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Principles of Management

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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Lesson 14.40
UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
INTRODUCTION
Work groups are a common arrangement within today's business organizations. Work is being restructured
around groups of all kinds and in all sizes of organizations. Managers need an understanding of group
behavior and the concept of teams in order to appreciate what groups can and cannot do within
organizations and how groups function.
Any one member in group can influence the behavior of the individuals in the group and teamwork. We will
examine some basic characteristics of groups including the types of work groups, the development of
informal groups, and the manner in which groups operate.
UNDERSTANDING GROUP BEHAVIOR
Groups exhibit different behavior--more than just the sum total of each group member's individual
behavior. In this section, we're going to look at various aspects of group behavior.
What is a Group?
A group is defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to
achieve particular objectives.
1.
Groups differ from mere aggregates of individual because the latter have no
interdependence, interaction, or common goal.
2.
Groups differ from organizations because the latter involve systematic efforts and
are engaged in the production of goods and services.
3.
Teamwork occurs when groups are able to work efficiently and effectively
together to achieve organizational goals.
There are a number of types of work groups
1.
A formal group is a group officially planned and created by an organization for a
specific purpose.
a.
A command or functional group is a formal group consisting of a
manager and all the subordinates who report to that manager.
1)
Each identifiable work group consisting of manager and
subordinates is a command group.
2)
A linking is an individual who provides a means of coordination
between command groups at two different levels by fulfilling a
supervisory role in the lower-level group and a subordinate role in
the higher-level group.
2.
Informal groups are natural social formations that appear in the work environment. An informal
group is a group that is established by employees, rather than by the organization, in order to serve group
members' interests or social needs. Informal groups are unplanned groups.
a.
An interest group is an informal group created to facilitate employee
pursuits of common concern.
b.
A friendship group is an informal group that evolves primarily to meet
employee social needs.
Overview of Group Dynamics
Formal and informal work groups are becoming increasingly important competitive factors in organizations.
Teamwork is the result of groups working together to effectively and efficiently achieving organizational
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
goals. Formal groups include command and task groups. Informal groups include interest and friendship
groups. A useful way to analyze groups is to view them as systems that use inputs, engage in various
processes or transformations, and produce outcomes.
Managers can help bring about higher performance from formal work groups by weighing the
characteristics of members they assign to particular groups. Group members should have task-relevant
expertise and appropriate interpersonal skills. Also, it has been found, that a degree of diversity among
group members usually adds to performance. Group training, particularly for diverse groups, has been
found to be useful.
Members may be attracted to a group for a number of reasons including being attracted to or liking other
members of the group, liking the activities of the group, the goals or purposes of the group, because the
group satisfies an individual's need for affiliation, and/or because the group can help an individual achieve a
goal outside the group. The absence of attraction can prevent the group from achieving high performance.
Member roles in groups include group task roles, group maintenance roles, and self performance. Member
roles in groups include group task roles, group maintenance roles, and self oriented roles. The size of the
group has also been found to have significant bearing on the group's performance. Mid-sized groups, from
five to seven members, seem to be an optimum size according to recent research. Smaller groups can often
exacerbate individual differences. Large groups tend to be when working in groups than when working
alone. Free riding is particularly likely when members exhibit individualism rather than collectivism.
Managers can combat social loafing by several methods. Assign just enough people to do the work is one
key method. Other methods include making each individual's work visible, providing for individual
feedback, have people work with those the respect, have standards to actually measure group performance,
and making rewards contingent on a combination of individual and group performance.
The work group processes usually result in greater or lesser performance than would occur if the individuals
worked alone rather than as members of the group. This process is called synergy. Managers strive to have a
positive synergy from the group rather than negative. Three key characteristics of the group help determine
the synergy levels. These are group norms, group cohesiveness, and group development. Norms are the
behaviors of group members that are acceptable to the group. Norms stem from explicit statements by
supervisors and coworkers, critical events in a group's history, primacy, and carryover behaviors. Group
cohesiveness has important consequences for group communication, satisfaction, performance, hostility
and aggression toward other groups, and a group's willingness to innovate and change. Factors influencing
the amount of cohesiveness in a group include whether or not members of the group share attitudes and
values, the amount and severity of external threats to the group, whether or not the group experiences
recognizable successes, the degree of difficulty encountered in joining the group, and the size of the group.
One view of group development shows groups passing through five distinct stages: forming, storming,
norming, performing, and adjourning. A group's performance varies depending on the stage it is in.
A special kind of group behavior is found in group meetings. Because of the considerable amount of time
spent in meetings, it is important for managers to know how to maximize group meeting effectiveness. This
chapter includes an excellent short guide for how managers can lead more effective group meetings. Groups
can also help facilitate creativity and innovation in the organization. Some of the major mechanisms that
organizations use to encourage the creative and innovative capacity of groups include the use of task forces,
or ad hoc committees, and teams, particularly entrepreneurial and self-managing teams.
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Table of Contents:
  1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
  2. MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
  3. MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
  4. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
  5. MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
  6. MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
  7. CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
  8. ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
  9. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
  10. QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
  11. SYSTEMíS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
  12. ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  13. 21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
  14. UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
  15. DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
  16. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
  17. NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
  18. NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
  19. GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
  20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
  21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
  22. PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
  23. PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
  24. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
  25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  27. LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTERíS MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
  28. ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
  29. ORGANIZING
  30. JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
  31. SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
  32. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
  33. LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
  34. MASLOWíS NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
  35. OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  36. EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
  37. MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
  38. BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
  39. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
  40. UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  41. GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
  42. UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  43. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  44. CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
  45. CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY