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Introduction to Computing

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Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
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LESSON 14
WORD PROCESSING
Focus of the last Lesson was on Application SW
Application SW are programs that interact directly with the user for the performance of a certain type of
work
That work generally falls into one of the following usage areas
Scientific/engineering/graphics
Business
Productivity
Entertainment
Educational
Today's Lecture
First among the four lectures that we plan to have on productivity software, a sub-category of
application software
This first Lesson will be on word processing
We'll learn about what we mean by word processing and also desktop publishing
We'll discuss the usage of various functions provided by common word processors
Word Processing
The art and science of converting written information into a form that looks pleasing when printed
One of the most popular activities on the PC
14.1 Word Processor
The tool used to perform word processing
Long time ago, a word processor was a HW/SW combination used solely for performing the word
processing task. It looked like a computer terminal or a PC, but could do only one task ­ word
processing
Today, the term "word processor" generally means the SW used on a computer to perform the task of
word processing
Uses of Word Processors
Write a letter
Address labels
Research paper or report
Advertisement
Newsletter
Magazines
Book
And thousands of other tasks
Common Features
Type, cut, copy, paste, move text
Automatic line-breaks
Change font type, face, size, color
Change number of columns
Adjust margins and line, word, letter spacing
Have running headers, footers, page nos.
Insert tables, charts, graphics, drawings
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Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
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Evolution of WP's
Manual & electric typewriters (1930-1960)
Were page oriented
Type face/size was changed by replacing the typing ball
Typewriters with magnetic storage (1960's)
IBM added storage capability using magnetic tape
Line editors on computers(1960's)
Stand alone word processors (1960's-1970's)
cost: $15,000 to 20,000
Current WP programs on uCs (1980's onwards)
14.2 Types: WYSIWYG-based & Markup-based
All early WP's and some of the modern ones as well are markup-based: similar to HTML
Generally are harder to learn, but may provide better control and smaller file size
Example: LaTeX
Most current PC-based WP's belong to the WYSIWYG category
Easy to get started due to the WIMP interface
Example: MS Word, Corel WordPerfect, Sun Star
14.3 Desktop Publishing (DTP)
A combination of word processing and graphic design. Used to develop elegant documents
In the olden times, DTP was used for designing magazines, newspapers & other professional-looking
items
These days, because of the low cost of DTP SW, it is being used for less-demanding and ordinary tasks
as well
The original Macintosh PC started the era of DTP or "Personal Publishing" in 1984
DTP ­vs­ WP
The difference between the two is diminishing with time
Most WP's now include many tools that, not long ago, were found only in DTP SW
Generally, DTP SW is a bit more difficult to use for us common computer users, whereas WP SW is
quite user-friendly
DTP SW generally provides finer control over the design/layout of a document
DTP: Requirements
High-end PC with a large-screen monitor
Laser printer
Scanner
DTP SW
Examples:
Adobe PageMaker
QuarkXPress
Corel Ventura
MS Publisher
14.4 Word Processors for the Web
Most common WP's and DTP packages now have the Web development ability
They also include features like auto-recognition of eMail addresses and URL's
However, specialized SW just for developing Web pages and sites is also available
Examples: DreamWeaver, FrontPage
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Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
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The right font face & size for normal text
If text is too small, it becomes hard to read
Too large, wastage of space is the result. Plus the reader has to turn more pages than necessary
Either way, the reader gets annoyed
For general WP, 10-12 point size works well
Most users, either use the Times New Roman or Arial/Helvetica type face
Bold, Italic, Underlined Text
Bold ­ fat
Italic ­ slanted (Why the name italic?)
Underlined
All used to emphasize a certain segment of text
Plea:
Please do not over-do them
Their over-use makes it very difficult for the reader
And please, use one at a time: Text that is no only bold but also italic & underlined looks +ively awful
Select, Cut, Copy, Drag, Paste
Just select and cut or copy or drag
Can also paste after a cut or a copy
Just think about the pain that people suffered before the advent of the modern WP's
Movement of a single sentence from one page to another would have required re-doing all the pages in
between
Spelling & Grammar
Grammar checkers are not very helpful yet, but still useful and are improving with time
Warning: Spell checkers are not all that smart! Use them with care.
Disadvantage: My spelling ability is deteriorating day-by-day because of over-reliance on WP spell-
checkers. I am having great difficulty in writing even short-ish hand-written notes without spelling
errors
Thesaurus
My favorite tool
Helps you find synonyms and, sometimes, antonyms as well
Tables
Tables are sometimes useful for presenting info in an ordered fashion
Most WP's provide extensive table construction & manipulation features
Graphics & Drawings
You can insert graphics that are made using other apps into a WP document
Several WP's have a built-in drawing tool, which can be used for adding simple diagrams (e.g. a flow
chart, a simple street map) into a WP document
The Best Feature: Undo
Allows you to recover from your mistakes
Allows you to experiment without risk
Document View Mode
Most WP's provide several ways of viewing a document
I normally work in and recommend what is known as the "Print Layout" view mode
In this view, the WP works in a true WYSIWYG mode
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Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
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Print-Preview & Printing
Make sure to preview your document before printing it
Do this to make sure about the"look" of the document before it is printed
Most people these days either use inkjet printers or laser printers
Color inkjet printers cost less but are slower
B&W laser printers cost around twice as much, but are faster and generally have finer resolution
Color laser printers are expensive
Automation
Table of contents
TOC can be automatically generated
Page nos. in the TOC get readjusted automatically
Index
Can be automatically generated
Page nos. in the index get readjusted automatically
Application of predefined styles
Change style; text changes automatically throughout the doc
Headers & Footers
Page numbers
Spelling error auto-highlight
Getting On-Screen Help
All WP's generally have some form of built-in help mechanism
To me, it seems like that many of those help-systems are designed to be "not-very-helpful": they make
finding answers to simple questions quite difficult
Nevertheless, do try them when you are searching for answers
14.5 Let's try to use MS Word for creating a CV
(Remember the TOC)
Today's Lesson was the ...
First among the four lectures that we plan to have on productivity software, a sub-category of
application software
This first Lesson was on word processing
We learnt about what we mean by word processing and also desktop publishing
We also discussed the usage of various functions provided by common word processors
Focus of the Next Lecture: Algorithms
To become familiar with the concept of algorithms
What they are?
What is there use?
To become able to write algorithms for simple problems
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. EVOLUTION OF COMPUTING
  3. World Wide Web, Web’s structure, genesis, its evolution
  4. Types of Computers, Components, Parts of Computers
  5. List of Parts of Computers
  6. Develop your Personal Web Page: HTML
  7. Microprocessor, Bus interface unit, Data & instruction cache memory, ALU
  8. Number systems, binary numbers, NOT, AND, OR and XOR logic operations
  9. structure of HTML tags, types of lists in web development
  10. COMPUTER SOFTWARE: Operating Systems, Device Drivers, Trialware
  11. Operating System: functions, components, types of operating systems
  12. Forms on Web pages, Components of Forms, building interactive Forms
  13. APPLICATION SOFTWARE: Scientific, engineering, graphics, Business, Productivity, Entertainment, Educational Software
  14. WORD PROCESSING: Common functions of word processors, desktop publishing
  15. Interactivity to Forms, JavaScript, server-side scripts
  16. ALGORITHMS
  17. ALGORITHMS: Pseudo code, Flowcharts
  18. JavaScript and client-side scripting, objects in JavaScript
  19. Low, High-Level, interpreted, compiled, structured & object-oriented programming languages
  20. Software Design and Development Methodologies
  21. DATA TYPES & OPERATORS
  22. SPREADSHEETS
  23. FLOW CONTROL & LOOPS
  24. DESIGN HEURISTICS. Rule of thumb learned through trial & error
  25. WEB DESIGN FOR USABILITY
  26. ARRAYS
  27. COMPUTER NETWORKS: types of networks, networking topologies and protocols
  28. THE INTERNET
  29. Variables: Local and Global Variables
  30. Internet Services: FTP, Telnet, Web, eMail, Instant messaging, VoIP
  31. DEVELOPING PRESENTATIONS: Effective Multimedia Presentations
  32. Event Handlers
  33. GRAPHICS & ANIMATION
  34. INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS: techniques for designing Artificial Intelligent Systems
  35. Mathematical Functions in JavaScript
  36. DATA MANAGEMENT
  37. DATABASE SOFTWARE: Data Security, Data Integrity, Integrity, Accessibility, DBMS
  38. String Manipulations:
  39. CYBER CRIME
  40. Social Implications of Computing
  41. IMAGES & ANIMATION
  42. THE COMPUTING PROFESSION
  43. THE FUTURE OF COMPUTING
  44. PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY
  45. REVIEW & WRAP-UP of Introduction to Computing