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Radio News Reporting and Production

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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
LESSON 23
TYPES OF INTERVIEW
Broadly speaking there are twelve different types of interview:
·
Hard news interview
·
Informational interview
·
Investigative interview
·
Adversarial interview
·
Interpretative interview
·
Personal interview
·
Emotional interview
·
Entertainment interview
·
Actuality
·
Telephone or remote interview
·
Vox pop
·
Grabbed interview
Hard News Interview
The hard news interview is normally short, to the point, and to illustrate a bulletin or news item. It deals
only with important facts, or comments and reactions to those facts. The hard news interview, as a matter
of fact, aims at getting answers to five Ws and one H.
In case a building is set on fire, the reporter will conduct interviews of those figures who can give him exact
or almost exact information about the incident.
Following questions may be asked:
·
When did it happen?
·
What about the direct affectees?
·
What is the amount of damage?
·
Where are the injured ones taken to?
Informational Interview
The informational interview is similar to hard news interview, but not necessarily be restricted to main
stories. An informational interview can be about an event, something that is happening or about to happen.
It can also provide background.
Informational interview goes beyond the main point to seek an explanation of the HOWs and WHYs of the
story. They intend to get bit more detailed than short bulletin items.
Investigative Interview
The investigative interview aims at getting behind the facts to discover what really caused the happening of
the events and sometimes what could be done to prevent a repeat of that incident, to get behind the facts­
to dig out the actual reasons of the accident/ train collision/ air crash/ the reasons of the reconciliation
between two arch rivals.
Investigative interview might be developed about stories and issues:
·
Why the team showed poor performance in the match despite having been provided
the
best
facilities and trained by the best coach?
·
Why the minister resigned from his office?
·
Why is our film industry not getting up to its feet?
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
·
Why the fire brigade wasn't reaches the spot in time?
·
Why the tank of the fire brigade ran short of water while putting out the fire?
Adversarial Interview
A kind of interview in which the interviewer gets into a war of words with the interviewee to get his
question answered.
This approach should never be seen to be a head on clash between the interviewer and the interviewee.
Though the interviewer is representing the audience or speaking up on the behalf of the public opinion,
even then he needs not to be impolite or rude while asking questions.
Precautions
A verbal assault on an interviewee might result in allegations of victimization and bias, and if it happens the
public opinion about the reporter may get changed and the interviewee may get sympathies of the listeners.
Adversarial interview may expose the interviewer to the libel suit and the interviewee may drag him to the
corridors of the court. So it is pertinent that the reporter think well before he speaks while he is conducting
an interview.
·
Get direct but avoid a head-on clash with the interviewee.
·
The impression of victimization of the interviewee must be avoided.
·
The impression of biasness must be avoided.
Interpretative Interview
There are two types of interpretative interviews:
·
A reaction story ­ It is a response either for or against what has happened.
·
Explanatory story ­ This story provides details of a news story. So the interview that is conducted
to get the details of an event, accident or incident is called interpretative interview.
For instance, if a train is derailed causing severe injuries and damage to the passengers the following
questions may be asked from any representative of the railways:
·  How will this accident affect public confidence in train traveling?
·  What measures will the ministry take to restore the public trust?
Personal Interviews
The personal interview might be a short interview with an important figure of a society about his/her likes
and dislikes, hobbies, pastimes, habits, or a detailed interview exposing personality profile.
In personality interview following areas are normally focused while putting questions:
·  Family background.
·  Education (Place & degree)
·  Why not further study?
·  Likes and dislikes
·  Favorite dish. Book. Personality. Cologne. Game. Movie. Singer.
·  Hobbies ----leisure-spending.
·  Any interesting incident, event.
Entertainment Interview
It is a kind of interview in which light things are asked from the interviewee. The only purpose is to
entertain listeners. The person to be interviewed may be an actor making parody of any famous personality
or any real one whose profession is to entertain people.
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
Emotional Interview
In this kind of interview an attempt is made to lay bare someone's feelings. Emotional interview lets the
person who was the victim or one of the victims of an accident or event share the personal tragedy with the
listeners.
A heart-stricken women having been saved from earth quake will be asked the question like the following
ones.
·
What were you doing at the time of earth quake?
·
What about your kids?
·
Were they school going, infants or toddlers?
·
When did you first realize that the quake was going to be horrible?
·
Were you able to save anyone?
·
How did you manage to save yourself?
Actuality Interview
It is a kind of interview in which the reporter's voice is not included in the final production and only
interviewee's voice is made to be heard by the listeners. This kind of interview is made a part of
documentary or feature.
While conducting actuality interviews following instructions must be followed by the reporter:
The questions must be:
·  Clear not vague.
·  Subjective not objective.
Subjective questions: Questions that start with Question words i.e., what, when, which, where, who, how.
Objective questions: Questions that start with helping verbs like is, are, am, will, would, shall, should, etc.
For instance, observe the following questions:
·
Which areas in Pakistan is child labor more than the others and why?
·
How many types of child labor are found in Pakistan? What are the government's efforts to curb
child labor?
Remote Interviews (Interviews on telephone)
The personality to be interviewed is not in the city or country and is interviewed on telephone.
While recording remote interview the telephone lines must be checked whether they are clear or not. If
there is a noise problem in the line, try to change the line or wait until it is clear.
Vox Pop Interviews
Vox pop is an abbreviation of the Latin expression vox populi that means `voice of the people'. It is
conducted to obtain diversified public opinion on certain issue. The questions are asked from different
people representing different age groups, races, classes etc.
Grabbed Interviews
It means to interview a person who does not intend to give an interview but the reporter is determined to
take. Normally it is a very short interview and sometimes the potential interviewee comes up with "no
comments". In this case though the interviewee refuses to say anything about the issue but his saying "no
comments" suggests the listeners to get the meaning.
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Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT RADIO IS:HISTORY OF RADIO, MARCONI –THE INVENTOR
  2. HISTORY OF RADIO:B.B.C. – 1922, Radio in Sub-Continent, PBC SERVICES
  3. OBJECTIVES OF BROADCASTING IN PAKISTAN:Information, Islamic ideology
  4. NEWS VALUES I:CONFLICT, PROGRESS, VICTORY AND DEFEAT
  5. NEWS VALUES II:TIMELINESS, PROXIMITY, NOVELTY, HUMAN INTEREST
  6. NEWS VALUES AND ELEMENTS OF NEWS:MISCELLANEOUS NEWS VALUES
  7. MEASURING THE IMPORTANCE OF NEWS:Intensity of an Event, NEWS STORY TYPES
  8. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES II:SIMPLE TYPES, ILLNESS, DEATH
  9. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES III:Conspiracy, Drug Trafficking, Lunar Months
  10. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES IV:COMPLEX NEWS, Forms of Government, Monarchy
  11. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES V:Education, Research, Religion
  12. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES VI:Lifestyles, Receptions, Entertainment
  13. SOURCES OF NEWS I:Network of Reporters, QUALITIES OF A REPORTER
  14. SOURCES OF NEWS II:MONITORING, NEWS/ PRESS RELEASE
  15. SOURCES OF NEWS III:National News Agencies, HARD NEWS, SOFT NEWS
  16. REPORTING:ORDER OF REPORTING, REPORTER’S QUALITIES, Well informed
  17. A SUCCESSFUL RADIO REPORTER:Briefing, Reporter’s Ammunition, Meeting Deadline
  18. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING I:Growth of Interpretative Reporting
  19. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING II:Factual Background, SPEECH STORY
  20. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING III:FIRES & ACCIDENTS, CRIME STORIES
  21. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING I:Thalidomide Scandal, Watergate Scandal
  22. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING II:Identification of the problem, INTERVIEW
  23. TYPES OF INTERVIEW:Hard News Interview, Informational Interview
  24. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW I:Comments and Opinion, Topic must be specific
  25. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW II:Preparation of the Interview, Language
  26. RADIO NEWS GLOSSARY:Actuality, Cut, Voicer, Wrap, Hourly, Lead
  27. FUNDAMENTALS OF NEWS WRITING:Inverted Pyramided Style, Telling the Story
  28. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO I:Language
  29. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO II:Complex numbers
  30. ESSENTIALS OF A NEWSCASTER:Authority, Credibility, Language, Pronunciation
  31. PRODUCTION AND PLANNING:Principals of Planning a Program
  32. PRODUCER & BUDGETING:Strengths of a Radio Program, Budgeting a Program
  33. JARGONS OF PRODUCTION (Continued):Frequency spectrum, Dead studio
  34. TYPES OF TALK:Qualification of a Talker, Essentials of a talk, Vetting a talk
  35. DISCUSSION:Controlled Discussion, Live Discussion, Current affairs
  36. DISCUSSION:Selection of the TopicKnowledge of the Topic, Narrowing down the topic
  37. RADIO FEATURE:Sound Effects, Narration, Dramatic Feature, Religion, Personalities
  38. RADIO DOCUMENTARY:Commentary, History, Persons, Things, Phenomena
  39. DRAMA:Solo plays, Series, Serial, Soap, Components of Drama
  40. SPECIAL AUDIENCE PROGRAM:Children’s Programs, Women’s programs
  41. SPORTS PROGRAM:Live Programs, Recorded Programs, Preparation of OB
  42. THE MUSIC I:Folk Music, Classical Music, Light Music, Pop Music
  43. THE MUSIC II:Classification of Raga In Terms Of Notes, Aado, Khaado
  44. ETHICS & LIMITATIONS OF MEDIA:Domain of Freedom of Media, Defamation
  45. RECAP:What Radio Is, Timeliness, Elements of news, Types of Reporting, Production