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Introduction to Computing

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Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
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LESSON 4
Today's Goal
To learn to classify computers according to their capability and targeted applications
To find out about the essential building blocks that make up a modern computer
Computer Types According to Capability
4.1 Computer Types According to Capability
4.2 Supercomputers
A supercomputer is a computer that performs at or near the currently highest operational rate for
computers. A supercomputer is typically used for scientific and engineering applications that must
handle very large databases or do a great amount of computation (or both). At any given time, there are
usually a few well-publicized supercomputers that operate at the very latest and always incredible
speeds.
Perhaps the best-known builder of supercomputers has been Cray Research, now a part of Silicon
Graphics. Some supercomputers are at "supercomputer center," usually university research centers,
some of which, in the United States, are interconnected on an Internet backbone (A backbone is a larger
transmission line that carries data gathered from smaller lines that interconnect with it) known as vBNS
or NSFNet.
At the high end of supercomputing are computers like IBM's "Blue Pacific," announced on October 29,
1998. Built in partnership with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, Blue Pacific is
reported to operated at 3.9 teraflop (trillion floating point operations per second), 15,000 times faster
than the average personal computer. It consists of 5,800 processors containing a total of 2.6 trillion
bytes of memory and interconnected with five miles of cable.
4.3 Mainframe Computers
A very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users
simultaneously. In the hierarchy that starts with a simple microprocessor (in watches, for example) at
the bottom and moves to supercomputers at the top, mainframes are just below supercomputers. In some
ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous
programs. But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe. The distinction
between small mainframes and minicomputers is vague (not clearly expressed), depending really on
how the manufacturer wants to market its machines.
4.4 Servers / Minicomputers
A midsized computer. In size and power, minicomputers lie between workstations and mainframes. In
the past decade, the distinction between large minicomputers and small mainframes has blurred,
however, as has the distinction between small minicomputers and workstations. But in general, a
minicomputer is a multiprocessing system capable of supporting from 4 to about 200 users
simultaneously.
4.5 Desktops
These are also called microcomputers. Low-end desktops are called PC's and high-end ones
"Workstations". These are generally consisting of a single processor only, some times 2, along with
MB's of memory, and GB's of storage. PC's are used for running productivity applications, Web
surfing, messaging. Workstations are used for more demanding tasks like low-end 3-D simulations and
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Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
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other engineering & scientific apps. These are not as reliable and fault-tolerant as servers. Workstations
cost a few thousand dollars; PC around a $1000.
4.6 Portables
Portable computer is a personal computer that is designed to be easily transported and relocated, but is
larger and less convenient to transport than a notebook computer. The earliest PCs designed for easy
transport were called portables. As the size and weight of most portables decreased, they became known
as laptop computer and later as notebook computer. Today, larger transportable computers continue to
be called portable computers. Most of these are special-purpose computers - for example, those for use
in industrial environments where they need to be moved about frequently.
PDA (personal digital assistant) is a term for any small mobile hand-held device that provides
computing and information storage and retrieval capabilities for personal or business use, often for
keeping schedule calendars and address book information handy. The term handheld is a synonym.
Many people use the name of one of the popular PDA products as a generic term. These include
Hewlett-Packard's Palmtop and 3Com's PalmPilot.
Most PDAs have a small keyboard. Some PDAs have an electronically sensitive pad on which
handwriting can be received. Apple's Newton, which has been withdrawn from the market, was the first
widely-sold PDA that accepted handwriting. Typical uses include schedule and address book storage
and retrieval and note-entering. However, many applications have been written for PDAs. Increasingly,
PDAs are combined with telephones and paging systems.
Some PDAs offer a variation of the Microsoft Windows operating system called Windows CE. Other
products have their own or another operating system.
4.7 Ranking w.r.t. installed number
·
PC's
·
PDA's
·
Workstations
·
Servers
·
Wearable (picture is provided)
·
Mainframes
·
Supercomputers
At the highest level, two things are required for computing
Hardware
Computer equipment such as a CPU, disk drives, CRT, or printer
Software
A computer program, which provides the instructions which enable the computer hardware to work
4.8 All computers have the following essential hardware components:
Input
The devices used to give the computer data or commands are called Input devices. Includes
keyboard, mouse, scanner, etc
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Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
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Processor
A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a
computer.
The term processor has generally replaced the term central processing unit (CPU). The processor in a
personal  computer  or  embedded  in  small  devices  is  often  called  a  microprocessor.
Short for microprocessor, the central processing unit in a computer. The processor is the logic of a
computer and functions comparably to a human central nervous system, directing signals from one
component to another and enabling everything to happen
Memory
Memory is the electronic holding place for instructions and data that your computer's microprocessor
can reach quickly. When your computer is in normal operation, its memory usually contains the main
parts of the operating system and some or all of the application programs and related data that are being
used. Memory is often used as a shorter synonym for random access memory (RAM). This kind of
memory is located on one or more microchips that are physically close to the microprocessor in your
computer. Most desktop and notebook computers sold today include at least 16 megabytes of RAM, and
are upgradeable to include more. The more RAM you have, the less frequently the computer has to
access instructions and data from the more slowly accessed hard disk form of storage.
Memory is also called primary or main memory.
Storage
Computer storage is the holding of data in an electromagnetic form for access by a computer processor.
It is also called secondary storage. In secondary storage data resides on hard disks, tapes, and other
external devices.
Primary storage is much faster to access than secondary storage because of the proximity of the storage
to the processor or because of the nature of the storage devices. On the other hand, secondary storage
can hold much more data than primary storage.
Output
The devices to which the computer
Keyboard Mouse
ControlInteger
writes data are called Output devices.
Unit  Unit
Compact
Often converts the data into a human
FloatingCache
Disk
readable form. Monitor and printer are
Point Memory
Unit
output devices.
System Bus
Hard
Processor
Disk
Memory
Bus
Memory
Printer
Monitor
4.9 Input Devices
Mouse
A mouse is a small device that a computer user pushes across a desk surface in order to point to a place
on a display screen and to select one or more actions to take from that position. The mouse first became
a widely-used computer tool when Apple Computer made it a standard part of the Apple Macintosh.
Today, the mouse is an integral part of the graphical user interface (GUI) of any personal computer. The
mouse apparently got its name by being about the same size and color as a toy mouse.
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Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
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Keyboard
On most computers, a keyboard is the primary text input device. A keyboard on a computer is almost
identical to a keyboard on a typewriter. Computer keyboards will typically have extra keys, however.
Some of these keys (common examples include Control, Alt, and Meta) are meant to be used in
conjunction with other keys just like shift on a regular typewriter. Other keys (common examples
include Insert, Delete, Home, End, Help, function keys, etc.) are meant to be used independently and
often perform editing tasks.
Joystick
In computers, a joystick is a cursor control device used in computer games. The joystick, which got its
name from the control stick used by a pilot to control the ailerons and elevators of an airplane, is a hand-
held lever that pivots on one end and transmits its coordinates to a computer. It often has one or more
push-buttons, called switches, whose position can also be read by the computer.
Digital Camera
A digital camera records and stores photographic images in digital form that can be fed to a computer as
the impressions are recorded or stored in the camera for later loading into a computer or printer.
Currently, Kodak, Canon, and several other companies make digital cameras.
Microphone
A device that converts sound waves into audio signals. These could be used for sound recording as well
as voice chatting through internet.
Scanner
A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages, and
similar sources for computer editing and display. Scanners come in hand-held, feed-in, and flatbed types
and for scanning black-and-white only, or color. Very high resolution scanners are used for scanning for
high-resolution printing, but lower resolution scanners are adequate for capturing images for computer
display. Scanners usually come with software, such as Adobe's Photoshop product, that lets you resize
and otherwise modify a captured image
4.10 What is Port?
On computer and telecommunication devices, a port (noun) is generally a specific place for being
physically connected to some other device, usually with a socket and plug of some kind. Typically, a
personal computer is provided with one or more serial ports and usually one parallel port.
4.11Many Types of Ports
Parallel
An interface on a computer that supports transmission of multiple bits at the same time; almost
exclusively used for connecting a printer. On IBM or compatible computers, the parallel port uses a 25-
pin connector.
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Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
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Serial
It is a general-purpose personal computer communications port in which 1 bit of information is
transferred at a time. In the past, most digital cameras were connected to a computer's serial port in
order to transfer images to the computer. Recently, however, the serial port is being replaced by the
much faster USB port on digital cameras as well as computers.
SCSI
A port that's faster than the serial and parallel ports but slower and harder to configure than the newer
USB port. Also know as the Small Computer System Interface.
A high-speed connection that enables devices, such as hard-disk drives and network adapters, to be
attached to a computer
USB
USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a plug-and-play hardware interface for peripherals such as the keyboard,
mouse, joystick, scanner, printer and modem. USB has a maximum bandwidth of 12 Mbits/sec and up to
127 devices can be attached. With USB, a new device can be added to your computer without having to
add an adapter card. It typically is located at the back of the PC
Firewire
FireWire is simply a really fast port that lets you connect computer peripherals and consumer
electronics to your computer without the need to restart. It is a simple common plug-in serial connector
on the back of your computer.
It has the ability to chain devices together in a number of different ways without terminators for
example, simply join 2 computers with a FireWire cable for instant high-speed networking.
4.12 Processor
Pentium
Celeron
Athlon
PowerPC
StrongARM (PDA)
Crusoe (Laptops)
SPARC (Workstations)
4.13 Memory/Storage
RAM
RAM (random access memory) is the place in a computer where the operating system, application
programs, and data in current use are kept so that they can be quickly reached by the computer's
processor. RAM is much faster to read from and write to than the other kinds of storage in a computer,
the hard disk, floppy disk, and CD-ROM. However, the data in RAM stays there only as long as your
computer is running. When you turn the computer off, RAM loses its data. When you turn your
computer on again, your operating system and other files are once again loaded into RAM, usually from
your hard disk.
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Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
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Punch cards
A card on which data can be recorded in the form of punched holes.
ROM
ROM is "built-in" computer memory containing data that normally can only be read, not written to.
ROM contains the programming that allows your computer to be "booted up" or regenerated each time
you turn it on. Unlike a computer's random access memory (RAM), the data in ROM is not lost when
the computer power is turned off.
The ROM is sustained by a small long-life battery in your computer.
Hard disk
Hard disk is a computer storage device which saves and retrieves the data when required. Its capacity is
much greater than the computer memory (RAM, ROM). Data on hard disk is stored and retrieved from
electromagnetically charged surface.
Today we can save huge amount of data on a single hard disk. Now hard disks can contain several
billion bytes.
Floppy disk
A diskette is a random access, removable data storage medium that can be used with personal
computers. The term usually refers to the magnetic medium housed in a rigid plastic cartridge
measuring 3.5 inches square and about 2 millimeters thick. Also called a "3.5-inch diskette," it can store
up to 1.44 megabytes (MB) of data.
Tape
In computers, tape is an external storage medium, usually both readable and writable, can store data in
the form of electromagnetic charges that can be read and also erased. A tape drive is the device that
positions, writes from, and reads to the tape.
CD
A compact disc [sometimes spelled disk] (CD) is a small, portable, round medium for electronically
recording, storing, and playing back audio, video, text, and other information in digital form.
DVD
DVD (digital versatile disc) is an optical disc technology that is expected to rapidly replace the CD-
ROM disc (as well as the audio compact disc) over the next few years. The digital versatile disc (DVD)
holds 4.7 gigabyte of information on one of its two sides, or enough for a 133-minute movie.
4.14 Classifying Memory/Storage
Electronic (RAM, ROM), magnetic (HD, FD, Tape), optical (CD, DVD)
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Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
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Volatile (RAM), non-volatile (HD)
Direct access (RAM, HD), serial access (Tape)
Read/write (HD, RAM), read-only (CD)
4.15 Output Devices
Printer
Plotter
Speakers
Monitor
4.16 Modem
Modem is output as well as input device at the same time. It receives the data (analog signal) coming
through telephone line, converts them to digital signals and sends them to computer to which it is
attached. It also receives the data from computer and changes it to analog signals.
What have we learnt today?
What are the various types of computers with respect to their size, capability, applications (FIVE
TYPES)
The five essential components of any computer are input devices, processor, memory, storage and
output devices
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. EVOLUTION OF COMPUTING
  3. World Wide Web, Web’s structure, genesis, its evolution
  4. Types of Computers, Components, Parts of Computers
  5. List of Parts of Computers
  6. Develop your Personal Web Page: HTML
  7. Microprocessor, Bus interface unit, Data & instruction cache memory, ALU
  8. Number systems, binary numbers, NOT, AND, OR and XOR logic operations
  9. structure of HTML tags, types of lists in web development
  10. COMPUTER SOFTWARE: Operating Systems, Device Drivers, Trialware
  11. Operating System: functions, components, types of operating systems
  12. Forms on Web pages, Components of Forms, building interactive Forms
  13. APPLICATION SOFTWARE: Scientific, engineering, graphics, Business, Productivity, Entertainment, Educational Software
  14. WORD PROCESSING: Common functions of word processors, desktop publishing
  15. Interactivity to Forms, JavaScript, server-side scripts
  16. ALGORITHMS
  17. ALGORITHMS: Pseudo code, Flowcharts
  18. JavaScript and client-side scripting, objects in JavaScript
  19. Low, High-Level, interpreted, compiled, structured & object-oriented programming languages
  20. Software Design and Development Methodologies
  21. DATA TYPES & OPERATORS
  22. SPREADSHEETS
  23. FLOW CONTROL & LOOPS
  24. DESIGN HEURISTICS. Rule of thumb learned through trial & error
  25. WEB DESIGN FOR USABILITY
  26. ARRAYS
  27. COMPUTER NETWORKS: types of networks, networking topologies and protocols
  28. THE INTERNET
  29. Variables: Local and Global Variables
  30. Internet Services: FTP, Telnet, Web, eMail, Instant messaging, VoIP
  31. DEVELOPING PRESENTATIONS: Effective Multimedia Presentations
  32. Event Handlers
  33. GRAPHICS & ANIMATION
  34. INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS: techniques for designing Artificial Intelligent Systems
  35. Mathematical Functions in JavaScript
  36. DATA MANAGEMENT
  37. DATABASE SOFTWARE: Data Security, Data Integrity, Integrity, Accessibility, DBMS
  38. String Manipulations:
  39. CYBER CRIME
  40. Social Implications of Computing
  41. IMAGES & ANIMATION
  42. THE COMPUTING PROFESSION
  43. THE FUTURE OF COMPUTING
  44. PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY
  45. REVIEW & WRAP-UP of Introduction to Computing