for Divestiture, Guidelines for Liquidation
STRATEGY-FORMULATION FRAMEWORK:A Comprehensive Strategy-Formulation Framework
THREATS-OPPORTUNITIES-WEAKNESSES-STRENGTHS (TOWS) MATRIX:WT Strategies
THE STRATEGIC POSITION AND ACTION EVALUATION (SPACE) MATRIX
THE STRATEGIC POSITION AND ACTION EVALUATION (SPACE) MATRIX
BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP (BCG) MATRIX:Cash cows, Question marks
BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP (BCG) MATRIX:Steps for the development of IE matrix
GRAND STRATEGY MATRIX:RAPID MARKET GROWTH, SLOW MARKET GROWTH
GRAND STRATEGY MATRIX:Preparation of matrix, Key External Factors
THE NATURE OF STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION:Management Perspectives, The SMART criteria
RESOURCE ALLOCATION
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE:Divisional Structure, The Matrix Structure
RESTRUCTURING:Characteristics, Results, Reengineering
PRODUCTION/OPERATIONS CONCERNS WHEN IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIES:Philosophy
MARKET SEGMENTATION:Demographic Segmentation, Behavioralistic Segmentation
MARKET SEGMENTATION:Product Decisions, Distribution (Place) Decisions, Product Positioning
FINANCE/ACCOUNTING ISSUES:DEBIT, USES OF PRO FORMA STATEMENTS
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ISSUES
STRATEGY REVIEW, EVALUATION AND CONTROL:Evaluation, The threat of new entrants
PORTER SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL:The activities of the Value Chain, Support activities
STRATEGY EVALUATION:Consistency, The process of evaluating Strategies
REVIEWING BASES OF STRATEGY:Measuring Organizational Performance
MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE EVALUATION SYSTEM:Contingency Planning

Total Quality Management TQM
OVERVIEW OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT:PROFESSIONAL MANAGERIAL ERA (1950)
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND TOTAL ORGANIZATION EXCELLENCE:Measurement
INTEGRATING PEOPLE AND PERFORMANCE THROUGH QUALITY MANAGEMENT
FUNDAMENTALS OF TOTAL QUALITY AND RATERS VIEW:The Concept of Quality
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND GLOBAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE:Customer Focus
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING FOR QUALITY AT OFFICE
LEADERS IN QUALITY REVOLUTION AND DEFINING FOR QUALITY:User-Based
TAGUCHI LOSS FUNCTION AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT
WTO, SHIFTING FOCUS OF CORPORATE CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL OF MANAGEMENT
HISTORY OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT PARADIGMS
DEFINING QUALITY, QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND LINKS WITH PROFITABILITY
LEARNING ABOUT QUALITY AND APPROACHES FROM QUALITY PHILOSOPHIES
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT THEORIES EDWARD DEMING’S SYSTEM OF PROFOUND KNOWLEDGE
DEMING’S PHILOSOPHY AND 14 POINTS FOR MANAGEMENT:The cost of quality
DEMING CYCLE AND QUALITY TRILOGY:Juran’s Three Basic Steps to Progress
JURAN AND CROSBY ON QUALITY AND QUALITY IS FREE:Quality Planning
CROSBY’S CONCEPT OF COST OF QUALITY:Cost of Quality Attitude
COSTS OF QUALITY AND RETURN ON QUALITY:Total Quality Costs
OVERVIEW OF TOTAL QUALITY APPROACHES:The Future of Quality Management
BUSINESS EXCELLENCE MODELS:Excellence in all functions
DESIGNING ORGANIZATIONS FOR QUALITY:Customer focus, Leadership
DEVELOPING ISO QMS FOR CERTIFICATION:Process approach
ISO 9001(2000) QMS MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY:Issues to be Considered
ISO 9001(2000) QMS (CLAUSE # 6) RESOURCES MANAGEMENT:Training and Awareness
ISO 9001(2000) (CLAUSE # 7) PRODUCT REALIZATION AND CUSTOMER RELATED PROCESSES
ISO 9001(2000) QMS (CLAUSE # 7) CONTROL OF PRODUCTION AND SERVICES
ISO 9001(2000) QMS (CLAUSE # 8) MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS, AND IMPROVEMENT
QUALITY IN SOFTWARE SECTOR AND MATURITY LEVELS:Structure of CMM
INSTALLING AN ISO -9001 QM SYSTEM:Implementation, Audit and Registration
CREATING BUSINESS EXCELLENCE:Elements of a Total Quality Culture
CREATING QUALITY AT STRATEGIC, TACTICAL AND OPERATIONAL LEVEL
BIG Q AND SMALL q LEADERSHIP FOR QUALITY:The roles of a Quality Leader
STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR QUALITY AND ADVANCED QUALITY MANAGEMENT TOOLS
HOSHIN KANRI AND STRATEGIC POLICY DEPLOYMENT:Senior Management
QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD) AND OTHER TOOLS FOR IMPLEMENTATION
BASIC SQC IMPROVEMENT TOOLS:TOTAL QUALITY TOOLS DEFINED
HOW QUALITY IS IMPLEMENTED? A DIALOGUE WITH A QUALITY MANAGER!
CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM AND OTHER TOOLS OF QUALITY:Control Charts
STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC) FOR CONTINUAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL….CONTD:Control Charts
BUILDING QUALITY THROUGH SPC:Types of Data, Defining Process Capability
AN INTERVIEW SESSION WITH OFFICERS OF A CMMI LEVEL 5 QUALITY IT PAKISTANI COMPANY
TEAMWORK CULTURE FOR TQM:Steering Committees, Natural Work Teams
UNDERSTANDING EMPOWERMENT FOR TQ AND CUSTOMER-SUPPLIER RELATIONSHIP
CSR, INNOVATION, KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND INTRODUCING LEARNING ORGANIZATION

Business Mathematics and Statistics
Calculus And Analytical Geometry
Coordinates, Graphs and Lines
Absolute Values
Coordinate Planes and Graphs
Line and Definition of Slope
Distance, Circles, Quadratic Equations
Functions and Limits
Operations on Functions
Graphs of Functions
Limits (Intuitive Introduction)
Limits and Computational Approach
Limits: A Rigorous Approach
Continuity
Limit and Continuity of Trigonometric Functions
Tangent Lines and Rates of Change
The Derivative

Elementary Mathematics
Recommended Books:Set of Integers, SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION
Truth Tables for:DE MORGAN’S LAWS, TAUTOLOGY
APPLYING LAWS OF LOGIC:TRANSLATING ENGLISH SENTENCES TO SYMBOLS
BICONDITIONAL:LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE INVOLVING BICONDITIONAL
BICONDITIONAL:ARGUMENT, VALID AND INVALID ARGUMENT
BICONDITIONAL:TABULAR FORM, SUBSET, EQUAL SETS
BICONDITIONAL:UNION, VENN DIAGRAM FOR UNION
ORDERED PAIR:BINARY RELATION, BINARY RELATION
REFLEXIVE RELATION:SYMMETRIC RELATION, TRANSITIVE RELATION
REFLEXIVE RELATION:IRREFLEXIVE RELATION, ANTISYMMETRIC RELATION
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS:FUNCTIONS AND NONFUNCTIONS
INJECTIVE FUNCTION or ONE-TO-ONE FUNCTION:FUNCTION NOT ONTO
SEQUENCE:ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE, GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE:
SERIES:SUMMATION NOTATION, COMPUTING SUMMATIONS:
Applications of Basic Mathematics Part 1:BASIC ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS
Applications of Basic Mathematics Part 4:PERCENTAGE CHANGE
Applications of Basic Mathematics Part 5:DECREASE IN RATE
Applications of Basic Mathematics:NOTATIONS, ACCUMULATED VALUE
Matrix and its dimension Types of matrix:TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
MATRICES:Matrix Representation, ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF MATRICES
RATIO AND PROPORTION MERCHANDISING:Punch recipe, PROPORTION
WHAT IS STATISTICS?:CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SCIENCE OF STATISTICS
WHAT IS STATISTICS?:COMPONENT BAR CHAR, MULTIPLE BAR CHART
WHAT IS STATISTICS?:DESIRABLE PROPERTIES OF THE MODE, THE ARITHMETIC MEAN
Median in Case of a Frequency Distribution of a Continuous Variable
GEOMETRIC MEAN:HARMONIC MEAN, MID-QUARTILE RANGE
GEOMETRIC MEAN:Number of Pupils, QUARTILE DEVIATION:
GEOMETRIC MEAN:MEAN DEVIATION FOR GROUPED DATA
COUNTING RULES:RULE OF PERMUTATION, RULE OF COMBINATION
Definitions of Probability:MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE EVENTS, Venn Diagram
THE RELATIVE FREQUENCY DEFINITION OF PROBABILITY:ADDITION LAW
THE RELATIVE FREQUENCY DEFINITION OF PROBABILITY:INDEPENDENT EVENTS

Operations Research
Introduction:OR APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING, Observation
Introduction:Model Solution, Implementation of Results
Introduction:USES OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH, Marketing, Personnel
PERT / CPM:CONCEPT OF NETWORK, RULES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF NETWORK
PERT / CPM:DUMMY ACTIVITIES, TO FIND THE CRITICAL PATH
PERT / CPM:ALGORITHM FOR CRITICAL PATH, Free Slack
PERT / CPM:Expected length of a critical path, Expected time and Critical path
PERT / CPM:Expected time and Critical path
PERT / CPM:RESOURCE SCHEDULING IN NETWORK
PERT / CPM:Exercises
Inventory Control:INVENTORY COSTS, INVENTORY MODELS (E.O.Q. MODELS)
Inventory Control:Purchasing model with shortages
Inventory Control:Manufacturing model with no shortages
Inventory Control:Manufacturing model with shortages
Inventory Control:ORDER QUANTITY WITH PRICE-BREAK
Inventory Control:SOME DEFINITIONS, Computation of Safety Stock
Linear Programming:Formulation of the Linear Programming Problem
Linear Programming:Formulation of the Linear Programming Problem, Decision Variables
Linear Programming:Model Constraints, Ingredients Mixing
Linear Programming:VITAMIN CONTRIBUTION, Decision Variables
Linear Programming:LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM
Linear Programming:LIMITATIONS OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING
Linear Programming:SOLUTION TO LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS
Linear Programming:SIMPLEX METHOD, Simplex Procedure
Linear Programming:PRESENTATION IN TABULAR FORM - (SIMPLEX TABLE)
Linear Programming:ARTIFICIAL VARIABLE TECHNIQUE
Linear Programming:The Two Phase Method, First Iteration
Linear Programming:VARIANTS OF THE SIMPLEX METHOD
Linear Programming:Tie for the Leaving Basic Variable (Degeneracy)
Linear Programming:Multiple or Alternative optimal Solutions
Transportation Problems:TRANSPORTATION MODEL, Distribution centers
Transportation Problems:FINDING AN INITIAL BASIC FEASIBLE SOLUTION
Transportation Problems:MOVING TOWARDS OPTIMALITY
Transportation Problems:DEGENERACY, Destination
Transportation Problems:REVIEW QUESTIONS
Assignment Problems:MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM
Assignment Problems:SOLUTION OF AN ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
Queuing Theory:DEFINITION OF TERMS IN QUEUEING MODEL
Queuing Theory:SINGLE-CHANNEL INFINITE-POPULATION MODEL
Replacement Models:REPLACEMENT OF ITEMS WITH GRADUAL DETERIORATION
Replacement Models:ITEMS DETERIORATING WITH TIME VALUE OF MONEY
Dynamic Programming:FEATURES CHARECTERIZING DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS
Dynamic Programming:Analysis of the Result, One Stage Problem
Miscellaneous:SEQUENCING, PROCESSING n JOBS THROUGH TWO MACHINES
Miscellaneous:METHODS OF INTEGER PROGRAMMING SOLUTION

An Introduction to Physics
Introduction to Economics
INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS:Economic Systems
INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS (CONTINUED………):Opportunity Cost
DEMAND, SUPPLY AND EQUILIBRIUM:Goods Market and Factors Market
DEMAND, SUPPLY AND EQUILIBRIUM (CONTINUED……..)
DEMAND, SUPPLY AND EQUILIBRIUM (CONTINUED……..):Equilibrium
ELASTICITIES:Price Elasticity of Demand, Point Elasticity, Arc Elasticity
ELASTICITIES (CONTINUED………….):Total revenue and Elasticity
ELASTICITIES (CONTINUED………….):Short Run and Long Run, Incidence of Taxation
BACKGROUND TO DEMAND/CONSUMPTION:CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
BACKGROUND TO DEMAND/CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED…………….)
BACKGROUND TO DEMAND/CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED…………….)The Indifference Curve Approach
BACKGROUND TO DEMAND/CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED…………….):Normal Goods and Giffen Good
BACKGROUND TO SUPPLY/COSTS:PRODUCTIVE THEORY
BACKGROUND TO SUPPLY/COSTS (CONTINUED…………..):The Scale of Production
BACKGROUND TO SUPPLY/COSTS (CONTINUED…………..):Isoquant
BACKGROUND TO SUPPLY/COSTS (CONTINUED…………..):COSTS
BACKGROUND TO SUPPLY/COSTS (CONTINUED…………..):REVENUES
BACKGROUND TO SUPPLY/COSTS (CONTINUED…………..):PROFIT MAXIMISATION
MARKET STRUCTURES:PERFECT COMPETITION, Allocative efficiency
MARKET STRUCTURES (CONTINUED………..):MONOPOLY
MARKET STRUCTURES (CONTINUED………..):PRICE DISCRIMINATION
MARKET STRUCTURES (CONTINUED………..):OLIGOPOLY
SELECTED ISSUES IN MICROECONOMICS:WELFARE ECONOMICS
SELECTED ISSUES IN MICROECONOMICS (CONTINUED……………)
INTRODUCTION TO MACROECONOMICS:Price Level and its Effects:
INTRODUCTION TO MACROECONOMICS (CONTINUED………..)
INTRODUCTION TO MACROECONOMICS (CONTINUED………..):The Monetarist School
THE USE OF MACROECONOMIC DATA, AND THE DEFINITION AND ACCOUNTING OF NATIONAL INCOME
THE USE OF MACROECONOMIC DATA, AND THE DEFINITION AND ACCOUNTING OF NATIONAL INCOME (CONTINUED……………..)
MACROECONOMIC EQUILIBRIUM & VARIABLES; THE DETERMINATION OF EQUILIBRIUM INCOME
MACROECONOMIC EQUILIBRIUM & VARIABLES; THE DETERMINATION OF EQUILIBRIUM INCOME (CONTINUED………..)
MACROECONOMIC EQUILIBRIUM & VARIABLES; THE DETERMINATION OF EQUILIBRIUM INCOME (CONTINUED………..):The Accelerator
THE FOUR BIG MACROECONOMIC ISSUES AND THEIR INTER-RELATIONSHIPS
THE FOUR BIG MACROECONOMIC ISSUES AND THEIR INTER-RELATIONSHIPS (CONTINUED…….)
THE FOUR BIG MACROECONOMIC ISSUES AND THEIR INTER-RELATIONSHIPS (CONTINUED…….):Causes of Inflation
THE FOUR BIG MACROECONOMIC ISSUES AND THEIR INTER-RELATIONSHIPS (CONTINUED…….):BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
THE FOUR BIG MACROECONOMIC ISSUES AND THEIR INTER-RELATIONSHIPS (CONTINUED…….):GROWTH
THE FOUR BIG MACROECONOMIC ISSUES AND THEIR INTER-RELATIONSHIPS (CONTINUED…….):Land
THE FOUR BIG MACROECONOMIC ISSUES AND THEIR INTER-RELATIONSHIPS (CONTINUED…….):Growth-inflation
FISCAL POLICY AND TAXATION:Budget Deficit, Budget Surplus and Balanced Budget
MONEY, CENTRAL BANKING AND MONETARY POLICY
MONEY, CENTRAL BANKING AND MONETARY POLICY (CONTINUED…….)
JOINT EQUILIBRIUM IN THE MONEY AND GOODS MARKETS: THE IS-LM FRAMEWORK
AN INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND FINANCE
PROBLEMS OF LOWER INCOME COUNTRIES:Poverty trap theories:

Macro economics
INTRODUCTION:COURSE DESCRIPTION, TEN PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS
PRINCIPLE OF MACROECONOMICS:People Face Tradeoffs
IMPORTANCE OF MACROECONOMICS:Interest rates and rental payments
THE DATA OF MACROECONOMICS:Rules for computing GDP
THE DATA OF MACROECONOMICS (Continued…):Components of Expenditures
THE DATA OF MACROECONOMICS (Continued…):How to construct the CPI
NATIONAL INCOME: WHERE IT COMES FROM AND WHERE IT GOES
NATIONAL INCOME: WHERE IT COMES FROM AND WHERE IT GOES (Continued…)
NATIONAL INCOME: WHERE IT COMES FROM AND WHERE IT GOES (Continued…)
NATIONAL INCOME: WHERE IT COMES FROM AND WHERE IT GOES (Continued…)
MONEY AND INFLATION:The Quantity Equation, Inflation and interest rates
MONEY AND INFLATION (Continued…):Money demand and the nominal interest rate
MONEY AND INFLATION (Continued…):Costs of expected inflation:
MONEY AND INFLATION (Continued…):The Classical Dichotomy
OPEN ECONOMY:Three experiments, The nominal exchange rate
OPEN ECONOMY (Continued…):The Determinants of the Nominal Exchange Rate
OPEN ECONOMY (Continued…):A first model of the natural rate
ISSUES IN UNEMPLOYMENT:Public Policy and Job Search
ECONOMIC GROWTH:THE SOLOW MODEL, Saving and investment
ECONOMIC GROWTH (Continued…):The Steady State
ECONOMIC GROWTH (Continued…):The Golden Rule Capital Stock
ECONOMIC GROWTH (Continued…):The Golden Rule, Policies to promote growth
ECONOMIC GROWTH (Continued…):Possible problems with industrial policy
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY:When prices are sticky
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY (Continued…):
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY (Continued…):
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY (Continued…)
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY (Continued…)
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY (Continued…)
AGGREGATE DEMAND IN THE OPEN ECONOMY:Lessons about fiscal policy
AGGREGATE DEMAND IN THE OPEN ECONOMY(Continued…):Fixed exchange rates
AGGREGATE DEMAND IN THE OPEN ECONOMY (Continued…):Why income might not rise
AGGREGATE SUPPLY:The sticky-price model
AGGREGATE SUPPLY (Continued…):Deriving the Phillips Curve from SRAS
GOVERNMENT DEBT:Permanent Debt, Floating Debt, Unfunded Debts
GOVERNMENT DEBT (Continued…):Starting with too little capital,
CONSUMPTION:Secular Stagnation and Simon Kuznets
CONSUMPTION (Continued…):Consumer Preferences, Constraints on Borrowings
CONSUMPTION (Continued…):The Life-cycle Consumption Function
INVESTMENT:The Rental Price of Capital, The Cost of Capital
INVESTMENT (Continued…):The Determinants of Investment
INVESTMENT (Continued…):Financing Constraints, Residential Investment
INVESTMENT (Continued…):Inventories and the Real Interest Rate
MONEY:Money Supply, Fractional Reserve Banking,
MONEY (Continued…):Three Instruments of Money Supply, Money Demand

Micro economics
ECONOMICS:Themes of Microeconomics, Theories and Models
Economics: Another Perspective, Factors of Production
REAL VERSUS NOMINAL PRICES:SUPPLY AND DEMAND, The Demand Curve
Changes in Market Equilibrium:Market for College Education
Elasticities of supply and demand:The Demand for Gasoline
Consumer Behavior:Consumer Preferences, Indifference curves
CONSUMER PREFERENCES:Budget Constraints, Consumer Choice
Note it is repeated:Consumer Preferences, Revealed Preferences
MARGINAL UTILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE:COST-OF-LIVING INDEXES
Review of Consumer Equilibrium:INDIVIDUAL DEMAND, An Inferior Good
Income & Substitution Effects:Determining the Market Demand Curve
The Aggregate Demand For Wheat:NETWORK EXTERNALITIES
Describing Risk:Unequal Probability Outcomes
PREFERENCES TOWARD RISK:Risk Premium, Indifference Curve
PREFERENCES TOWARD RISK:Reducing Risk, The Demand for Risky Assets
The Technology of Production:Production Function for Food
Production with Two Variable Inputs:Returns to Scale
Measuring Cost: Which Costs Matter?:Cost in the Short Run
A Firm’s Short-Run Costs ($):The Effect of Effluent Fees on Firms’ Input Choices
Cost in the Long Run:Long-Run Cost with Economies & Diseconomies of Scale
Production with Two Outputs--Economies of Scope:Cubic Cost Function
Perfectly Competitive Markets:Choosing Output in Short Run
A Competitive Firm Incurring Losses:Industry Supply in Short Run
Elasticity of Market Supply:Producer Surplus for a Market
Elasticity of Market Supply:Long-Run Competitive Equilibrium
Elasticity of Market Supply:The Industry’s Long-Run Supply Curve
Elasticity of Market Supply:Welfare loss if price is held below market-clearing level
Price Supports:Supply Restrictions, Import Quotas and Tariffs
The Sugar Quota:The Impact of a Tax or Subsidy, Subsidy
Perfect Competition:Total, Marginal, and Average Revenue
Perfect Competition:Effect of Excise Tax on Monopolist
Monopoly:Elasticity of Demand and Price Markup, Sources of Monopoly Power
The Social Costs of Monopoly Power:Price Regulation, Monopsony
Monopsony Power:Pricing With Market Power, Capturing Consumer Surplus
Monopsony Power:THE ECONOMICS OF COUPONS AND REBATES
Airline Fares:Elasticities of Demand for Air Travel, The Two-Part Tariff
Bundling:Consumption Decisions When Products are Bundled
Bundling:Mixed Versus Pure Bundling, Effects of Advertising
MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION:Monopolistic Competition in the Market for Colas and Coffee
OLIGOPOLY:Duopoly Example, Price Competition
Competition Versus Collusion:The Prisoners’ Dilemma, Implications of the Prisoners
COMPETITIVE FACTOR MARKETS:Marginal Revenue Product
Competitive Factor Markets:The Demand for Jet Fuel
Equilibrium in a Competitive Factor Market:Labor Market Equilibrium
Factor Markets with Monopoly Power:Monopoly Power of Sellers of Labor

Research Methods
INTRODUCTION, DEFINITION & VALUE OF RESEARCH
SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF RESEARCH & ITS SPECIAL FEATURES
CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH:Goals of Exploratory Research
THEORY AND RESEARCH:Concepts, Propositions, Role of Theory
CONCEPTS:Concepts are an Abstraction of Reality, Sources of Concepts
VARIABLES AND TYPES OF VARIABLES:Moderating Variables
HYPOTHESIS TESTING & CHARACTERISTICS:Correlational hypotheses
REVIEW OF LITERATURE:Where to find the Research Literature
CONDUCTING A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW:Write the Review
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK:Make an inventory of variables
PROBLEM DEFINITION AND RESEARCH PROPOSAL:Problem Definition
THE RESEARCH PROCESS:Broad Problem Area, Theoretical Framework
ETHICAL ISSUES IN RESEARCH:Ethical Treatment of Participants
ETHICAL ISSUES IN RESEARCH (Cont):Debriefing, Rights to Privacy
MEASUREMENT OF CONCEPTS:Conceptualization
MEASUREMENT OF CONCEPTS (CONTINUED):Operationalization
MEASUREMENT OF CONCEPTS (CONTINUED):Scales and Indexes
CRITERIA FOR GOOD MEASUREMENT:Convergent Validity
RESEARCH DESIGN:Purpose of the Study, Steps in Conducting a Survey
SURVEY RESEARCH:CHOOSING A COMMUNICATION MEDIA
INTERCEPT INTERVIEWS IN MALLS AND OTHER HIGH-TRAFFIC AREAS
SELF ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRES (CONTINUED):Interesting Questions
TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION:Guidelines for Questionnaire Design
PILOT TESTING OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE:Discovering errors in the instrument
INTERVIEWING:The Role of the Interviewer, Terminating the Interview
SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TERMINOLOGY:Saves Cost, Labor, and Time
PROBABILITY AND NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING:Convenience Sampling
TYPES OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING:Systematic Random Sample
DATA ANALYSIS:Information, Editing, Editing for Consistency
DATA TRANSFROMATION:Indexes and Scales, Scoring and Score Index
DATA PRESENTATION:Bivariate Tables, Constructing Percentage Tables
THE PARTS OF THE TABLE:Reading a percentage Table
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH:The Language of Experiments
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (Cont.):True Experimental Designs
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (Cont.):Validity in Experiments
NON-REACTIVE RESEARCH:Recording and Documentation
USE OF SECONDARY DATA:Advantages, Disadvantages, Secondary Survey Data
OBSERVATION STUDIES/FIELD RESEARCH:Logic of Field Research
OBSERVATION STUDIES (Contd.):Ethical Dilemmas of Field research
HISTORICAL COMPARATIVE RESEARCH:Similarities to Field Research
HISTORICAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH (Contd.):Locating Evidence
FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION:The Purpose of FGD, Formal Focus Groups
FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION (Contd.):Uses of Focus Group Discussions
REPORT WRITING:Conclusions and recommendations, Appended Parts
REFERENCING:Book by a single author, Edited book, Doctoral Dissertation

Business Communication
COMMUNICATION:Definition of Communication, Communication & Global Market
FLOW OF COMMUNICATION:Internal Communication, External Communication
THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION:Electronic Theory, Rhetorical Theory
THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION & MISCOMMUNICATION:Message
BARRIERS IN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION /COMMUNICATION FALLOFF
NON- VERBAL COMMUNICATION:Analysing Nonverbal Communication
NON- VERBAL COMMUNICATION:Environmental Factors
TRAITS OF GOOD COMMUNICATORS:Careful Creation of the Message
PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION:Clarity
CORRECTNESS:Conciseness, Conciseness Checklist, Correct words
CONSIDERATION:Completeness
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION:Education, Law and Regulations, Economics
INDIVIDUAL CULTURAL VARIABLES:Acceptable Dress, Manners
PROCESS OF PREPARING EFFECTIVE BUSINESS MESSAGES
Composing the Messages:THE APPEARANCE AND DESIGN OF BUSINESS MESSAGES
THE APPEARANCE AND DESIGN OF BUSINESS MESSAGES:Punctuation Styles
COMMUNICATING THROUGH TECHNOLOGY:Email Etiquette, Electronic Media
BASIC ORGANIZATIONAL PLANS:Writing Goodwill Letters
LETTER WRITING:Direct Requests, Inquiries and General Requests
LETTER WRITING:Replies to Inquiries, Model Letters
LETTER WRITING:Placing Orders, Give the Information in a Clear Format
LETTER WRITING:Claim and Adjustment Requests, Warm, Courteous Close
LETTER WRITING:When The Buyer Is At Fault, Writing Credit Letters
LETTER WRITING:Collection Letters, Collection Letter Series
LETTER WRITING:Sales Letters, Know your Buyer, Prepare a List of Buyers
MEMORANDUM & CIRCULAR:Purpose of Memo, Tone of Memorandums
MINUTES OF THE MEETING:Committee Members’ Roles, Producing the Minutes
BUSINESS REPORTS:A Model Report, Definition, Purpose of report
BUSINESS REPORTS:Main Features of the Report, INTRODUCTION
BUSINESS REPORTS:Prefatory Parts, Place of Title Page Items
MARKET REPORTS:Classification of Markets, Wholesale Market
JOB SEARCH AND EMPLOYMENT:Planning Your Career
RESUME WRITING:The Chronological Resume, The Combination Resume
RESUME & APPLICATION LETTER:Personal Details, Two Types of Job Letters
JOB INQUIRY LETTER AND INTERVIEW:Understanding the Interview Process
PROCESS OF PREPARING THE INTERVIEW:Planning for a Successful Interview
ORAL PRESENTATION:Planning Oral Presentation, To Motivate
ORAL PRESENTATION:Overcoming anxiety, Body Language
LANGUAGE PRACTICE AND NEGOTIATION SKILLS:Psychological barriers
NEGOTIATION AND LISTENING:Gather information that helps you
THESIS WRITING AND PRESENTATION:Write down your ideas
THESIS WRITING AND PRESENTATION:Sections of a Thesis (Format)
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:Studies Primarily Qualitative in Nature
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:Basic Rules, Basic Form, Basic Format for Books

Communication Skills
Feature and Column Writing
IMPORTANCE OF LANGUAGE:Feature writing, Explanation of the definition
SOURCES OF MATERIAL:Commemorations, Science and Technology
INTERNET USAGE IN FEATURE WRITING:Be very careful, Website checklist
WHAT MAKES A GOOD FEATURE?:Meeting demands of readers
DEMANDS OF A FEATURE:Entertainment and Interest, Both sides of picture
CONDUCTING AND WRITING OF INTERVIEWS:Kinds of interviews
WRITING NOVELTY INTROS:Punch or astonisher intros, Direct quotation intros
STRUCTURE OF FEATURES:Intro or Lead, Transition, Body
SELECTION OF PICTURES, ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS:Sources
FEATURES AND EDITORIAL POLICY:Slanting or angling feature
HUMAN INTEREST AND FEATURE WRITING:Obtaining facts, Knowing how to write
NEWSPAPER FEATURE STORY:The Business Story, The Medical Story
THE NEWSPAPER FEATURE STORY IDEA:Conflict, Human interest
MAGAZINE FEATURE VERSUS DAILIES:Feature versus Editorial, An overview
WRITING THE SPECIALISED FEATURE STORY:The Deadline Feature Sidebar
MODERN FEATURE AND ITS TREATMENT:Readers’ constraints
MODERN FEATURE WRITING TECHNIQUE:The Blundell Technique
ADVICE TO FEATURE WRITERS:A guide to better writing, Love Writing
COLUMN WRITING:Definition, Various definitions, Why most powerful?
COLUMN WRITING IN MODERN AGE:Diversity of thought, Individuality
ENGLISH AND URDU COLUMNISTS:More of anecdotal, Letting readers know
TYPES OF COLUMNS:Reporting-in-Depth Columns, Gossip Columns
OBJECTIVES AND IMPORTANCE OF COLUMNS:Friendly atmosphere, Analysis
WHAT ARE THE ESSENTIALS AND BASIC POINTS THAT GO IN TO THE FORMING OF A COLUMN?
STYLE:General and a specialised writing, How can a columnist improve it?
GENERAL STYLE OF THE COLUMN:Unified Style, Anecdotal Style, Departmental Style
STRUCTURE OF A COLUMN:Intro or lead, Main body, Conclusion
COLUMN WRITING TIPS:Write with conviction, Purpose, Content
SELECTION OF A TOPIC:Close to your heart, Things keeping in Queue
QUALITIES OF A COLUMN WRITER:Personal, Professional, Highly Educated
WHAT MUST BE PRACTISED BY A COLUMNIST?:Pleasantness, Fluency
SOURCES OF MATERIAL OF COLUMNS:Constant factors, Interview
USEFUL WRITING DEVICES:Be specific, Use Characterisation, Describe scenes
COMMON WRITING PROBLEMS:Eliminate clichés, Don’t misuse words
WRITING THE COLUMN:Certain thumb rules, After writing the column
ARTICLE WRITING:Introduction, Definition, Contents, Main Segments, Main body
HOW TO WRITE AN ARTICLE?:It is more efficient, It is more believable
TYPES AND SUBJECTS OF ARTICLE:Interview articles, Utility articles
FIVE COMMANDMENTS, NO PROFESSIONAL FORGETS:Use Key Words
ARTICLES WRITING MISTAKES:Plagiarising or 'buying articles, Rambling
WRITING THE ARTICLE:Various parts of article, The topic sentence
What to do when you have written the article?:Writing the first draft
TEN STANDARD ARTICLE FORMATS:The informative articles
LEGAL AND ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR WRITERS:Libel, Doctoring Quotes
REVISION:Importance of language, Feature writing, Sources of material

Fundamentals of Public Relations
INTRODUCTION & BRIEF HISTORY:Definitions Of Public Relations
HOW DOES PR WORK?:OVERVIEW, Formulation of policy
PUBLIC RELATIONS DISTINGUISHED:Size of a PR Department.
PUBLICS OF PR:Expanded Publics, Few Examples Of Publics
PLANNING PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAMMES:Print Media, Electronic Media
MEDIAS OF PR:Media for External Publics, Principles of Good Press Relations
PRESS RELATIONS IN PR:What is News, Secrets Of Good News Release.
CREATED PRIVATE MEDIA:Private Media, New Forms of House Journals
SPECIAL USES OF PUBLIC RELATIONS:Crisis Management, Skills Of PR
BUDGETING IN PR:Labour, Office Overheads, PR & Photographs
PUBLIC RELATIONS PROBLEMS:Defining PR problems, C’s of PR explained
METHODS OF COMMUNICATION:Psychology of Public Relations
PR IN VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS:Techniques of Trade Association PR
PR IN LABOUR UNIONS & RELIGIOUS GROUPS:Community Public Relations
PR IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS & IN MEDIA CHANNALS
USING ADVERTISING FOR P R COMMUNICATION:Role Of PR
ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN MARKETING:How To Educate The Market
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND CORPORATE STRUCTURE:Corporate Identity Essentials
E-PR & ITS TOOLS:Immediate Points To Consider, Using Email As PR Tool
SPONSORSHIP—AN IMPORTANT PR TOOL:PR & Communication Audit
HOUSE JOURNALS:Possible Publics Of House Journals, Exhibitions & PR
CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN PR:Plan Of Action Adopted, Interview at your place
ADVERTISING IN PR:Broad Objectives Of Advertising, Direct Advertising.
INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC RELATIONS:Media Used, Within Store Contacts
PUBLIC RELATIONS CONSULTANCY:Disadvantages, Mass Communication
PUBLIC RELATION’S ROLE IN MARKET EDUCATION:Kinds Of Markets
MODERN DAY VALUES OF PR:Ethics Of Public Relations
CHOICE OF MEDIA FOR PR COMPAIGN:Communication Channels & Media
PR TECHNIQUES:Tactics & Techniques
DESIGNING PR COMPAIGNS:Definitive Mission statement, Reputation.
PUBLIC OPINION:Identifying Priority Publics, If Goal Is Attitude Change
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND RESEARCH:Planning Phase Of Research
PR AND RESEARCH:Unobtrusive Measures, Questionnaires For Survey
PROBLEMS SOLVING STRATEGIES:Communicate results
PERSUASION & COMMUNICATION THEORIES:Message Orientation
COMMUNICATION CONCEPTS & THEORIES:Research and Persuasion
PUBLIC RELATIONS & LAW:How To Stay Out Of Trouble
PUBLIC RELATIONS & CASE STUDIES:Case Analysis, Images Of Public Relations
PR AND PRINTING PROCESSES:Fundamentals Of Printing
PUBLIC SPEAKING -- A PR TOOL:Key Benefits, How To Prepare
PR -- COPING WITH UNEXPECTED:Some Possible PR Ideas
DREAMS & REALITIES OF PR:Who Takes Charge Of Identity?
CHANGING INTO OVERDRIVE:How International Is PR?
GETTING ON WITH PR:Where does PR fit in the structure?
FUNDAMENTALS OF A SUCCESSFUL NEWSLETTER:RESEARCH, WRITING

Globalization of Media
THE UNIQUE NATURE OF THE PAKISTANI NATION-STATE
“PAKISTAN: THE FIRST 11 YEARS 1947-1958” PART 1
“PAKISTAN: THE FIRST 11 YEARS 1947-1958”PART-2
ROOTS OF CHAOS: TINY ACTS OR GIANT MIS-STEPS?
“FROM NEW HOPES TO SHATTERED DREAMS: 1958-1971”
“RENEWING PAKISTAN: 1971-2005” PART-I: 1971-1988
RENEWING PAKISTAN: PART II 1971-2005 (1988-2005)
THE CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN, PARTS I & II
THE CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN, PARTS I & II:Changing the Constitution
THE POLITICAL SYSTEM OF PAKISTAN:Senate Polls: Secrecy Breeds Distortion
THE ELECTION COMMISSION OF PAKISTAN:A new role for the Election Commission
“POLITICAL GROUPINGS AND ALLIANCES: ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES”
THE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS AND INTEREST GROUPS
“THE POPULATION, EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS OF PAKISTAN”
THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT POLICY 2005:Environment and Housing
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY 2005:The National Policy, Sectoral Guidelines
THE CHILDREN OF PAKISTAN:Law Reforms, National Plan of Action
“THE HEALTH SECTOR OF PAKISTAN”
NGOS AND DEVELOPMENT
“THE INFORMATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN”
MEDIA AS ELEMENTS OF NATIONAL POWER:Directions of National Security
ONE GLOBE: MANY WORLDS
“THE UNITED NATIONS” PART-1
“THE UNITED NATIONS” PART-2
“MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGS)”:Excerpt
“THE GLOBALIZATION: THREATS AND RESPONSES – PART-1”:The Services of Nature
THE GLOBALIZATION: THREATS AND RESPONSES – PART-2”
“WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO)”
“THE EUROPEAN UNION”:The social dimension, Employment Policy
“REGIONAL PACTS”:North America’s Second Decade, Mind the gap
“OIC: ORGANIZATION OF THE ISLAMIC CONFERENCE”
“FROM SOUTH ASIA TO SAARC”:Update
“THE PAKISTAN-INDIA RELATIONSHIP”
“DIMENSIONS OF TERRORISM”
FROM VIOLENT CONFLICT TO PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE
“OIL AND BEYOND”
“PAKISTAN’S FOREIGN POLICY”
“EMERGING TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS”
“GLOBALIZATION OF MEDIA”
“GLOBALIZATION AND INDIGENIZATION OF MEDIA”
“BALANCING PUBLIC INTERESTS AND COMMERCIAL INTERESTS”
“CITIZENS’ MEDIA AND CITIZENS’ MEDIA DIALOGUE”
“CITIZENS’ MEDIA RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES”Exclusive Membership
“CITIZENS’ PARTICIPATION IN PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING”:Forming a Group
“MEDIA IN THE 21ST CENTURY”

Introduction to Broadcasting
BROADCASTING:Historical Facts about Radio, Wireless and Radio
CLASSIFICATION OF PROGRAMS:NEWS, Language, Sensationalizing
CURRENT AFFAIRS:Talk Shows, Discussions, Seminars, Live Shows
OUTDOOR BROADCASTING I:VIP Movement, Suddenly Assigned Events
OUTDOOR BROADCASTING II:Pakistan Day March Past, General Elections
CURTAIN RAISER:Political, Financial, Sports, Academics
RADIO FEATURE:Personality Features, Features on Events
MUSICAL PROGRAMS:Classical Music, Light and Film Music, Folk Music
RADIO DOCUMENTARY:Narrative, Dramatized, Imagination, Close to places
DISC JOCKEY:Women in Focus, Daily/ Weekly Division, Making Titles
VOICE IN BROADCASTING:Speech, Accent, Loudness, Stress
NOISE:Physical, Medium itself, Problem at sender’s end, Semantics
STUDIO:Drama Studio, Studios for Talk Shows/ Discussions, Music Studios,
RADIO DRAMA I:Stage Dramas, Early Radio Dramas, Ethics, Classification
RADIO DRAMA II:Selection of director, The Playwrights, Script, Voices
ADVERTISEMENT – INCOME GENERATION:Similarities, More Analysis
ADVERTISERS’ APPROACH:Dramatized, Dialogue based, News
FM – A NEW GENERATION IN BROADCASTING:Low Cost, The Difference
MICROPHONE TO TRANSMITTER:Amplifiers, Modulator, Transmitter
WRITING SCRIPT FOR RADIO BROADCAST:NEWS Script, Interviews
INTERACTIVE BROADCASTING:On-line, E-mails, Interview, Views in News
REVISION:CURRENT AFFAIRS, RADIO FEATURE, MUSICAL PROGRAMS
HISTORY OF TELEVISION:Early History, The Black & White Images, Color Television
PAKISTAN TELEVISION (PTV):The Excitement, Timing, Live Broadcast
BROADCASTING LAWS:Laws in the 19th century, Press Council of Pakistan
REPLICAS OF RADIO BROADCAST:The Staff, News Reading, Programming
NEW SCRIPT WRITING AND DIRECTION TECHNIQUES:TV Script
SETS:Permanent Sets, Hot & Cover Sets, Special Sets, Economical
CAMERA SHOTS – THE VISUAL LANGUAGE:Angle Shots, Movement shots
LIGHTS IN VISUAL BROADCASTING:Light Temperature, Light and Distance
INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR:NEWS and Interviews, Dramas and Music
BROADCASTING AND MEDIA IMPERIALISM:The truth in the debate
ENVIRONMENT OF TV BROADCAST:Optical Illusions, POV, Depth of Field
BUDGET:First Part, Second Part, Third Part, The Sponsors
COMPARISON AND CONTRAST OF DIFFERENT RADIO AND TV FORMATS:TV NEWS
CURRENT AFFAIRS – FROM RADIO TO TV:Seminars, Interviews
PRE-PRODUCTION:Brain Storming, Scripting a new program, Approval
PRODUCTION & POST-PRODUCTION:Booking Shifts, Rehearsals
TV ADVERTISEMENTS – MONEY WITH ENTERTAINMENT:Early Phase, Getting Spots
ENIGMA OF MORE CHANNELS:The Investment, Fresh Ideas, Closure of channels
ANCHORPERSON:Appearance and Confidence, Job Opportunities
COMPARISON BETWEEN RADIO AND TV BROADCAST:The Difference, Script
TERRESTRIAL TO SATELLITE TO CABLE TV:Cable Network, CD Channels
CAREER IN BROADCASTING:Production, Direction, Lighting Director, Script Writer
REVISION (LESSON 23 TO 44):Broadcasting Laws, PEMRA, Budget

Introduction to Mass Communication
MASS COMMUNICATION – AN OVERVIEW:Relationships, Power
EARLY MASS COMMUNICATION AND PRINTING TECHNOLOGY
SEVEN CENTURIES OF MASS COMMUNICATION – FROM PRINTING TO COMPUTER
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION AND EARLY COMMUNICATION MODELS
COMMUNICATION MODELS – GRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF COMPLEX ISSUES
TYPES AND FORMS OF COMMUNICATION:Inter personal, Combination
MESSAGE – ROOT OF COMMUNICATION I:VERBAL MESSAGE, Static Evaluation
MESSAGE – ROOT OF COMMUNICATION II:Conflicts, Brevity of Message
EFFECTS OF COMMUNICATION:Helping Out Others, Relaxation
COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE:Enculturation, Acculturation
LANGUAGE IN COMMUNICATION:Polarization, Labeling, Static meanings
STEREOTYPING – A TYPICAL HURDLE IN MASS COMMUNICATION:Stereotype Groups
MASS MEDIA – HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE:Early analysis on manuscripts
EMERGENCE OF PRINT MEDIA AROUND THE WORLD:Colonial journalism
TELEGRAPH DOES MIRACLE IN DISTANCE COMMUNICATION TELEX AND TELEPHONE ENTHRALL PRINT COMMUNICATION
TYPES OF PRINT MEDIA:Newspapers, Magazines, Books
PRESS FREEDOM, LAWS AND ETHICS – NEW DEBATE RAGING STILL HARD
INDUSTRIALIZATION OF PRINT PROCESSES:Lithography, Offset printing
EFFECTS OF PRINT MEDIA ON SOCIETY:Economic ideas, Politics
ADVERTISING – HAND IN HAND WITH MEDIA:Historical background
RENAISSANCE AND SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION: ROLE OF PRINT MEDIA:Science
RECAP:Elements of communication, Books, Printing, Verbal Message
MEDIA MANAGEMENT:Division, Business section, Press
IMAGES IN MASS COMMUNICATION – INVENTION OF PHOTOGRAPHY:Portrait photography
MOTION PICTURES – A NEW WAY IN MASS COMMUNICATION-I:Definition
MOTION PICTURES – A NEW WAY IN MASS COMMUNICATION (Cont...):Post-Studio Era
FILM MEDIA IN SUBCONTINENT AND PAKISTAN-I:Accusations of plagiarism
FILM MEDIA IN SUBCONTINENT AND PAKISTAN (II) & ITS EFFECTS:First Color film
PROPAGANDA:Types in another manner, Propaganda in revolutions
RADIO – A BREAKTHROUGH IN MASS COMMUNICATION:What to broadcast
EFFECTS OF RADIO ON SOCIETY:Entertainment, Information, Jobs
TELEVISION – A NEW DIMENSION IN MASS COMMUNICATION:Early Discoveries
TV IN PAKISTAN:Enthusiasm, Live Broadcast, PTV goes colored
EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON SOCIETY:Seeing is believing, Fashion
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND MASS COMMUNICATION - I:History, Case Study
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND MASS COMMUNICATION - II:Audience targeting
ADVERTISING BEYOND PRINT MEDIA:Covert advertising
IMPACT OF ADVERTISING:Trial, Continuity, Brand Switching, Market Share
MEDIA THEORIES:Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory
NEW MEDIA IN MASS COMMUNICATION:Technology forcing changes
GLOBALIZATION OF MEDIA:Media and consumerism, Media centralization
MEDIA MERGENCE:Radio, TV mergence, Economic reasons
MASS MEDIA IN PRESENT AGE:Magazine, Radio, TV
CRITICISM ON MEDIA:Sensationalize, Biasness, Private life, obscenity
RECAP:Legends of South Asian Film Industry, Radio, Television, PTV goes colored

Journalistic Writing
INTRODUCTION TO JOURNALISTIC WRITING:Practical, THINGS TO KNOW
QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITERS
QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITERS
QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITING:Achieve appropriate readability:
QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITING:Be concise, Be creative, Be correct
THE PROCESS OF WRITING:INVENTION, WHEN YOU START TO WRITE
THE PROCESS OF WRITING II:ORGANIZING, DRAFTING, REVISING
ALL ABOUT WORDS:HOW WORDS ARE FORMED?:SUFFIXES
DICTIONARY-A WRITER’S LANGUAGE TOOL:KINDS OF INFORMATION
PARTS OF SPEECH:Noun Gender, Noun Plurals, Countable Nouns
BASIC CLAUSE PATTERNS
ACTIVE AND PASSSIVE VOICE
MODIFIERS AND SENTENCE TYPES:COMPOUND SENTENCES
REPORTED SPEECH:Indirect Questions, Direct commands
GRAMMATICAL SENTENCE – ISSUES:SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
GRAMMATICAL SENTENCE – ISSUES II:SENTENCE FRAGMENTS
EFFECTIVE SENTENCE:PARALLELISM, NEEDED WORDS, SHIFTS
STYLE: GUIDELINE AND PITFALLS I:COLLOQUIAL VS FORMAL, CIRCUMLOCUTION
STYLE: GUIDELINE AND PITFALLS II:AMBIGUITY, REDUNDANCY, EUPHEMISM:
PARAGRAPH WRITING: TYPES AND TECHNIQUES:STRUCTURE
PARAGRAPH WRITING: TYPES AND TECHNIQUES:Putting on Our Play
ESSAY WRITING:VARIOUS STRATEGIES FOR ESSAYS, PROMPTS
SIGNAL WORDS:Non word Emphasis Signals
EXPOSITORY WRITING:LOGICAL FALLACIES, APPEAL TO EMOTION
THE WRITING STYLES: REPORT and NARRATIVE WRITING, SHORT REPORTS
THE WRITING STYLES: DESCRIPTIVE AND PERSUASIVE WRITINGS, Observation
RESEARCH WRITING AND DOCUMNETING SOURCES:Handling Long Quotations
Summary and Précis Writing:CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD SUMMARY
Punctuation:THE PERIOD, THE COMMA, THE SEMICOLON, THE COLON
MECHANICS:ABBREVIATIONS, NUMBERS, SPELLING, THE HYPHEN
READING SKILLS FOR WRITERS:EDUCATED READING, STEPS
PARTS OF A NEWSPAPER:Box-out, By-line, Caption, Exclusive, Feature
THE LANGUAGE OF THE NEWSPAPERS II:BROADSHEET NEWSPAPER
News Writing and Style I:WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN A NEWSPAPER
NEWS WRITING II:Accuracy, Clarity, Style, Qualities of Effective Leads
EDITORIAL WRITING:WRITING AN EDITORIAL:STRUCTURING AN EDITORIAL
WRITING FEATURES:GENERATING FEATURE STORY IDEAS
WRITING COLUMNS:Column and a news report, Purpose, Audience
WRITING ARTICLES FOR NEWSPAPERS:The Heading, The Lead
WRITING ANALYSIS:purpose, scope, method, results, recommendations
LETTERS TO EDITORS:Four important aspects about letters, Organizing letters
BROADCAST AND WEB NEWS WRITING:WRITE CONCISELY, BROADCAST STYLE
WRITING PRESS RELEASE, REVIEWS AND OBITUARIES:Summary of Content:
THE ART OF INTERVIEWINGS
FINAL THOUGHTS:Practical, Job-Related, Social, Stimulating, Therapeutic

Radio News Reporting and Production
WHAT RADIO IS:HISTORY OF RADIO, MARCONI –THE INVENTOR
HISTORY OF RADIO:B.B.C. – 1922, Radio in Sub-Continent, PBC SERVICES
OBJECTIVES OF BROADCASTING IN PAKISTAN:Information, Islamic ideology
NEWS VALUES I:CONFLICT, PROGRESS, VICTORY AND DEFEAT
NEWS VALUES II:TIMELINESS, PROXIMITY, NOVELTY, HUMAN INTEREST
NEWS VALUES AND ELEMENTS OF NEWS:MISCELLANEOUS NEWS VALUES
MEASURING THE IMPORTANCE OF NEWS:Intensity of an Event, NEWS STORY TYPES
TYPES OF NEWS STORIES II:SIMPLE TYPES, ILLNESS, DEATH
TYPES OF NEWS STORIES III:Conspiracy, Drug Trafficking, Lunar Months
TYPES OF NEWS STORIES IV:COMPLEX NEWS, Forms of Government, Monarchy
TYPES OF NEWS STORIES V:Education, Research, Religion
TYPES OF NEWS STORIES VI:Lifestyles, Receptions, Entertainment
SOURCES OF NEWS I:Network of Reporters, QUALITIES OF A REPORTER
SOURCES OF NEWS II:MONITORING, NEWS/ PRESS RELEASE
SOURCES OF NEWS III:National News Agencies, HARD NEWS, SOFT NEWS
REPORTING:ORDER OF REPORTING, REPORTER’S QUALITIES, Well informed
A SUCCESSFUL RADIO REPORTER:Briefing, Reporter’s Ammunition, Meeting Deadline
INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING I:Growth of Interpretative Reporting
INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING II:Factual Background, SPEECH STORY
INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING III:FIRES & ACCIDENTS, CRIME STORIES
INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING I:Thalidomide Scandal, Watergate Scandal
INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING II:Identification of the problem, INTERVIEW
TYPES OF INTERVIEW:Hard News Interview, Informational Interview
ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW I:Comments and Opinion, Topic must be specific
ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW II:Preparation of the Interview, Language
RADIO NEWS GLOSSARY:Actuality, Cut, Voicer, Wrap, Hourly, Lead
FUNDAMENTALS OF NEWS WRITING:Inverted Pyramided Style, Telling the Story
FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO I:Language
FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO II:Complex numbers
ESSENTIALS OF A NEWSCASTER:Authority, Credibility, Language, Pronunciation
PRODUCTION AND PLANNING:Principals of Planning a Program
PRODUCER & BUDGETING:Strengths of a Radio Program, Budgeting a Program
JARGONS OF PRODUCTION (Continued):Frequency spectrum, Dead studio
TYPES OF TALK:Qualification of a Talker, Essentials of a talk, Vetting a talk
DISCUSSION:Controlled Discussion, Live Discussion, Current affairs
DISCUSSION:Selection of the TopicKnowledge of the Topic, Narrowing down the topic
RADIO FEATURE:Sound Effects, Narration, Dramatic Feature, Religion, Personalities
RADIO DOCUMENTARY:Commentary, History, Persons, Things, Phenomena
DRAMA:Solo plays, Series, Serial, Soap, Components of Drama
SPECIAL AUDIENCE PROGRAM:Children’s Programs, Women’s programs
SPORTS PROGRAM:Live Programs, Recorded Programs, Preparation of OB
THE MUSIC I:Folk Music, Classical Music, Light Music, Pop Music
THE MUSIC II:Classification of Raga In Terms Of Notes, Aado, Khaado
ETHICS & LIMITATIONS OF MEDIA:Domain of Freedom of Media, Defamation
RECAP:What Radio Is, Timeliness, Elements of news, Types of Reporting, Production

Theories of Communication
COMMUNICATION:Nature of communication, Transactional approach, Communication is symbolic:
THEORY, PARADIGM AND MODEL (I):Positivistic Perspective, Critical Perspective
THEORY, PARADIGM AND MODEL (II):Empirical problems, Conceptual problems
FROM COMMUNICATION TO MASS COMMUNICATION MODELS:Channel
NORMATIVE THEORIES:Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Limitations
HUTCHINS COMMISSION ON FREEDOM, CHICAGO SCHOOL & BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY THEORY
CIVIC JOURNALISM, DEVELOPMENT MEDIA THEORY & DEMOCRATIC PARTICIPANT THEORY
LIMITATIONS OF THE PRESS THEORY:Concentration and monopoly, Commercialism
MCQUAIL’S FOUR KINDS OF THEORIES:Social scientific theory, Critical theory
PROPAGANDA THEORIES:Origin of Propaganda, Engineering of Consent, Behaviorism
PARADIGM SHIFT & TWO STEP FLOW OF INFORMATION
MIDDLE RANGE THEORIES:Background, Functional Analysis Approach, Elite Pluralism
KLAPPER’S PHENOMENSITIC THEORY:Klapper’s Generalizations, Criticism
DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION THEORY:Innovators, Early adopters
CHALLENGING THE DOMINANT PARADIGM:Catharsis Social learning Social cognitive theory
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEROY:Symbolizing Capacity, MODELLING
MODELING FROM MASS MEDIA:Recent research, Summary, PRIMING EFFECTS
PRIMING EFFECT:Conceptual Roots, Perceived meaning, Percieved justifiability
CULTIVATION OF PERCEPTIONS OF SOCIAL REALITY:History
SYSTEMS THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION PROCESSES:System
EMERGENCE OF CRITICAL & CULTURAL THEORIES OF MASS COMMUNICATION
REVISION:Positivistic perspective, Interpretive Perspective, Inductive approach
CRITICAL THEORIES & ROLE OF MASS COMMUNICATION IN A SOCIETY -THE MEDIATION OF SOCIAL RELATIONS
ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN SOCIAL ORDER & MARXIST THEORY:Positive View
KEY PRINCIPLES USED IN MARXISM:Materialism, Class Struggle, Superstructure
CONSUMER SOCIETY:Role of mass media in alienation, Summary of Marxism
COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE:Neo Marxism, Characteristics of Culture
HEGEMONY:What exactly is the meaning of "hegemony"?
CULTURE INDUSTRY:Gramscianism on Communications Matters
POLITICAL ECONOMIC THEORY I:Internationalization, Vertical Integration
POLITICAL ECONOMIC THEORY II:Diversification, Instrumental
POLITICAL ECONOMIC THEORY III:Criticism, Power of Advertising
AGENDA SETTING THEORY:A change in thinking, First empirical test
FRAMING & SPIRAL OF SILENCE:Spiral of Silence, Assessing public opinion
SPIRAL OF SILENCE:Fear of isolation, Assessing public opinion, Micro-level
MARSHALL MCLUHAN: THE MEDIUM IS THE MESSAGE AND MASSAGE
KNOWLEDGE GAP THEORY:Criticism on Marshal McLuhan
MEDIA SYSTEM DEPENDENCY THEORY:Media System Dependency Theory
USES AND GRATIFICATIONS THEORY:Methods
RECEPTION THEORY
FRAMING AND FRAME ANALYSIS:Information Processing Theory, Summing up
TRENDS IN MASS COMMUNICATION I:Communication Science, Direct channels
TRENDS IN MASS COMMUNICATION II:Communication Maxims, Emotions
GLOBALIZATION AND MEDIA:Mediated Communication, Post Modernism
REVISION:Microscopic Theories, Mediation of Social Relations

TV News Reporting and Production
CREATIVITY AND IDEA GENERATION FOR TELEVISION:Video Procedures
PRE-REQUISITES OF A CREATIVE PRODUCER/DIRECTOR:SET-UP RESPONSIBILITIES
REFINING AN IDEA FOR PRODUCTION:Drama, Magazine Shows, Documentary
CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT:Variable. Pure and applied research
RESEARCH AND REVIEWS:Research Procedure, Review of available literature
SCRIPT WRITING:Elements of a successful story, Characters, Effects
PRE-PRODUCTION PHASE:Indoor production, Outdoor production, Essentials of PBE
SELECTION OF REQUIRED CONTENT AND TALENT:Camera rehearsal
PROGRAMME PLANNING:Checklist, Electronic Field Production (EFP)
PRODUCTION PHASE:Floor plan, Traditional set, Representational set, Design elements
CAMERA WORK:Movement of lens of camera, Types of shots
LIGHT AND AUDIO:Importance of sound in TV, Use of microphone, Loudness
DAY OF RECORDING/PRODUCTION:Rehearsals,Point to ponder
LINEAR EDITING AND NLE:Episode, Scene, Editing, Production Switcher
MIXING AND USES OF EFFECTS:Live Sound Effects, ARROW STRIKING
SELECTION OF THE NEWS:Elements of news, Timeliness, proximity
WRITING OF THE NEWS:The inverted pyramid, Lead, Credit line
EDITING OF THE NEWS:Characteristics of good news:Process of editing a news
COMPILATION OF NEWS BULLETIN:Hard news, Soft news, Investigative report
PRESENTATION OF NEWS BULLETIN
MAKING SPECIAL BULLETINS:Agriculture, Show biz, Fashion, Drama
TECHNICAL CODES, TERMINOLOGY, AND PRODUCTION GRAMMAR
TYPES OF TV PRODUCTION:Magazine Shows, Specific audience programming
DRAMA AND DOCUMENTARY:Documentary film, Defining documentary
SOURCES OF TV NEWS:Reporters, Correspondents, Monitoring, News Agency
FUNCTIONS OF A REPORTER
BEATS OF REPORTING:City reporter, Social reporters, Show-biz reporter
STRUCTURE OF NEWS DEPARTMENT:Beat Reporters, Online media
ELECTRONIC FIELD PRODUCTION:Sports, Electronic news gathering
LIVE TRANSMISSIONS:Studio floor, Switcher, Master control room, Camera control units
QUALITIES OF A NEWS PRODUCER:Determination, Awareness, Sharp an active
DUTIES OF A NEWS PRODUCER
ASSIGNMENT/NEWS EDITOR:Accuracy, Fairness and Reliability, Conflict
SHOOTING A NEWS FILM:The Influence of telecast News
PREPARATION OF SPECIAL REPORTS:Uncovering Truth, Reportage
INTERVIEWS, VOX POPS AND PUBLIC OPINIONS:INTERVIEW, Information
BACK GROUND VOICE AND VOICE OVER:Natural or Raw Sound, Sound Effects
SPOKEN WORDS AND RELEVANT VISUALS:Digital Audio, Quantizing Error
TALK SHOWS, FORUMS AND DISCUSSION PROGRAMMES
FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS OF A TV SET UP
PROGRAMMES DEPARTMENT:Program content, Television series by genre
NEWS AND CURRENT AFFAIRS THE PROGRAMMING & SCHEDULING
COORDINATION AMONG DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF TELEVISION
COORDINATION AMONG DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF TELEVISION - 2 SUB-DEPARTMENTS AND SMALL SECTIONS
COORDINATION AMONG DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF TELEVISION 3

Abnormal Psychology
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY:PSYCHOSIS, Team approach in psychology
WHAT IS ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR:Dysfunction, Distress, Danger
PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT:Supernatural Model, Biological Model
PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT:Free association, Dream analysis
PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT:Humanistic Model, Classical Conditioning
RESEARCH METHODS:To Read Research, To Evaluate Research, To increase marketability
RESEARCH DESIGNS:Types of Variables, Confounding variables or extraneous
EXPERIMENTAL REASEARCH DESIGNS:Control Groups, Placebo Control Groups
GENETICS:Adoption Studies, Twin Studies, Sequential Design, Follow back studies
RESEARCH ETHICS:Approval for the research project, Risk, Consent
CAUSES OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR:Biological Dimensions
THE STRUCTURE OF BRAIN:Peripheral Nervous System, Psychoanalytic Model
CAUSES OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:Biomedical Model, Humanistic model
CAUSES OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF ABNORMALITY
CLASSIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT:Reliability, Test retest, Split Half
DIAGNOSING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS:The categorical approach, Prototypical approach
EVALUATING SYSTEMS:Basic Issues in Assessment, Interviews
ASSESSMENT of PERSONALITY:Advantages of MMPI-2, Intelligence Tests
ASSESSMENT of PERSONALITY (2):Neuropsychological Tests, Biofeedback
PSYCHOTHERAPY:Global Therapies, Individual therapy, Brief Historical Perspective
PSYCHOTHERAPY:Problem based therapies, Gestalt therapy, Behavioral therapies
PSYCHOTHERAPY:Ego Analysis, Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, Aversion Therapy
PSYCHOTHERAPY:Humanistic Psychotherapy, Client-Centered Therapy, Gestalt therapy
ANXIETY DISORDERS:THEORIES ABOUT ANXIETY DISORDERS
ANXIETY DISORDERS:Social Phobias, Agoraphobia, Treating Phobias
MOOD DISORDERS:Emotional Symptoms, Cognitive Symptoms, Bipolar Disorders
MOOD DISORDERS:DIAGNOSIS, Further Descriptions and Subtypes, Social Factors
SUICIDE:PRECIPITATING FACTORS IN SUICIDE, VIEWS ON SUICIDE
STRESS:Stress as a Life Event, Coping, Optimism, Health Behavior
STRESS:Psychophysiological Responses to Stress, Health Behavior
ACUTE AND POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS
DISSOCIATIVE AND SOMATOFORM DISORDERS:DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
DISSOCIATIVE and SOMATOFORM DISORDERS:SOMATOFORM DISORDERS
PERSONALITY DISORDERS:Causes of Personality Disorders, Motive
PERSONALITY DISORDERS:Paranoid Personality, Schizoid Personality, The Diagnosis
ALCOHOLISM AND SUBSTANCE RELATED DISORDERS:Poly Drug Use
ALCOHOLISM AND SUBSTANCE RELATED DISORDERS:Integrated Systems
SCHIZOPHRENIA:Prodromal Phase, Residual Phase, Negative symptoms
SCHIZOPHRENIA:Related Psychotic Disorders, Causes of Schizophrenia
DEMENTIA DELIRIUM AND AMNESTIC DISORDERS:DELIRIUM, Causes of Delirium
DEMENTIA DELIRIUM AND AMNESTIC DISORDERS:Amnesia
MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CHILDHOOD:Kinds of Internalizing Disorders
LIFE CYCLE TRANSITIONS AND ADULT DEVELOPMENT:Aging

Clinical Psychology
MENTAL HEALTH TODAY: A QUICK LOOK OF THE PICTURE:PARA-PROFESSIONALS
THE SKILLS & ACTIVITIES OF A CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST:THE INTERNSHIP
HOW A CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST THINKS:Brian’s Case; an example, PREDICTION
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY:THE GREEK PERIOD
HISTORY OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Research, Assessment, CONCLUSION
HOW CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS BECAME INVOLVED IN TREATMENT
MODELS OF TRAINING IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY:PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS
CURRENT ISSUES IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY:CERTIFICATION, LICENSING
ETHICAL STANDARDS FOR CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS:PREAMBLE
THE ROLE OF RESEARCH IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY:LIMITATION
THE RESEARCH PROCESS:GENERATING HYPOTHESES, RESEARCH METHODS
THE CONCEPT OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR & MENTAL ILLNESS
CAUSES OF MENTAL ILLNESOVERVIEW OF ETIOLOGY:PANDAS
THE PROCESS OF DIAGNOSIS:ADVANTAGES OF DIAGNOSIS, DESCRIPTION
THE CONCEPT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
THE CLINICAL INTERVIEW:The intake / admission interview, Structured interview
THE ASSESSMENT OF INTELLIGENCE:RELIABILTY AND VALIDITY, CATTELL’S THEORY
INTELLIGENCE TESTS:PURPOSE, COMMON PROCEDURES, PURPOSE
THE USE AND ABUSE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING:PERSONALITY
THE PROJECTIVE PERSONALITY TESTS:THE RORSCHACH
THE OBSERVATIONAL ASSESSMENT AND ITS TYPES:Home Observation
THE BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT THROUGH INTERVIEWS, INVENTORIES AND CHECK LISTS
THE PROCESS AND ACCURACY OF CLINICAL JUDGEMENT:Comparison Studies
METHODS OF IMPROVING INTERPRETATION AND JUDGMENT
PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS AND THEIR GOALS:THE EXPERT ROLE
IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOTHERAPY:ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
COURSE OF NEW CLINICAL INTERVENTIONS:IMPLEMENTING TREATMENT
NATURE OF SPECIFIC THERAPEUTIC VARIABLES:CLIENT’S MOTIVATION
THE BEGINNING OF PSYCHOANALYSIS:THE CASE OF ANNA, THE INSTINCTS
PSYCHOANALYTIC ALTERNATIVES:EGO ANALYSIS, CURATIVE FACTORS
CLIENT CENTERED THERAPY:PURPOSE, BACKGROUND, PROCESS
GESTALT THERAPY METHODS AND PROCEDURES:SELF-DIALOGUE
ORIGINS AND TRADITIONAL TECHNIQUES OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY:MODELING, RATIONAL RESTRUCTURING
GROUP THERAPY: METHODS AND PROCEDURES:CURATIVE FACTORS
FAMILY AND COUPLES THERAPY:POSSIBLE RISKS
INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY:THE ENVIRONMENT
METHODS OF INTERVENTION AND CHANGE IN COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY
INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
APPLICATIONS OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:OBESITY, HEALTH CARE TRENDS
NEUROPSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVES AND HISTORY:STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
METHODS OF NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT:Level Of Performance, Pattern Analysis
FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY:Qualification, Testifying, Cross Examination, Criminal Cases
PEDIATRIC AND CHILD PSYCHOLOGY: HISTORY AND PERSPECTIVE
INTERVENTIONS & TRAINING IN PEDIATRIC AND CLINICAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY

Cognitive Psychology
INTRODUCTION:Historical Background
THE INFORMATION PROCESSING APPROACH
COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY:Brains of Dead People, The Neuron
COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY (CONTINUED):The Eye, The visual pathway
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY (CONTINUED):Hubel & Wiesel, Sensory Memory
VISUAL SENSORY MEMORY EXPERIMENTS (CONTINUED):Psychological Time
ATTENTION:Single-mindedness, In Shadowing Paradigm, Attention and meaning
ATTENTION (continued):Implications, Treisman’s Model, Norman’s Model
ATTENTION (continued):Capacity Models, Arousal, Multimode Theory
ATTENTION:Subsidiary Task, Capacity Theory, Reaction Time & Accuracy, Implications
RECAP OF LAST LESSONS:AUTOMATICITY, Automatic Processing
AUTOMATICITY (continued):Experiment, Implications, Task interference
AUTOMATICITY (continued):Predicting flight performance, Thought suppression
PATTERN RECOGNITION:Template Matching Models, Human flexibility
PATTERN RECOGNITION:Implications, Phonemes, Voicing, Place of articulation
PATTERN RECOGNITION (continued):Adaptation paradigm
PATTERN RECOGNITION (continued):Gestalt Theory of Perception
PATTERN RECOGNITION (continued):Queen Elizabeth’s vase, Palmer (1977)
OBJECT PERCEPTION (continued):Segmentation, Recognition of object
ATTENTION & PATTERN RECOGNITION:Word Superiority Effect
PATTERN RECOGNITION (CONTINUED):Neural Networks, Patterns of connections
PATTERN RECOGNITION (CONTINUED):Effects of Sentence Context
MEMORY:Short Term Working Memory, Atkinson & Shiffrin Model
MEMORY:Rate of forgetting, Size of memory set
Memory:Activation in a network, Magic number 7, Chunking
Memory:Chunking, Individual differences in chunking
MEMORY:THE NATURE OF FORGETTING, Release from PI, Central Executive
Memory:Atkinson & Shiffrin Model, Long Term Memory, Different kinds of LTM
Memory:Spread of Activation, Associative Priming, Implications, More Priming
Memory:Interference, The Critical Assumption, Limited capacity
Memory:Interference, Historical Memories, Recall versus Recognition
Memory:Are forgotten memories lost forever?
Memory:Recognition of lost memories, Representation of knowledge
Memory:Benefits of Categorization, Levels of Categories
Memory:Prototype, Rosch and Colleagues, Experiments of Stephen Read
Memory:Schema Theory, A European Solution, Generalization hierarchies
Memory:Superset Schemas, Part hierarchy, Slots Have More Schemas
MEMORY:Representation of knowledge (continued), Memory for stories
Memory:Representation of knowledge, PQ4R Method, Elaboration
Memory:Study Methods, Analyze Story Structure, Use Multiple Modalities
Memory:Mental Imagery, More evidence, Kosslyn yet again, Image Comparison
Mental Imagery:Eidetic Imagery, Eidetic Psychotherapy, Hot and cold imagery
Language and thought:Productivity & Regularity, Linguistic Intuition
Cognitive development:Assimilation, Accommodation, Stage Theory
Cognitive Development:Gender Identity, Learning Mathematics, Sensory Memory

Consumer Psychology
INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer Behavior
INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer research
INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Marketing Mix, Product, Price
INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Customer Value, Perceived Value
VALUE AND RETENTION FOCUSED MARKETING AND CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
CONSUMER RESEARCH:Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research
MAJOR STEPS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS:Design of Primary research
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
MARKET SEGMENTATION AND ITS BASES:Geographical Segmentation
BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION
BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: SOCIOCULTURAL SEGMENTATION USE RELATED SEGMENTATION USAGE SITUATION SEGMENTATION
BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Intrinsic Cues
BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: HYBRID SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES
MARKET SEGMENTATION IMPLEMENTING SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES CULTURE
HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Formal Learning
CULTURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Consumer Fieldwork
SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
AGE AND GENDER SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Market Segmentation
SOCIAL CLASS CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Occupation
CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Affluent Consumer
CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Membership Group
CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Shopping Groups
UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
CONSUMER PERSONALITY, TRAIT THEORY AND SELF IMAGES
CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals
UNDERSTANDING LEARNING:Intentional and Incidental Learning, Implications for Marketers
INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MEMORY
ATTITUDES:Characteristics of Attitudes, Attitudes have consistency
ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE:How attitudes are learned?
ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES:Resolving two conflicting attitudes
INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER DECISION MAKING:Decision Complexity
Problem Recognition, Search and Evaluation and Decision and Purchase
Decision and Purchase:Consumer Decision Rules, Output, Relationship Marketing
Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Product Set up and Use
Marketing Implications of Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Understanding
Post Purchase Evaluation:Determinants of Satisfaction, Consumer Complaint Behavior
Post Purchase Dissonance:Dissonance Reduction, Marketing Implications
Consumerism:Roots of Consumerism, The Nature of Consumerism
Consumerism – Issues and Responses:Environmental Concerns, Consumer Privacy
Review – Consumer Psychology Course:Consumer Research, Consumerism

Forensic Psychology
INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY:Future of Forensic Psychology
INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC PSYCHOOGY:Way of police investigation
FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY AND POLICE:Violent Criminals
POLICE PSYCHOLOGY:Use of excessive force, Corruption, Personnel Selection
POLICE PSYCHOLOGY:Fitness-for-Duty Evaluation (FFDE), False Confessions
INVESTIGATIVE PSYCHOLOGY:For instance, Empirical and logical approach
INVESTIGATIVE PSYCHOLOGY:Crime Scene Investigation, Staging
PSYCHOLOGY OF VIOLENCE:Law of Conservation of Energy, Super ego
PSYCHOANALYTIC MODEL AND VIOLENCE:Fixation at Oral Stage
PSYCHOANALYTIC MODEL AND VIOLENCE:Defense Mechanism, Rationalization
JUNGIAN PSYCHOLOGY AND VIOLENCE:Freudian Methods, JUNGIAN PSYCHOLOGY
JUNGIAN PSYCHOLOGY AND VIOLENCE:Religion and mental illnesses
BEHAVIORIST PERSPECTIVE AND VIOLENCE:Shadow’s violence, Child’s violence
BEHAVIORIST PERSPECTIVE AND VIOLENCE:Operant Conditioning
BEHAVIORIST PERSPECTIVE AND VIOLENCE:Schedules of Punishment
SOCIAL LEARNING MODEL AND VIOLENCE:Observational learning, Vicarious punishment
MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND VIOLENCE:Symbolic functioning, Formal operational stage
BIO-PSYCHO-SOCIAL MODEL:Mental hospitals are factories of abuse
ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ABOUT VIOLENCE:Morality is essential
ISLAMIC MODEL:Nafs al-Ammara, Nafs al-Lawwama, Nafs ul Naatiqa
TREATMENTS FOR THE SOUL:Tawba, Sabr o Shukr, Niyyat o Ikhlaas, Taffakkur
CRIMINOGENIC PERSONALITY:Personality Disorders, Common Crimes
CRIMINOGENIC PERSONALITY AND VIOLENCE:Mnemonic, Similarities
CRIMINOGENIC PERSONALITY AND VIOLENCE:Terrorism and Psychopaths
LEARNING DISABILITIES/MENTAL RETARDATION AND VIOLENCE
ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS:Reasons for referral, Personality Inventories
ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS:Different cutoff scores
RISK ASSESSMENT:Violence reduction scale, Stability of Family upbringing
TREATMENT OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR / PERSONALITY PSYCHODYNAMIC PSYCHOTHERAPY
JUNGINA THERAPEUTIC MODEL:Limits of re-parenting, Personality Typologies
GROUP THERAPY FOR OFFENDERS:Learning in Groups, Humanistic Groups
PSYCHOTHERAPIES IN FORENSIC SETTINGS:Narrative Therapy
PSYCHOTHERAPIES IN FORENSIC SETTINGS:Solution Focused Therapy
PSYCHOTHERAPIES IN FORENSIC SETTINGS:Avoiding reactance, Externalization
PSYCHOTHERAPY IN FORENSIC SETTINGS AND SPECIAL CHALLENGES
FORENSIC PSYCHOTHERAPY:Exploring therapeutic alliance, Music Therapy
VIOLENCE REDUCTION PROGRAM:Target Population, Lack of motivation
VIOLENCE REDUCTION PROGRAM:Criminal attitude, Interpersonal Aggression
VICTIM SUPPORT:Main features of PTSD, Emotional Support
VICTIM SUPPORT:Debriefing, Desensitization, Eidetic Therapy, Narrative Therapy
SUBSTANCE MISUSE TREATMENT PROGRAM:Marijuana, Unconventional drugs
SUBSTANCE MISUSE TREATMENT PROGRAM:Stages of Change, Homosexuality
EXPERT WITNESS:Insanity Pleas, Sexual Offence Risk, Instructions
COUNTER TERRORISM:Misconceptions, Psychologists & Propaganda war
SUMMING UP FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY:Problems with Risk Assessment, Expert Witness

Gender Issues in Psychology
INTRODUCTION:Common misconception, Some questions to ponder
FEMINIST MOVEMENT:Forms or Varieties of Feminism, First wave feminists
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:Functionalism, Psychoanalytic Psychology:
Gender- related Research:Andocentricity, Overgeneralizing, Gender Blindness
RESEARCH METHODS FOR GENDER ISSUES:The Procedure of Content Analysis
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH:Limitations Of Quantitative Research
BIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GENDERSHormones and Chromosomes
BIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GENDERS: HORMONES AND NERVOUS SYSTEM
THEORIES OF GENDER DEVELOPMENT:The Biological Approach,
THEORIES OF GENDER DEVELOPMENT (2):The Behavioral Approach
THEORIES OF GENDER DEVELOPMENT (3):The Cognitive Approach
THEORIES OF GENDER DEVELOPMENT (3):Psychoanalytic Feminism
OTHER APPROACHES:The Humanistic Approach, Cultural Influences
GENDER TYPING AND STEREOTYPING:Development of sex-typing
GENDER STEREOTYPES:Some commonly held Gender Stereotypes
Developmental Stages of Gender Stereotypes:Psychoanalytic Approach, Hostile sexism
CULTURAL INFLUENCE & GENDER ROLES:Arapesh, Mundugumor
DEVELOPMENT OF GENDER ROLE IDENTIFICATION:Gender Role Preference
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PERSONALITY:GENDER DIFFERENCES IN BULLYING
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PERSONALITY:GENDER, AFFILIATION AND FRIENDSHIP
COGNITIVE DIFFERENCES:Gender Differences in I.Q, Gender and Verbal Ability
GENDER AND MEDIA:Print Media and Portrayal of Genders
GENDER AND EMOTION:The components of Emotions
GENDER, EMOTION, & MOTIVATION:Affiliation, Love, Jealousy
GENDER AND EDUCATION:Impact of Educational Deprivation
GENDER, WORK AND WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT:Informal Work
GENDER, WORK AND WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT (2):Glass-Ceiling Effect
GENDER, WORK & RELATED ISSUES:Sexual Harassment at Workplace
GENDER AND VIOLENCE:Domestic Violence, Patriarchal terrorism
GENDER AND HEALTH:The Significance of Women’s Health
GENDER, HEALTH, AND AGING:Genetic Protection, Behavioral Factors
GENDER, HEALTH, AND AGING:Physiological /Biological Effects, Changes in Appearance
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN AGING:Marriage and Loneliness, Empty Nest Syndrome
GENDER AND HEALTH PROMOTING BEHAVIORS:Fitness and Exercise
GENDER AND HEALTH PROMOTING BEHAVIOR:The Classic Alameda County Study
GENDER AND HEART DISEASE:Angina Pectoris, The Risk factors in CHD
GENDER AND CANCER:The Trend of Mortality Rates from Cancer
GENDER AND HIV/AIDS:Symptoms of AIDS, Mode of Transmission
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH FEMALES’ REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH
OBESITY AND WEIGHT CONTROL:Consequences of Obesity, Eating Disorders
GENDER AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:Gender, Stress and Coping
GENDER AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:The Diagnostic Criteria
GENDER AND PSYCHOTHERAPY:Traditional Versus Feminist Theory
FEMINIST THERAPY:Changes targeted at societal level
COURSE REVIEW AND DISCUSSION OF NEW AVENUES FOR RESEARCH IN GENDER ISSUES

Health Psychology
INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:Health and Wellness Defined
INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:Early Cultures, The Middle Ages
INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:Psychosomatic Medicine
INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:The Background to Biomedical Model
INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE
HEALTH RELATED CAREERS:Nurses and Physician Assistants, Physical Therapists
THE FUNCTION OF NERVOUS SYSTEM:Prologue, The Central Nervous System
THE FUNCTION OF NERVOUS SYSTEM AND ENDOCRINE GLANDS:Other Glands
DIGESTIVE AND RENAL SYSTEMS:THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM, Digesting Food
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:The Heart and Blood Vessels, Blood Pressure
BLOOD COMPOSITION:Formed Elements, Plasma, THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
SOLDIERS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM:Less-Than-Optimal Defenses
THE PHENOMENON OF STRESS:Experiencing Stress in our Lives, Primary Appraisal
FACTORS THAT LEAD TO STRESSFUL APPRAISALS:Dimensions of Stress
PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF STRESS:Cognition and Stress, Emotions and Stress
SOURCES OF STRESS:Sources in the Family, An Addition to the Family
MEASURING STRESS:Environmental Stress, Physiological Arousal
PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS THAT CAN MODIFY THE IMPACT OF STRESS ON HEALTH
HOW STRESS AFFECTS HEALTH:Stress, Behavior and Illness, Psychoneuroimmunology
COPING WITH STRESS:Prologue, Functions of Coping, Distancing
REDUCING THE POTENTIAL FOR STRESS:Enhancing Social Support
STRESS MANAGEMENT:Medication, Behavioral and Cognitive Methods
THE PHENOMENON OF PAIN ITS NATURE AND TYPES:Perceiving Pain
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF PAIN PERCEPTION:Phantom Limb Pain, Learning and Pain
ASSESSING PAIN:Self-Report Methods, Behavioral Assessment Approaches
DEALING WITH PAIN:Acute Clinical Pain, Chronic Clinical Pain
ADJUSTING TO CHRONIC ILLNESSES:Shock, Encounter, Retreat
THE COPING PROCESS IN PATIENTS OF CHRONIC ILLNESS:Asthma
IMPACT OF DIFFERENT CHRONIC CONDITIONS:Psychosocial Factors in Epilepsy

History and Systems of Psychology
INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology

Introduction to Psychology
WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?:Theoretical perspectives of psychology
HISTORICAL ROOTS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY:HIPPOCRATES, PLATO
SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT:Biological Approach, Psychodynamic Approach
PERSPECTIVE/MODEL/APPROACH:Narcosis, Chemotherapy
THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH/ MODEL:Psychic Determinism, Preconscious
BEHAVIORAL APPROACH:Behaviorist Analysis, Basic Terminology, Basic Terminology
THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH AND THE COGNITIVE APPROACH:Rogers’ Approach
RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (I):Scientific Nature of Psychology
RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (II):Experimental Research
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND NATURE NURTURE ISSUE:Nature versus Nurture
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:Socio- Cultural Factor, The Individual and the Group
NERVOUS SYSTEM (1):Biological Bases of Behavior, Terminal Buttons
NERVOUS SYSTEM (2):Membranes of the Brain, Association Areas, Spinal Cord
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland, Dwarfism
SENSATION:The Human Eye, Cornea, Sclera, Pupil, Iris, Lens
HEARING (AUDITION) AND BALANCE:The Outer Ear, Auditory Canal
PERCEPTION I:Max Wertheimer, Figure and Ground, Law of Closure
PERCEPTION II:Depth Perception, Relative Height, Linear Perspective
ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS:Electroencephalogram, Hypnosis
LEARNING:Motor Learning, Problem Solving, Basic Terminology, Conditioning
OPERANT CONDITIONING:Negative Rein forcer, Punishment, No reinforcement
COGNITIVE APPROACH:Approach to Learning, Observational Learning
MEMORY I:Functions of Memory, Encoding and Recoding, Retrieval
MEMORY II:Long-Term Memory, Declarative Memory, Procedural Memory
MEMORY III:Memory Disorders/Dysfunctions, Amnesia, Dementia
SECONDARY/ LEARNT/ PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES:Curiosity, Need for affiliation
EMOTIONS I:Defining Emotions, Behavioral component, Cognitive component
EMOTIONS II:Respiratory Changes, Pupillometrics, Glandular Responses
COGNITION AND THINKING:Cognitive Psychology, Mental Images, Concepts
THINKING, REASONING, PROBLEM- SOLVING AND CREATIVITY:Mental shortcuts
PERSONALITY I:Definition of Personality, Theories of Personality
PERSONALITY II:Surface traits, Source Traits, For learning theorists, Albert Bandura
PERSONALITY III:Assessment of Personality, Interview, Behavioral Assessment
INTELLIGENCE:The History of Measurement of Intelligence, Later Revisions
PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:Plato, Aristotle, Asclepiades, In The Middle Ages
ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR I:Medical Perspective, Psychodynamic Perspective
ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR II:Hypochondriasis, Conversion Disorders, Causes include
PSYCHOTHERAPY I:Psychotherapeutic Orientations, Clinical Psychologists
PSYCHOTHERAPY II:Behavior Modification, Shaping, Humanistic Therapies
POPULAR AREAS OF PSYCHOLOGY:ABC MODEL, Factors affecting attitude change
HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:Understanding Health, Observational Learning
INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:‘Hard’ Criteria and ‘Soft’ Criteria
CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Focus of Interest, Consumer Psychologist
SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Some Research Findings, Arousal level
FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY:Origin and History of Forensic Psychology

Neurological Basis of Bahaviour
INTRODUCTION:Descriptive, Experimental and/ or Natural Studies
BRIEF HISTORICAL REVIEW:Roots of Behavioural Neurosciences
SUB-SPECIALIZATIONS WITHIN THE BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCES
RESEARCH IN BEHAVIOURAL NEUROSCIENCES:Animal Subjects, Experimental Method
EVOLUTIONARY AND GENETIC BASIS OF BEHAVIOUR:Species specific
EVOLUTIONARY AND GENETIC BASIS OF BEHAVIOUR:Decent With Modification
EVOLUTIONARY AND GENETIC BASIS OF BEHAVIOUR:Stereoscopic vision
GENES AND EXPERIENCE:Fixed Pattern, Proteins, Genotype, Phenotypic
GENES AND EXPERIENCE:Mendelian Genetics, DNA, Sex Influenced Traits
GENES AND EXPERIENCE:Genetic Basis of behavior, In breeding
GENES AND EXPERIENCE:Hybrid vigor, Chromosomal Abnormalities
GENES AND EXPERIENCE:Behavioral Characteristics, Alcoholism
RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF ASSESSMENT OF BRAIN FUNCTION
RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF ASSESSMENT OF BRAIN FUNCTION:Activating brain
RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF ASSESSMENT OF BRAIN FUNCTION:Macro electrodes
RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF ASSESSMENT OF BRAIN FUNCTION:Water Mazes.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:Operation Head Start
DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:Teratology studies, Aristotle
DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:Stages of development, Neurulation
DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:Cell competition, Synaptic Rearrangement
DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:The issues still remain
DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:Post natal
DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:Oxygen level
Basic Neuroanatomy:Brain and spinal cord, Glial cells, Oligodendrocytes
Basic Neuroanatomy:Neuron Structure, Cell Soma, Cytoplasm, Nucleolus
Basic Neuroanatomy:Control of molecules, Electrical charges, Proximal-distal
Basic Neuroanatomy:Telencephalon, Mesencephalon. Myelencephalon
Basic Neuroanatomy:Tegmentum, Substantia Nigra, MID BRAIN areas
Basic Neuroanatomy:Diencephalon, Hypothalmus, Telencephalon, Frontal Lobe
Basic Neurochemistry:Neurochemicals, Neuromodulator, Synaptic cleft
Basic Neurochemistry:Changes in ionic gates, The direct method, Methods of Locating NT
Basic Neurochemistry:Major Neurotransmitters, Mesolimbic, Metabolic degradation
Basic Neurochemistry:Norepinephrine/ Noradrenaline, NA synthesis, Noadrenergic Pathways
Basic Neurochemistry:NA and Feeding, NE and self stimulation: ICS
Basic Neurochemistry:5HT and Behaviors, Serotonin and sleep, Other behaviours
Basic Neurochemistry:ACH and Behaviors, Arousal, Drinking, Sham rage and attack
Brain and Motivational States:Homeostasis, Temperature Regulation, Ectotherms
Brain and Motivational States:Biological Rhythms, Circadian rhythms, Hunger/Feeding
Brain and Motivational States:Gastric factors, Lipostatic theory, Neural Control of feeding
Brain and Motivational States:Resting metabolic state, Individual differences
Brain and Motivational States:Sleep and Dreams, Characteristics of sleep
Higher Order Brain functions:Brain correlates, Language, Speech Comprehension
Higher Order Brain functions:Aphasia and Dyslexia, Aphasias related to speech
Higher Order Brain Functions:Principle of Mass Action, Long-term memory
Higher Order Brain Functions:Brain correlates, Handedness, Frontal lobe

Organizational Psychology
INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHLOGY:Hawthorne Effect
METHODOLOGIES OF DATA COLLECTION:Observational method, Stability of Measures
GLOBALIZATION:Aspects of Globalization, Industrial Globalization
DEFINING THE CULTURE:Key Components of Culture, Individualism
WHAT IS DIVERSITY?:Recruitment and Retention, Organizational approaches
ETHICS:Sexual Harassment, Pay and Promotion Discrimination, Employee Privacy
NATURE OF ORGANIZATIONS:Flat Organization, Neoclassical Organization Theory
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE:Academy Culture, Baseball Team Culture, Fortress Culture
CHANGING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE:Move decisively, defuse resistance
REWARD SYSTEMS: PAY, Methods of Pay, Individual incentive plan, New Pay Techniques
REWARD SYSTEMS: RECOGNITION AND BENEFITS, Efficiency Wage Theory
PERCEPTION:How They Work Together, Gestalt Laws of Grouping, Closure
PERCEPTUAL DEFENCE:Cognitive Dissonance Theory, Stereotyping
ATTRIBUTION:Locus of Control, Fundamental Attribution Error
IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT:Impression Construction, Self-focused IM
PERSONALITY:Classifying Personality Theories, Humanistic/Existential
PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT:Standardized, Basic Categories of Measures
ATTITUDE:Emotional, Informational, Behavioural,Positive and Negative Affectivity
JOB SATISFACTION:The work, Pay, Measurement of Job Satisfaction
MOTIVATION:Extrinsic motive, Theories of work motivation, Safety needs
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION:Instrumentality, Stacy Adams’S Equity theory
MOTIVATION ACROSS CULTURES:Meaning of Work, Role of Religion
POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY:Criticisms of ‘Traditional’ Psychology, Optimism
HOPE:Personality, Our goals, Satisfaction with important domains, Negative affect
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE:EI IS Related To Emotions and Intelligence
SELF EFFICACY:Motivation, Perseverance, Thoughts, Sources of Self-Efficacy
COMMUNICATION:Historical Background, Informal-Formal, Interpersonal Communication
COMMUNICATION (Part II):Downward Communication, Stereotyping Problems
DECISION MAKING:History, Personal Rationality, Social Model, Conceptual
PARTICIPATIVE DECISION MAKING TECHNIQUES:Expertise, Thinking skills
JOB STRESS:Distress and Eustress, Burnout, General Adaptation Syndrome
INDIVIDUAL STRESSORS:Role Ambiguity/ Role Conflict, Personal Control
EFFECTS OF STRESS:Physical Effects, Behavioural Effects, Individual Strategies
POWER AND POLITICS:Coercive Power, Legitimate Power, Referent Power
POLITICS:Sources of Politics in Organizations, Final Word about Power
GROUPS AND TEAMS:Why Groups Are Formed, Forming, Storming
DYSFUNCTIONS OF GROUPS:Norm Violation, Group Think, Risky Shift
JOB DESIGN:Job Rotation, Job Enlargement, Job Enrichment, Skill Variety
JOB DESIGN:Engagement, Disengagement, Social Information Processing, Motivation
LEARNING:Motor Learning, Verbal Learning, Behaviouristic Theories, Acquisition
OBMOD:Applications of OBMOD, Correcting Group Dysfunctions
LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Managers versus Leaders, Defining Leadership
MODERN THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Transformational Leaders
GREAT LEADERS: STYLES, ACTIVITIES AND SKILLS:Globalization and Leadership
GREAT LEADERS: STYLES, ACTIVITIES AND SKILLS:Planning, Staffing

Personality Psychology
THE NATURE OF PERSONALITY THEORY:Objectives of Personality Psychology
PERSONALITY MEASUREMENT:Observational Procedures, Rating Scales
MAIN PERSPECTIVES:Psychometrics, observation, Behavioral Coding Systems
SIGMUND FREUD: A PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY OF PERSONALITY
INSTINCT: WHAT MOTIVATES HUMAN BEHAVIOR?, The Oral Stage
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY OF SIGMUND FREUD:The Ego, Free association
THEORY OF CARL JUNG:Biographical Sketch, Principles of Opposites, The Persona
THE PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPES:Childhood, Young Adulthood, Middle Ages
ALFRED ADLER:Biographical Sketch, Individual Psychology, Feeling of Inferiority
INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Fictional Finalism, Social Interest, Mistaken Styles of Life
KAREN HORNEY:Adjustment to Basic Anxiety, Adjustment Techniques
ADJUSTMENT TO BASIC ANXIETY:Moving Towards People, Moving Against People
ERIK ERIKSON:Anatomy and Destiny, Ego Psychology, Goal of Psychotherapy
ERIK ERIKSON:Human Development, Goal of Psychotherapy
SULLIVAN’S INTERPERSONAL THEORY:Core Concepts, The Self-System
SULLIVAN’S INTERPERSONAL THEORY:Cognitive Process, Tension
CONSTITUTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:The Structure of Physique, Evaluation
SHELDON’S SOMATOTYPE THEORY:The Structure of Physique
MASLOW’S THEORY:Self-Actualizers Aren't Angels, Biographical Sketch
MASLOW’S THEORY:Basic Concepts of Humanistic Psychology, Problem Centering
ROGERS PERSON CENTERED APPROACH:Humanistic, Actualizing tendency
ROGERS PERSON CENTERED APPROACH:Fully functioning person
ROGERS PERSON CENTERED APPROACH:Client Centered Therapy,
KELLY’S COGNITIVE THEORY OF PERSONALITY THEORY:Biographical Sketch
CORE CONCEPTS OF GEORGE KELLY’S COGNITIVE THEORY OF PERSONALITY
GORDON ALLPORT: A TRAIT THEORY OF PERSONALITY:Personality as a
GORDON ALLPORT: A TRAIT THEORY OF PERSONALITY:Secondary Traits
FACTOR ANALYTIC TRAIT THEORY:Factor Analysis, The Nature of Personality
FACTOR ANALYTIC TRAIT THEORY:The Specification Equation, Research Methods
HENRY MURRAY’S PERSONOLOGY:Need, Levels of Analysis, Thema
HENRY MURRAY’S PERSONOLOGY (CONTINUED)
ALBERT BANDURA’S SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY:BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
ALBERT BANDURA’S SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY:Reciprocal Determinism
THE STIMULUS RESPONSE THEORY OF DOLLARD AND MILLER:Core Concepts
THE STIMULUS RESPONSE THEORY OF DOLLARD AND MILLER:Innate Equipment
SKINNER’S THEORY OF PERSONALITY:Biographical Sketch, Books
SKINNER’S THEORY OF PERSONALITY:Positive Reinforcement, Generalization
ALBERT ELLIS THEORY OF PERSONALITY:Biographical Sketch, Social Factors
THE GRAND PERFECT THEORY OF PERSONALITY:Genes and Biology
PERSPECTIVES OR DOMAINS OF PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY:Dispositional
PERSPECTIVES OR DOMAINS OF PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY
PERSPECTIVES OR DOMAINS OF PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY:Need
THE GRAND THEORY OF PERSONALITY:Psychosexual Stages of Development
PERSONALITY APPRAISAL:Issues in Personality Assessment
PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY: NEW DIRECTIONS IN THE DISCIPLINE

Social Psychology
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:Readings, Main Elements of Definitions
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:Social Psychology and Sociology
CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:Scientific Method
CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:Evaluate Ethics
CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH PROCESS, DESIGNS AND METHODS (CONTINUED)
CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OBSERVATIONAL METHOD
CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY CORRELATIONAL METHOD:
CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
THE SELF:Meta Analysis, THE INTERNET, BRAIN-IMAGING TECHNIQUES
THE SELF (CONTINUED):Development of Self awareness, SELF REGULATION
THE SELF (CONTINUE…….):Journal Activity, POSSIBLE HISTORICAL EFFECTS
THE SELF (CONTINUE……….):SELF-SCHEMAS, SELF-COMPLEXITY
PERSON PERCEPTION:Impression Formation, Facial Expressions
PERSON PERCEPTION (CONTINUE…..):GENDER SOCIALIZATION, Integrating Impressions
PERSON PERCEPTION: WHEN PERSON PERCEPTION IS MOST CHALLENGING
ATTRIBUTION:The locus of causality, Stability & Controllability
ATTRIBUTION ERRORS:Biases in Attribution, Cultural differences
SOCIAL COGNITION:We are categorizing creatures, Developing Schemas
SOCIAL COGNITION (CONTINUE…….):Counterfactual Thinking, Confirmation bias
ATTITUDES:Affective component, Behavioral component, Cognitive component
ATTITUDE FORMATION:Classical conditioning, Subliminal conditioning
ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR:Theory of planned behavior, Attitude strength
ATTITUDE CHANGE:Factors affecting dissonance, Likeability
ATTITUDE CHANGE (CONTINUE……….):Attitudinal Inoculation, Audience Variables
PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION:Activity on Cognitive Dissonance, Categorization
PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION (CONTINUE……….):Religion, Stereotype threat
REDUCING PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION:The contact hypothesis
INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION:Reasons for affiliation, Theory of Social exchange
INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION (CONTINUE……..):Physical attractiveness
INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS:Applied Social Psychology Lab
SOCIAL INFLUENCE:Attachment styles & Friendship, SOCIAL INTERACTIONS
SOCIAL INFLUENCE (CONTINE………):Normative influence, Informational influence
SOCIAL INFLUENCE (CONTINUE……):Crimes of Obedience, Predictions
AGGRESSION:Identifying Aggression, Instrumental aggression
AGGRESSION (CONTINUE……):The Cognitive-Neo-associationist Model
REDUCING AGGRESSION:Punishment, Incompatible response strategy
PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR:Types of Helping, Reciprocal helping, Norm of responsibility
PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR (CONTINUE………):Bystander Intervention, Diffusion of responsibility
GROUP BEHAVIOR:Applied Social Psychology Lab, Basic Features of Groups
GROUP BEHAVIOR (CONTINUE…………):Social Loafing, Deindividuation
up Decision GROUP BEHAVIOR (CONTINUE……….):GroProcess, Group Polarization
INTERPERSONAL POWER: LEADERSHIP, The Situational Perspective, Information power
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN COURT
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN CLINIC
FINAL REVIEW:Social Psychology and related fields, History, Social cognition

Sport Psychology
SPORT PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED:Issue of Certification, The Research Sport Psychologist
SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Successful Performance, Verbal persuasion
SELECTING SELF-TALK STATEMENTS:Skill accusation, Controlling effort
GOAL ORIENTATION:Goal Involvement, Motivational Climate
CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION IN SPORT:Fritz Heider’s Contribution, Other Considerations
CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONS IN COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS:Locus of Causality
MOTIVATION IN SPORT:Social Factors, Success and Failure, Coaches’ Behavior
FLOW: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF OPTIMAL EXPERIENCE, Goal Setting in Sport
PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE GOAL SETTING:Clearly identify time constraints
A TEAM APPROACH TO SETTING GOALS:The Planning Phase, The Meeting Phase
YOUTH SPORT:Distress and anxiety, Coach-Parent Relationships
ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Information Processing, Memory Systems
ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Measuring Attentional Focus
PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Personality Defined, Psychodynamic Theory
THE MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY:Projective Procedures, Structured Questionnaire
PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Athletic Motivation Inventory, Personality Sport Type
SITUATIONAL FACTORS RELATED TO ANXIETY AND MOOD:Type of Sport
ANXIETY, AROUSAL, AND STRESS RELATIONSHIPS:Emotion and Mood
ANXIETY, AROUSAL, AND STRESS RELATIONSHIPS:The Inverted-U Theory
ALTERNATIVES TO INVERTED-U THEORY:Apter’s Reversal Theory
COPING STRATEGIES IN SPORT:Measurement of Coping Skill
RELAXATION STRATEGIES FOR SPORT:Progressive Relaxation, Autogenic Training
AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Team Energizing Strategies, Fan Support
AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Precompetition Workout, Individual Goal Setting
IMAGERY:Skill Level of the Athletes, Time Factors and Mental Practice
IMAGERY:Symbolic Learning Theory, Imagery Perspective. Sensory Mode
IMAGERY:Paivio’s Two-Dimensional Model, Developing Imagery Skills
THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Defining Hypnosis, Social-Cognitive Theory
THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Achieving the Hypnotic Trance, Hypnotic Phase
PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Psychological Skills Training Program
PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Performance profiling, Performance routines
ETHICS IN SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Competence, Integrity, Social Responsibility
AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:Defining Aggression, Catharsis hypothesis
AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:The Catharsis Effect, Fan Violence
AUDIENCE AND CROWD EFFECTS IN SPORTS:Social Facilitation, Crowd Hostility
TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Measurement of Team Cohesion
TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Predicting Future Participation, Team Building
LEADERSHIP IN SPORT:Fiedler’s Contingency Theory, Coach-Athlete Compatibility
EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Special Populations, Clinical Patients
EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Social Interaction Hypothesis, Amine Hypothesis
EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:The Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory
EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Exercise Addiction, Bulimia Nervosa, Muscle Dysmorphia
BURNOUT IN ATHLETES:Overtraining and Overreaching, Recommended Intervention
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ATHLETIC INJURIES:Personality Factors, Coping Resources
DRUG ABUSE IN SPORT AND EXERCISE:Stimulants, Depressants

Theory and Practice of Counselling
INTRODUCTION:Counseling Journals, Definitions of Counseling
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND COUNSELING & PSYCHOTHERAPY
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1900-1909:Frank Parson, Psychopathic Hospitals
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:Recent Trends in Counseling
GOALS & ACTIVITIES GOALS OF COUNSELING:Facilitating Behavior Change
ETHICAL & LEGAL ISSUES IN COUNSELING:Development of Codes
ETHICAL & LEGAL ISSUES IN COUNSELING:Keeping Relationships Professional
EFFECTIVE COUNSELOR:Personal Characteristics Model
EFFECTIVE COUNSELOR:Humanism, People Orientation, Intellectual Curiosity
EFFECTIVE COUNSELOR:Cultural Bias in Theory and Practice, Stress and Burnout
COUNSELING SKILLS:Microskills, Body Language & Movement, Paralinguistics
COUNSELING SKILLS COUNSELOR’S NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION:Use of Space
COUNSELING SKILLS HINTS TO MAINTAIN CONGRUENCE:
LISTENING & UNDERSTANDING SKILLS:Barriers to an Accepting Attitude
LISTENING & UNDERSTANDING SKILLS:Suggestive Questions,
LISTENING & UNDERSTANDING SKILLS:Tips for Paraphrasing, Summarizing Skills
INFLUENCING SKILLS:Basic Listening Sequence (BLS), Interpretation/ Reframing
FOCUSING & CHALLENGING SKILLS:Focused and Selective Attention, Family focus
COUNSELING PROCESS:Link to the Previous Lecture
COUNSELING PROCESS:The Initial Session, Counselor-initiated, Advice Giving
COUNSELING PROCESS:Transference & Counter-transference
THEORY IN THE PRACTICE OF COUNSELING:Timing of Termination
PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACHES TO COUNSELING:View of Human Nature
CLASSICAL PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH:Psychic Determination, Anxiety
NEO-FREUDIANS:Strengths, Weaknesses, NEO-FREUDIANS, Family Constellation
NEO-FREUDIANS:Task setting, Composition of Personality, The Shadow
NEO-FREUDIANS:Ten Neurotic Needs, Modes of Experiencing
CLIENT-CENTERED APPROACH:Background of his approach, Techniques
GESTALT THERAPY:Fritz Perls, Causes of Human Difficulties
GESTALT THERAPY:Role of the Counselor, Assessment
EXISTENTIAL THERAPY:Rollo May, Role of Counselor, Logotherapy
COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO COUNSELING:Stress-Inoculation Therapy
COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO COUNSELING:Role of the Counselor
TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:Eric Berne, The child ego state, Transactional Analysis
BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES:Respondent Learning, Social Learning Theory
BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES:Use of reinforcers, Maintenance, Extinction
REALITY THERAPY:Role of the Counselor, Strengths, Limitations
GROUPS IN COUNSELING:Major benefits, Traditional & Historical Groups
GROUPS IN COUNSELING:Humanistic Groups, Gestalt Groups
MARRIAGE & FAMILY COUNSELING:Systems Theory, Postwar changes
MARRIAGE & FAMILY COUNSELING:Concepts Related to Circular Causality
CAREER COUNSELING:Situational Approaches, Decision Theory
COMMUNITY COUNSELING & CONSULTING:Community Counseling
DIAGNOSIS & ASSESSMENT:Assessment Techniques, Observation
FINAL OVERVIEW:Ethical issues, Influencing skills, Counseling Approaches

Cultural Anthropology
WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY?:Cultural Anthropology, Internet Resources
THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE AND THE APPLICATION OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
MAJOR THEORIES IN CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY:Diffusionism
GROWTH OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY (continued):Post Modernism
METHODS IN CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY:Comments on Fieldwork
METHODS IN CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY (continued):Census Taking
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSUMPTION IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE WORLD
ECONOMIC ANTHROPOLOGY (continued):THE DISTRIBUTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES
FOCUSING ON LANGUAGE:Languages of the World, Structure of Language
FOCUS ON LANGUAGE (continued):Levels of Complexity, Cultural Emphasis
OBTAINING FOOD IN DIFFERENT CULTURES:Optimal Foraging, Suggested Readings
FOOD AND CULTURE (continued):Food Collectors, Food Production
OBTAINING FOOD IN DIFFERENT CULTURE (continued):Pastoralism, Agriculture
RELEVANCE OF KINSHIP AND DESCENT:Kinship Criteria, Rules of Descent
KINSHIP AND DESCENT (continued):Tracing Descent, Primary Kinship Systems
THE ROLE OF FAMILY AND MARRIAGE IN CULTURE:Economic Aspect of Marriage
ROLE OF FAMILY AND MARRIAGE IN CULTURE (continued):Family Structures
GENDER AND CULTURE:Gender Stratification, Suggested Readings
GENDER ROLES IN CULTURE (continued):Women Employment, Feminization of Poverty
STRATIFICATION AND CULTURE:Social Ranking, Dimensions of Inequality
THEORIES OF STRATIFICATION (continued):The Functionalists, Conflict Theorists
CULTURE AND CHANGE:Inventions, Diffusion, Donor, Conventional
CULTURE AND CHANGE (continued):Cultural Interrelations, Reaction to Change
CULTURE AND CHANGE (continued):Planned Change, Globalization
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION:Bands, Tribal Organizations, Chiefdoms
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION (continued):State Systems, Nation-States
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION (continued):Social Norms, Informal Mechanisms
PSYCHOLOGY AND CULTURE:Emotional Development, Psychological Universals
PSYCHOLOGY AND CULTURE (continued):Origin of Customs, Personality Types
IDEOLOGY AND CULTURE:Ideology in Everyday Life, Hegemony
IDEOLOGY AND CULTURE (Continued):Political ideologies, Economic Ideology
ASSOCIATIONS, CULTURES AND SOCIETIES:Variation in Associations, Age Sets
ASSOCIATIONS, CULTURES AND SOCIETIES (continued):Formation of Associations
RACE, ETHNICITY AND CULTURE:Similarity in Human Adaptations
RACE, ETHNICITY AND CULTURE (continued):Inter-group Relations
CULTURE AND BELIEFS:Social Function of Religion, Politics and Beliefs
LOCAL OR INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE:Changing Definitions of Local Knowledge
LOCAL OR INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE (continued):The Need for Caution
ANTHROPOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT:Influence of Development Notions
ANTHROPOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT (Continued):Contentions in Development
ANTHROPOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT (Continued):Operational
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY AND ART:Relevance of Art, Art and Politics
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY AND ART (continued):Art as a Status Symbol
ETHICS IN ANTHROPOLOGY:Ethical Condemnation, Orientalism
RELEVANCE OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY:Ensuring Cultural Survival

Introduction to Sociology
THE ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY:Auguste Comte, The Fields of Sociology
THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE:Society affects what we do
THEORETICAL PARADIGMS:Salient Paradigms, Critical Evaluation
SOCIOLOGY AS SCIENCE:Empirical, Verifiable, Cumulative, Self-Correcting
STEPS IN SOCIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION:Exploration/Consultation
SOCIAL INTERACTION:Social Status, ROLE, The Social Construction of Reality
SOCIAL GROUPS:Primary and Secondary Groups, Reference Group, Networks
ORGANIZATIONS:Utilitarian Organizations, Coercive Organizations
CULTURE:Universality, Components of Culture, Symbols, Language
CULTURE (continued):Beliefs, Norms, Cultural Diversity
CULTURE (continued):Culture by social class, Multiculturalism, Cultural Lag
SOCIALIZATION: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, NATURE, Social Isolation
UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS
AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION:The Family, The School, Peer Groups, The Mass Media
SOCIALIZATION AND THE LIFE COURSE:CHILDHOOD, ADOLESCENCE
SOCIAL CONTROL AND DEVIANCE:Crime, Deviants, Stigma, Labeling
THE SOCIAL FOUNDATIONS OF DEVIANCE:Cultural relativity of deviance
EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME:Sociological explanations
EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME -- CONTINUED:White-Collar Crime, Conflict Theory
SOCIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRIME: EXPLANATIONS, Gender and Crime
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: INTRODUCTION AND SIGNIFICANCE
THEORIES OF CLASS AND STRATIFICATION – I:Critical evaluation
THEORIES OF SOCIAL CLASS AND STRATIFICATION – II
THEORIES OF CLASS AND SOCIAL STRATIFICATION – III
SOCIAL CLASS AS SUBCULTURE
SOCIAL MOBILITY:Structural factors, Individual factors, Costs
THE FAMILY: GLOBAL VARIETY, Marriage Patterns, Patterns of Descent
FUNCTIONS OF FAMILY:Reproduction, Social placement
FAMILY AND MARRIAGE IN TRANSITION:Family is losing functions
GENDER: A SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION, Gender socialization
GENDER SOCIALIZATION:Role of family, Gender Stratification
EXPLANATIONS OF GENDER INEQUALITY:Conflict Explanations, Feminism
FUNCTIONS OF SCHOOLING:Cultural Innovation, School Tracking
ISSUES IN EDUCATION:Low Enrollment, High Dropout, Gender Disparity
POPULATION STUDY AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE:Crude Birth Rate
THEORY OF POPULATION GROWTH:Theory of Demographic Transition
POPULATION PROFILE OF PAKISTAN:World Population Growth
POPULATION PROFILE OF PAKISTAN (Continued):Age Distribution, Sex Composition
IMPLICAIONS OF POPULATION GOWTH:Additional GDP needed per year
POPULATION POLICY:Goals of Population Policy, Objectives, Strategies
ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY:Global Dimension, Historical Dimension
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES:Preserving Clean Water, Clearing the Air
SOCIAL CHANGE:Social change is controversial.
CAUSES OF SOCIAL CHANGE:Culture and Change, Conflict and Change, Modernization
MODERNITY AND POST MODERNITY:Cultural Patterns, Post-modernity

International Relations - IR
WHAT IS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WHAT IS ITS RELEVANCE?
APPROACHES TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: THEORIES IN IR
APPROACHES TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS:Traditional Approach
THE NATION-STATE SYSTEM:Further Evolution of Nation-State
THE NATION STATE SYSTEM: BASIC FEATURES OF A NATION-STATE
NATIONAL INTEREST:Criteria for Defining National Interest
NATIONAL INTEREST:Variations in National Interest, Relevant Vocabulary
BALANCE OF POWER (BOP):BoP from a historical perspective
BALANCE OF POWER (CONTINUED):Degree of Polarization, Functions of BoP
DIPLOMACY:How Diplomacy Functions, Traditional Versus Modern Diplomacy
DIPLOMACY (CONTINUED):Diplomatic Procedures & Practices, Functions of Diplomacy
COLONIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM & IMPERIALISM:Judging Colonization
COLONIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM & IMPERIALISM:Types of Neo-Colonialism
COLONIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM & IMPERIALISM:Objectives of Imperialism
NEW INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORDER:Criticism of IEO, NIEO Activities
NEW INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORDER:Prerequisites for the NIEO
NON-ALIGNMENT MOVEMENT:Origin of NAM, NAM’s Institutional Structure
NON-ALIGNMENT MOVEMENT (CONTINUED):Cairo Summit, Egypt - 1964
NON-ALIGNMENT MOVEMENT:Criticism of NAM, NAM and Pakistan
THE COLD WAR AND ITS IMPACTS - INTRODUCING THE COLD WAR PHENOMENON
THE COLD WAR AND ITS IMPACTS (CONTINUED):Truman Doctrine, Marshal Plan
THE COLD WAR AND ITS IMPACTS (CONTINUED):End of the Cold War
DISARMAMENT AND ARMS CONTROL:History of Disarmament
DISARMAMENT AND ARMS CONTROL (CONTINUED):Other Disarmament Efforts
THE RELEVANCE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
THE RELEVANCE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (CONTINUED)
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:Need for IGOs, Categorizing IGOs
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS (CONTINUED):United Nations, Criticism of the UN
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS (CONTINUED):European Union, World Bank
THE ROLE OF DECISION MAKING IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
DECISION MAKING (CONTINUED):Rational Actor Model, Group Politics Model
SYSTEMS APPROACH TO IR:Underlying Assumptions, Elements of the System
SYSTEMS BASED APPROACH (CONTINUED) – DISTINCT SYSTEMS IN IR
LIBERALISM AND SOCIAL DEMOCRACY:Neoliberalism
LIBERALISM AND SOCIAL DEMOCRACY (CONTINUED):Liberalism vs. Social Democracy
INTEGRATION IN IR:Preconditions for Integration, Assessing Integration
GLOBALIZATION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS:Advocates of Globalization
THE GLOBAL DIVIDE:World Social Forum, Can the Global Divide Be Bridged?
FOCUS ON FOREIGN INVESTMENTS:Pro-poor Foreign Investments
CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION:Components of a Conflict
CONFLICT RESOLUTION:Creative response, Appropriate assertiveness
THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT:Global Concern for the Environment
THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT:Environmental Concerns and IR, Some Other Issues
HOW IR DIFFER FROM DOMESTIC POLITICS?:Strategies for altering state behavior
CHANGE AND IR:Continuity in IR, Causality and counterfactuals, IR in a nutshell

Windows 7 Step by Step
CALCULUS
Introduction to Probability
generatingfunctionology
Algebraic Topology
PHP 5 Power Programming
Electricity and Magnetism
Brief Contents:Contents
Electricity and the Atom:The Quest for the Atomic Force, Atoms
The Nucleus:Radioactivity, The Planetary Model of the Atom
Circuits:Current, Voltage, Resistance, Current-Conducting Properties of Materials