ZeePedia buy college essays online


Change Management

<<< Previous TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Micro-changes, Organisation Development Next >>>
 
img
Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
LESSON# 6
TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Transactional
This means an approach going by legal contract or agreement, job-description, and hence no
concern with employees or managers beyond contract. It is considered a bureaucratic or
mechanistic way of organizational life, essentially a fragmented approach followed by most of the
developed world states, and societies are known as litigious societies.
Transformational
Organizational life goes beyond legality and bureaucratic administrative values. Effective
organizations are those where leadership is inspirational, role model, learning & grooming of
followers. Individuals feel involved because of humane concern of their leaders and hence become
more productive. Contrary to the transactional style of management this is considered organic,
holistic & more comprehensive approach, to leadership and management. Asiatic style of
management and learning is considered transformational while that of Western is more
transactional. For example viz. role of teacher should he be bound by his legal contract and a role
which is just limited to class room or he is considered an overall role model, inspiring leadership
and ethical values.
Continuous or First - order change
Two frameworks in which change can occur; continuous or first order change and the other is
discontinuous or second order change. Change that occurs in a stable system that itself remains
unchanged. These changes and variations are necessary for business to grow and thrive in a
competitive environment. Evolution theories describe the first-order changes that industries
experience. Natural selection mechanism views the entry and exit of firms in an industry as the
primary method of evolution. (Changes within particular stage of organisational life cycle). In other
words this refers to gradual changes in organization such as refining existing processes and
procedures
Discontinuous or second-order change
Change that occurs when fundamental properties or system itself has changed, for example, the fall
of communism in Europe and former Soviet Union. Or revolutionary changes in technology,
competition, socio-economic conditions like in telecommunication, banking, health-care, and
electronics are considered discontinuous change as it leads restructure these industries, relocate
industries and change the bases of competition. Change of stage on organisational life cycle is a
discontinuous one. Quantum change is perceived better to make organizations High Performing
Organization (HPO)
Middle order change
It is defined by one author as a compromise between the two; the magnitude of change is greater
than first-order, yet it neither affects the critical success factors nor is strategic in nature
Micro-changes
Another practical classification is owing to the difference in degrees e.g. modifications,
improvements, enhancements & upgrades
18
img
Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
Mega-changes
These refer to the differences in kind ­ a structural one, for example when we refer to a new
system.
Human Capital
Is learning (knowledge creation) a personal or individual phenomenon or is it a social/collective
phenomenon (discourse/dialogue)? Its answer will lead to the definition of human and social
capital. Human capital refers to the full range of knowledge, skills & abilities an individual can use
to produce a given set of outcomes. Practically at upper echelon manager are able to scan
internal/external environment, solve problem, seize opportunities, etc. Firm-specific human capital
means knowledge of one's own operation, strengths, weaknesses, tacit knowledge, operational
personnel and communication styles etc. General human capital deals with knowledge of and about
larger environment, competitors, suppliers, customers, stake holders, and about dealing with human
capital
Social capital
Is learning essentially a social phenomenon? It refers to the linkages between social actors, the
strengths of those linkage, and resources that flow from them (networking). The key dimensions
include structural (relationship pattern among actors), relational (trust, norms, obligations, ethics
that thru the relationship flow), and cognitive (shared beliefs and languages). Linkage between
upper echelon and Board of Directors (BOD) in the form of information, advice, trust, and other
organization processes like problem-solving, decision-making, coordinating. A very thought
provoking and interesting question would be what if organization has human capital minus social
capital, and vice-versa?
Four types of organisational change
1. Power culture
Following are the attributes of power culture. In such organizations individual is told what to do,
power is exercised by leaders about changing behaviour, extraneous pressures to perform role and
extrinsic motivation results are focussed.
2. Role culture
Where individual acts within the limits of job-description. For e.g. stenographer in public sector
refuse to learn or do the job such as fax or e-mail as per his job-description (narrower interpretation
of a job)
3. Task/ achievement culture
Individual acts in a suitable way to complete tasks. People are motivated intrinsically (autonomy
and sense of satisfaction
4. Person/Support culture: Individual uses own initiative
Organisation Development
OD is a system wide process of data collection, diagnosis, action planning, intervention, and
evaluation aimed at:
1. Enhancing congruence between organisation structure, process, strategy people and
culture;
19
img
Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
2. Developing new and creative organizational solutions;
3. Developing the organization's self-renewal capacity
The difference between OD and change management is difficult to delineate as it is overlapping but
OD context essentially deals with internal aspects of organization while change management tends
to be broader in its scope and concerns with both internal and external aspects of organization.
Organisational meme
Definition: Any of the core elements of organisational culture, like basic assumptions, norms,
standards, and symbolic systems that can be transferred by imitation from one human mind to the
next. In simpler words it is the replicating or copying behaviour. It is very fundamental way of
learning borrowed from child psychology. Individual learns from other by following him as a role
model. For example students getting admissions in any one popular subject or profession at any
given time; be it medical, engineering, information technology, just because of imitating behaviour.
This is also known as band wagon effect or mass movement. In consumer behaviour the same thing
known as life style or fashion. Bench marking at organisational level represents mimicry especially
when one organization (industry leader) does something new and all tend to follow the same. Even
states follow other states in terms of economic and development policies considered successful
such as export promotion, FDI, trade-liberalisation, nationalisation, import-substitution policy, or
entrepreneurship promotion etc. Scholars have different opinions in advocating the efficacy of
mimetic process as some believe in favour and for others the process could be imperfect in
transferring knowledge, and hence lead to genetic distortion.
20
Table of Contents:
  1. COURSE ORIENTATION:Course objectives, Reading material, Scope of the subject
  2. BENEFITS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT:Traditional management domain
  3. KURT LEWIN MODEL: ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Change Movement, Refreeze
  4. IMPLICATIONS OF KURT LEWIN MODEL:Sequence of event also matters, A Critical Look
  5. SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS:Strategic change, Logical incrementalism
  6. TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Micro-changes, Organisation Development
  7. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  8. LIFE CYCLE THEORY:Unit of Change, Mode of change, Organisation death
  9. TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of change, Mode of Change, Limitations
  10. DIALECTICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of Change, Strategic planning
  11. A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY AND PLANNING:
  12. LIMITATION OF DIALECTICS; DA AND DI:Overview of application of dialectics
  13. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  14. APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY:Managerial focus
  15. FURTHER APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES:Criticism
  16. GREINER’S MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL– EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION
  17. GROWTH RATE OF THE INDUSTRY:CREATIVITY, DIRECTION, DELEGATION
  18. COORDINATION:COLLABORATION, The Crisis
  19. ORGANISATION ECOLOGY:Structural Inertia, Internal Structural Arrangements, External Factors
  20. CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIES:Extent of Environmental Selection, Determinants of Vital Rates,
  21. FOOTNOTES TO ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE:Stable Processes of Change, Rule Following, Conflict
  22. SOME COMPLEXITIES OF CHANGE:Superstitious Learning, Solution Driven Problems
  23. ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION:The Entrepreneurial problem, The Administrative Problem
  24. PROSPECTORS:Analyzer, Reactors, Adaptation and Strategic Management
  25. SKELETAL MODEL OF ADAPTATION:Determinants of Adaptive ability, The Process of Adaptation
  26. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Nature of Change, The Importance of Context, Force field Analysis
  27. Management Styles and Roles:Change Agent Roles, Levers for managing strategic Change
  28. SYMBOLIC PROCESSES:Political Processes, COMMUNICATING CHANGE, Change Tactics
  29. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Pettigrew & Whipp’s Typology, Context on X-axis (Why of change)
  30. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Attributes of SOC Model, Implications for Management
  31. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Flow of Information, Recruitment, SOC Process
  32. Determinants of a Successful Change Management:Environmental, Management Orientation, Management Orientation
  33. Higgins 08 S Model – An Adaptation from Waterman’s Seven S model:Strategy, Systems and Processes, Resources
  34. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  35. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  36. WHY IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIC CHANGE IS SO DIFFICULT?:Change Typology, Technical Change
  37. IMPLEMENTATION APPROACHES:Attributes of incremental change,
  38. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  39. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Definition of Leadership, Follower Work Facilitation
  40. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Recognize the challenge
  41. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  42. IMPLEMENTATION: PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL:Features of Radical Change, Theory of P-E model
  43. CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION: OD MODELS:The Transactional Factors
  44. CULTURE, VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Significance and Role of Values, Values Compete
  45. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES, CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Issues in Change Management