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Change Management

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Change Management ­MGMT625
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Lesson # 36
WHY IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIC CHANGE IS SO DIFFICULT?
In the last lesson, we discussed four variables out of six which the author Alex Miller cited in his book
about the generic dynamics of resistance to strategy implementation. These variables are:
1.
Numerous complex variables are at work
2.
Organization Immune system
3.
Interconnectedness of various element
4.
The need to change every thing at once
The remaining two variables are:
5. Activity centered change
6. Focus on quantity or numbers
Before we proceed to the next two variables, let me discuss some significance about the change
implementation process.
Significance of the Strategic Change Implementation Process
The weakness of many change results is often attributed to failures in the implementation process
rather than strategy itself.
(Beer et al 1990)
This quotation is indicating about a post-implementation phenomenon which an organization
faces after an unsuccessful attempt of change implementation. The blame game often directed
toward implementation process rather than strategic change itself.
One problem is that research has long been characterised by search for the one best way
to implement change
(Dunphy & Griffiths 1998)
This quotation is describing a dilemma that the research in change management mostly work around to
searching a universal solution or a roadmap for implementing change in organizations but unable to
deliver it. The school of thought is quite predominant in its assertion that management is a universal
phenomenon.
Activity Centered Change
It is a one of the dominant reasons for failure in the implementation of change program. This failure is
largely depend upon the difference between the real nature of change and the perceptual nature of
change in terms of execution. In other words change program should be activity centered or
transformation centered. For instance, a change programs' outcome demands the transformation
centered approach but it is mostly executed through activity centered approach. And also such appraisal
is a typical fallacy that culminates into to the failure of a change programme or strategy. For instance,
an organization introduces a training program for the purpose of behavioral modification, or values
transformation. So, the imperative in this training program is the transformation of behaviors or values
rather than to measure its success on activity centered factors such as: the way it is organized, how
many participants attended it, etc. What happens is that the training program which is a means to
achieve certain ends (of values transformation) becomes end in itself.
Focus on quantity or numbers
Sometimes, it is called revenue centric approach in which number matters. From change management
perspective, the results of any change program could be measured in terms of numerical values rather
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than on the basis of desired characteristics. In corporate organizations context, for instance, budgets
setting is based on numeric rather than on objectives. So, it is imperative for organizations to focus on
both, qualitative and quantitative aspects while going through policy making.
Change Implementation Approaches:
Two broad categories of implementation approaches are:
1. Participative Approach
2. Unilateral Approach
Participative approaches:
Participative approach is the most famous approach in today's business environment. It is comparable
to the organization development (OD) model that focuses on the planned and controlled change of
organizations in the desired directions. The fundamental assumption behind OD structure and
participative change implementation approach is the same and that is `Attitudinal Change'. And both
are using the same techniques for attitudinal change, like:
1.
Sensitivity training,
2.
Teams building
3.
Participation
4.
Job-redesign
Participation is also a means of recognition. It satisfies the need for affiliation and acceptance of the
people which is the third need in Maslow's hierarchy. In general, people are not motivated by being
consulted but by being "in to the act." Hence the key mechanism of attitudinal change in this method is
the generation of the support among the workforce which leads to empowerment of people by being
them in the act. As a consequence, the right kind of participation yields both motivation and knowledge
valuable for successful change implementation and enterprise success.
Unilateral Approach
It is a unilateral type of change and comparable with the Behavioural Modification (BM) model. The
BM model is extension of some wider concepts such as of Motivation, Rewards, Learning and
Organizational Culture. It is an attempt to understand and reduce complex change processes in the
organizations to explicit rules, procedures and strategic actions to deal with all possible contingencies
including legal compliance.
Similarly, the philosophy of unilateral approach or traditional way of management is based on actions
rather than on attitudes. If actions goes right then automatically the attitudes and behaviors goes right. It
is, sometimes, also called the classical school of bureaucratic approach. Unilateral approach is
measured through outward actions and focuses on process design or redesign, job redesign,
restructuring particularly the restructuring of authority, communication, and work rules. And it is a
typical top-down phenomenon. As for legal compliance, technology is another mean for achieving the
unilateral approach because it is considered universal. For instance, managers have a tendency to rely
on technology in order to enhance productivity and efficiency in organizations. On the other hand, the
modern participative approach is based on attitudes. Attitudinal change will lead to change in behaviors
and actions automatically.
Change Typology
Before implementation process deployment, there must be some issues that need to be addressed. For
instance, at what circumstances which kind of change implementation approach is valid? However, it
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depends upon industry and nature and size of the organizations. But before going for comparison, we
must differentiate between change classifications.
1. Technical-Structural
2. Behavioral­Social
Focus of Unilateral Change
The successes experienced by the workforce from forced changes will ultimately lead to workforce
satisfaction and support. In forced change, there is an element of push or threat from top to down that
makes the people to comply on all policies and procedures. People get experiences, support and
ultimately satisfaction from the forced compliance by the senior executives. Also people mechanize
themselves according to certain actions which are now standards until the next level of standards
introduced. The unilateral approach has some indicators which are followings:
These are based on prescriptive, control and authority which modify objective or formal aspect of the
work place.
1. Prescriptive means there is an element of consultation.
2. Control means that this is a planned or contingent change
3. Authority means force that is used for changing people's behaviours and this leads eventually
to attitudinal change
This approach tend to be top-down, procedural, focussed on resource allocation and follows authority
lines. Those who believe in unilateral approach argue that participation bring chaos and disorder
because it is abstractive in nature and cannot be measurable. The successful change results can only be
achieved through work itself instead of participatory and empowerment oriented organization culture.
Advocates of this type of change participation and culture things are too abstract to enhance
productivity.
On the other hand, peoples who believe on participative approach argue that this is focus on
consultation or consensus oriented techniques that change values, attitudes, skills and untimely cause a
change in behaviour which is a permanent phenomenon. The other consequences are reflected in the
following ways:
Because employees are involved ­ they develop an ownership of the change plan initiated which gets
translated into commitment and motivation to make the change work.
Comparison
In comparison, we are analyzing the change effectiveness or successful implementation which is
contingent upon the interaction between types of change and techniques of change. At first, Lawrence
observed the distinction between both technical and social aspects of change:
Technical Change:
The technical aspect of change involves making measurable modifications to the physical routines of
the job. Conversely,
Social change refers to the modification of established relationship.
Lawrence concludes that the technical change could be introduced without social change if the social
relations were accustomed to change. It means that technical change can only be introduced when there
is frequent change in social relations in organization. Otherwise, if the rate of change in social
relationship is static or well established then change could not be easily introduced. Nonetheless, a
change may be primarily technical, but can create social effects that may impact on the outcome of
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change. Therefore, it is imperative here is that the type of change (technical­structural or behavioural-
social) should correspond to the corresponding technique of change. Lawrence describe social
relationships are essentially based on "give and take" relationship or two way relationship on the other
hand technical approach is unilateral in nature. That is why he advocated participation as the one best
method for introducing change because it corresponds to social relationship.
Similarly, another author Leavitt expanded the technical-social framework by adding a third category
into the framework and that is structural change. According to him:
1. Technical change means change in actions measurement, computers, and in communication
system
2. Social change means change in large set of goals establishes around people
3. Structural change means change in empowered work force, collaborative work arrangements,
and in matching personal fulfilments to organizational needs
As a third valuable, the purpose of structural change is to enhance organisation performance through
design and redesign of organization structure which means the redesigning areas of responsibility,
authority, decentralising profit centres and reorganizing work flow.
Yet there is another scholar Michael Beer who just gave a single category of change instead of two or
three that is the change in knowledge which automatically leads to an attitudinal change instead of
structural, technical and social change.
Key contingencies in change types
1. Strategy­style (leadership attributes) matching theory in effective implementation
2. Personality is the primary determinant and background of the manager (socio-psyche orientation)
for what manager does. (Managers cannot alter their behaviour to suit a situation)
Researches on both types of contingencies; strategy-style or personality, has linked them to the locus of
control which is helpful in strategy execution like that of product innovation or differentiation strategy.
In overall analysis, the issue is how to lower resistance and increase support for the change program or
plan. Therefore, some key lessons are: first to identify or diagnose the type or nature of change program
and the second is the implementation method which should be contingent upon types of change
(Dunphy & Stace 1990). By addressing the second issue we have the following findings by the author:
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Table of Contents:
  1. COURSE ORIENTATION:Course objectives, Reading material, Scope of the subject
  2. BENEFITS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT:Traditional management domain
  3. KURT LEWIN MODEL: ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Change Movement, Refreeze
  4. IMPLICATIONS OF KURT LEWIN MODEL:Sequence of event also matters, A Critical Look
  5. SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS:Strategic change, Logical incrementalism
  6. TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Micro-changes, Organisation Development
  7. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  8. LIFE CYCLE THEORY:Unit of Change, Mode of change, Organisation death
  9. TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of change, Mode of Change, Limitations
  10. DIALECTICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of Change, Strategic planning
  11. A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY AND PLANNING:
  12. LIMITATION OF DIALECTICS; DA AND DI:Overview of application of dialectics
  13. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  14. APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY:Managerial focus
  15. FURTHER APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES:Criticism
  16. GREINER’S MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL– EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION
  17. GROWTH RATE OF THE INDUSTRY:CREATIVITY, DIRECTION, DELEGATION
  18. COORDINATION:COLLABORATION, The Crisis
  19. ORGANISATION ECOLOGY:Structural Inertia, Internal Structural Arrangements, External Factors
  20. CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIES:Extent of Environmental Selection, Determinants of Vital Rates,
  21. FOOTNOTES TO ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE:Stable Processes of Change, Rule Following, Conflict
  22. SOME COMPLEXITIES OF CHANGE:Superstitious Learning, Solution Driven Problems
  23. ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION:The Entrepreneurial problem, The Administrative Problem
  24. PROSPECTORS:Analyzer, Reactors, Adaptation and Strategic Management
  25. SKELETAL MODEL OF ADAPTATION:Determinants of Adaptive ability, The Process of Adaptation
  26. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Nature of Change, The Importance of Context, Force field Analysis
  27. Management Styles and Roles:Change Agent Roles, Levers for managing strategic Change
  28. SYMBOLIC PROCESSES:Political Processes, COMMUNICATING CHANGE, Change Tactics
  29. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Pettigrew & Whipp’s Typology, Context on X-axis (Why of change)
  30. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Attributes of SOC Model, Implications for Management
  31. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Flow of Information, Recruitment, SOC Process
  32. Determinants of a Successful Change Management:Environmental, Management Orientation, Management Orientation
  33. Higgins 08 S Model – An Adaptation from Waterman’s Seven S model:Strategy, Systems and Processes, Resources
  34. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  35. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  36. WHY IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIC CHANGE IS SO DIFFICULT?:Change Typology, Technical Change
  37. IMPLEMENTATION APPROACHES:Attributes of incremental change,
  38. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  39. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Definition of Leadership, Follower Work Facilitation
  40. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Recognize the challenge
  41. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  42. IMPLEMENTATION: PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL:Features of Radical Change, Theory of P-E model
  43. CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION: OD MODELS:The Transactional Factors
  44. CULTURE, VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Significance and Role of Values, Values Compete
  45. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES, CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Issues in Change Management