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Human Resource Management

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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
Lesson 22
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following:
A. Explain Learning
B. Define Training
LESSON OVERVIEW
We devote this lecture to explaining the learning and its importance in improving status of organization; we
will also explore scope of Training and its relationship to organizational change. Next, the Training process
is described along with how Training needs are determined and objectives established. Then, we look at the
numerous Training methods. Effectiveness of training program depends upon the learning of trainees so
first of all we should see what is meant by learning.
A. Learning
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from direct or indirect experience.
·  Learning organization
Learning organizations are firms that recognize the critical importance of continuous performance-related.
Training take appropriate action. They are one whose employees continuously attempt to learn new things
& to use what they learn to improve product or service quality. The most important thing in learning is that
all managers should understand the basic purposes and processes of both Training also recognize the role
of learning theory in Training.
B. Training Defined:
The heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational
performance. Training typically focuses on providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct
deficiencies in their performance.
I. Challenges in Training
Upgrading employees' performance and improving their skills through training is a necessity in today's
competitive environment. The training process brings with it many questions that managers must answer.
Included in these questions are: Is training the solution to the problems? Are the goals of training clear and
realistic? Is training a good investment? Will the
training work?
·  Is Training the Solution?
The Training Process
·  Are the Goals Clear and Realistic?
·  Is Training a Good Investment?
·  Will Training Work?
Needs Asse ssment Pha se
Development and Conduct
·Organization Needs
of Training
·Task Needs
·Location
II. The Training Process
·Person Needs
·Presentation
Adjustments  in  external  and  internal
·Type
environments necessitate change. Once the
need for change is recognized and the factors
that influence intervention are considered, the
Evaluation
process of determining Training needs begins.
Essentially, two questions must be asked: "What
are our Training needs?" and "What do we want
to  accomplish  through  our  TRAINING
efforts?"  After  stating  the  TRAINING
objectives, management can determine the appropriate methods for accomplishing them. Various methods
and media are available; the selection depends on the nature of TRAINING goals. Naturally, TRAINING
must be continuously evaluated in order to facilitate change and accomplish organizational objectives. Now
we will discuss different phases of training process.
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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
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Phases of Training
a. Phase 1: Needs Assessment & Establishing Objectives
In order to compete effectively, firms must keep their employees well trained. The first step in the Training
process is to determine Training needs. The overall purpose of the assessment phase is to determine if
training is needed and, if so, to provide the information required to design the training program.
Assessment consists of three levels of analysis: organizational, task, and person.
Organizational Analysis: It is an examination of the kinds of problems that an organization is
experiencing and where they are located within organization.
Task/Operational Analysis: An operational analysis identifies the kinds of the skills and behaviors
required of the incumbents of a given job and the standards of performance that must be met.
Personal Analysis: The objective of the personnel analysis is to examine how well individual employees are
performing their jobs. Training should be given to those who need it. Assigning all employees to a training
program, regardless of their skill levels, is a waste of organizational resources and create a unpleasant
situation for employees who do not need training.
The objectives of training must be clarified, related to the areas identified in the task analysis, and should be
challenging, precise, achievable, and understood by all.
Mostly when there is a performance gap i.e. the performance is not up to the specified standards training is
required to improve the performance there are certain factors that should be kept in mind before
conducting training ,lets consider these factors:
·  Number of employees experiencing skill deficiency: Number of employees supposed to be
trained.
·  Severity of skill deficiency: What are the cons or advantages that are being faced by the
organization due to absence of that skill?
·  Importance of skill: How important is skill to be possessed by workforce.
·  Extent to which skill can be improved with Training: Would there be real difference in skill
level in case the training program is conducted.
Determining Training Needs:
Following sources can help organization to assess either there is a need for Training or not.
Self-assessments
Company records
Customer complaints
New Technology
Employee grievances
Interviews with managers
Customer satisfaction surveys
Observation
Establishing Training Objectives
Objectives are desired end results. In human resource, clear and concise objectives must be formulated
b. Phase 2: Delivering the Training
The training program that results from assessment should be a direct response to an organizational problem
or need. Approaches vary by location, presentation, and type. These are summarized below:
1.
Location Options
a. On the job: Training is at the actual work site using the actual work equipment
b. Off the job: Training away from the actual work site. Training is at a Training facility designed
specifically for Training
c. Phase 3: Training Methods
·  Lecture
The Lecture is an efficient means of transmitting large amounts of factual information to a relatively large
number of people at the same time. It is traditional method of teaching and is used in many training
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programs. A skilled lecture can organize material and present it in a clear and understandable way. How ever
a lecture doesn't allow active participation by learners.
·  Case method
A Training method in which trainees are expected to study the information provided in the case and make
decisions based on it.
·  Simulations
Simulators are training devices of varying degrees of complexity that duplicate the real world. Simulation
refers to creating an artificial learning environment that approximates the actual job conditions as much as
possible.
·  Apprenticeship
This type of training refers to the process of having new worker, called an apprentice, work alongside and
under the direction of skilled technician.
·  Internships
Internships and assistantships provide training similar to apprenticeship training; however' assistantships
and internships typically refer to occupations that require a higher level of the formal education than that
required by the skilled trades. Many colleges and universities used to develop agreements with organizations
to provide internships opportunities for students.
·  Coaching And Mentoring
Some organizations assign an experienced to serve as a mentor for new employees. Effective mentors teach
their protégés job skills, provide emotional support and encouragement. Coaching and mentoring are
primarily on-the-job development approaches emphasizing learning on a one-to-one basis. Coaching is
often considered a responsibility of the immediate boss who has greater experience or expertise and is in the
position to offer sage advice. The same is true with a mentor, but this person may be located elsewhere in
the organization or even in another firm. The relationship may be established formally or it may develop on
an informal basis.
·  Discussions
Conferences and group discussions, used extensively for making decisions, can also be used as a form of
training because they provide forums where individuals are able to learn from one another. A major use of
the group discussion is to change attitudes and behaviors.
·  Games
Simulations that represent actual business situations are referred to as business games. These simulations
attempt to duplicate selected parts of a particular situation, which are then manipulated by the participants
·  Role playing
A Training method in which participants are required to respond to specific problems they may actually
encounter in their jobs.
·  Computer-based
Computer based training is a teaching method that takes advantage of the speed, memory, and data
manipulation capabilities of the computer for greater flexibility of instruction.
·  Multimedia
Multimedia is an application that enhances computer-based learning with audio, animation, graphics, and
interactive video.
·  Virtual reality
It is a unique computer-based approach that permits trainees to view objects from a perspective otherwise
impractical or impossible.
·  Video Training
The use of videotapes continues to be a popular Training method. An illustration of the use of videotapes is
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provided by behavior modeling. Behavior modeling has long been a successful Training approach that utilizes
videotapes to illustrate effective interpersonal skills and how managers function in various situations.
·  Vestibule training
Training that takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely resembles the actual
equipment used on the job. Effective training programs are effective only if the trainers re able to effectively
transfer to required knowledge to trainees but there are certain reasons due to which training programs
transferring becomes ineffective. The reasons re as under:
Why Transfer of Training Fails
·  Don't learn material
·  Don't understand "real life" applications
·  Lack of confidence
·  Forgetting the material
d. Phase 4:Evaluating Training
The credibility of training is greatly enhanced when it can be shown that the organization has benefited
tangibly from such programs. Organizations have taken several approaches in attempting to determine the
worth of specific programs. In this phase, the effectiveness of the training is assessed. Effectiveness can be
measured in monetary or non-monetary terms. It is important that the training be assessed on how well it
addresses the needs it was designed to address.
·  Participants' Opinions: Evaluating a training program by asking the participants' opinions of it is
an inexpensive approach that provides an immediate response and suggestions for improvements.
The basic problem with this type of evaluation is that it is based on opinion rather than fact. In
reality, the trainee may have learned nothing, but perceived that a learning experience occurred.
·  Extent of Learning: Some organizations administer tests to determine what the participants in
training program have learned. The pretest, posttest, control group design is one evaluation
procedure that may be used.
·  Behavioral Change: Tests may indicate fairly accurately what has been learned, but they give little
insight into desired behavioral changes.
·  Accomplishment of Training Objectives: Still another approach to evaluating training programs
involves determining the extent to which stated objectives have been achieved.
·  Benchmarking
Benchmarking utilizes exemplary practices of other organizations to evaluate and improve training
programs. It is estimated that up to 70 percent of American firms engage in some sort of benchmarking.
·  A Case for Simplicity: Value is the measure of impact and positive change elicited by the training.
The most common approaches used to determine the effectiveness of training programs are as under:
Post Training Performance Method:
In this method the participants' performance is measured after attending a training program to determine if
behavioral changes have been made.
Pre-Post Test approach:
Most commonly used approach towards measurement of effectiveness of training is Pretest Post test
approach this approach performances the employees is measured prior to training and if required training is
provided. After completion if the training again the performance is measured this is compared with
performance before training if evaluation is positive e.g. increase in productivity that means that training is
effective.
Pre- Post Training Performance with control group Method:
Under this evaluation method, two groups are established and evaluated on actual job performance.
Members of the control group work on the job but do not undergo instructions. On the other hand, the
experimental group is given the instructions. At the conclusion of the training, the two groups are
reevaluated. If the training is really effective, the experimental group's performance will have improved, and
its performance will be substantially better than that of the control group.
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Key Terms
Training: The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs.
Task analysis: A detailed study of a job to identify the skills required so that an appropriate training
program may be instituted.
Performance analysis: Careful study of performance to identify a deficiency and then correct it with new
equipment, a new employee, a training program, or some other adjustment.
On-the-job training (OJT): Training a person to learn a job while working at it.
Vestibule or simulated: Training employees on special off-the-job equipment, as in
training airplane pilot training, whereby training costs and hazards can be reduced.
Coaching/Mentoring: A method of on-the-job training where an experienced worker, or
Method the trainee's supervisor trains the employee.
Action Learning: A training technique by which management trainees are allowed to work full-time
analyzing and solving problems in other departments.
Case study method: A development method in which the manager is presented with a written description
of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve.
Business games: A development technique in which teams of managers compete with one another by
making computerized decisions regarding realistic but simulated companies.
Behavior modeling: A training technique in which trainees are first shown good management techniques
in a film, are then asked to play roles in a simulated situation, and are then given feedback and praise by
their supervisor.
Learning organization: An organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and at
modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HRM:Growing Importance of HRM, Road Map of the Course
  2. ESSENTIALS OF MANAGEMENT:Concepts and Essential of Management, Manager’s Roles
  3. ORGANIZATION AND COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATION:Open versus Closed Systems, The Hawthorne Studies
  4. PEOPLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR:Why to work in organizations?, The Goals of Organizational Behavior
  5. INDIVIDUAL VS. GROUP BEHAVIOR:What Are Roles?, Problem solving Team
  6. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Records and Administration, Competitive Advantage
  7. HRM IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT:Productivity, New Trends at Work Place
  8. How organization Cultivate a Diverse Workforce, STEPS TOWARD MANAGEMENT OF DIVERSITY
  9. FUNCTIONS AND ENVIRONMENT OF HRM:Compensation and Benefits, Safety And Health, Interrelationships of HRM Functions
  10. LINE AND STAFF ASPECTS OF HRM:Authority, Line versus Staff Authority, Staff Manager
  11. LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR DECISIONS:Doing the Right Thing, Affirmative Action, Unintended Consequences
  12. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP):Benefits of HR Planning, Forecasting Human Resource Availability
  13. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND HRIS:HR’s Strategic Role, Human Resource Information System, Common HRIS Functions
  14. JOB ANALYSIS:Purposes of the job Analysis, Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
  15. JOB ANALYSIS:Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information, Observation, Source of Data
  16. JOB ANALYSIS (CONTD.):SURPLUS OF EMPLOYEES FORECASTED, Diversity through Recruiting Efforts
  17. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT, Quantity of the Applicants, Quality of the Applicants
  18. SELECTION:Initial Screening, Advantages of Successful Screening
  19. SELECTION TESTS:Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests, Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
  20. SELECTION PROCESS… CONTD:Background Investigations, Physical Exam, Selecting Managers
  21. SOCIALIZATION:Compensation and Benefits, Team Membership, Stages in socialization Process, Training and Development Trends
  22. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:Learning, Phases of Training, Why Transfer of Training Fails
  23. MAXIMIZING LEARNING:Following up on Training, Repetition, Feedback, Purposes of T & D
  24. CAREER MANAGEMENT:Individual career planning, Career Planning and Development Methods
  25. PERFORMANCE:Determinants of Job Performance, Why is performance measured?, Performance Management
  26. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:What to Evaluate, The Appraisal Interview, PROBLEMS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
  27. JOB EVALUATION AND PRICING:THE APPRAISAL PERIOD, Ranking method,
  28. COMPENSATION SYSTEM:Pay, Job Pricing, Compensation: An Overview, Compensation Surveys
  29. BENEFITS:Total Compensation, Discretionary Benefits (Voluntary), Workplace Flexibility
  30. ROLE OF MONEY IN PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES:Types of Pay-for-Performance Plans, Empower Employees
  31. MOTIVATION:The Motivation Process, Motivational Theories, Challenges of motivating employees
  32. OCCUPATION, HEALTH & SAFETY:Physical Conditions, Accident Investigation, Smoking in The work place
  33. STRESS MANAGEMENT:Symptoms of Stress, Managing Stress,
  34. COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATION:Burnout, Social Support at Work & Home, Communication in organization, Meetings
  35. TRADE UNIONS:Collective Bargaining, The HRM Department in a Nonunion Setting, Phases of Labor Relations
  36. CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION:Transitions in Conflict Thought, Individual Conflict Management Styles
  37. POWER AND POLITICS:Sources of Power, Advantages and Disadvantages of PowerPower and Politics in Context
  38. EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND DISCIPLINE:Contractual Rights, Management Rights, Disciplining Employees,
  39. DISCIPLINE (CONT...):Factors to Consider when Disciplining, Disciplinary Guidelines, Employee Separations
  40. LEADERSHIP:The Leader’s Behavior, Situational Theories of Leadership, Becoming a Leader
  41. REVISION (LESSON 12-21):Plans, Job Specification, Human resource planning, Selection Process, Corporate Culture
  42. REVISION (LESSON 22-26):Training, Case Study Method, Training, Performance
  43. REVISION (LESSON 27-35):Classification Method, Compensation, Empowerment, Mediation
  44. INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF HRM:Global Corporation, Type of staff members, Approaches to Global Staffing
  45. CONCLUSION & REVIEW:Strategies for Gaining Competitive Advantage, High-performance Work System