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Introduction to Psychology

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Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
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Lesson 30
THINKING, REASONING, PROBLEM- SOLVING AND CREATIVITY
Inductive Reasoning
·
Specific cues are used for drawing inferences.
Inductive Thinking
·
By using observation, knowledge and experience, different sets of inferences are drawn about the phenomenon of interest.
·
Small bits of information are used to draw the general conclusion.
·
The person uses his or her observation, knowledge, and experience of specific case and infers general rules.
·
For example, if you have been noticing that your teacher is very soft spoken, usually marks you present even when you are
late for the class, and forgives your mistakes, then you might take chance for late submission of your assignment.
·
The major shortcoming of this type of thinking is that the conclusions may be biased, or the evidence used for drawing
conclusions may be invalid, insufficient, or may be just a chance occurrence. Whereas appropriate conclusions have to be
unbiased.
Thinking and Decision- Making
·
It is one of the most complicated forms of thinking.
·
Cognitive psychologists are still focusing on the components and processes that underlie this type of thinking.
·
An important area in which the cognitive psychologists are most interested.
·
For many years psychologists have attempted to explain the processes involved for decision making, and solving problems.
The most famous examples of which are
·
Thorndike's trial and error problem solving.
·
Kohler's insight problem solving.
Mental shortcuts
Algorithms and Heuristics
·
Algorithms: A rule, if it is applied, ensures the solution to the problem.
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Algorithms are always accurate.
·
We do not necessarily understand their logical basis e.g. algebraic formula
Algorithms and Heuristics
Algorithms: A rule, if it is applied, ensures the solution to the problem.
·
Algorithms are always accurate.
·
We do not necessarily understand their logical basis e.g. algebraic formula
Heuristics: A rule of thumb that if used can be effective in finding solutions to problems, but may not
ensure or guarantee this.
·
For example rules for playing naught and crosses, or preparing only the `important' parts of the course for the exam.
Problem Solving
· Thinking for the sake of finding solutions to problems.
· Three major steps are involved in solving a problem.
i. Preparation for finding the solutions
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ii. Producing the solutions
iii. Appraisal of the solutions that have been generated
There are two types of problems:
a. Well- defined problem.
b. ill- defined problem.
Well- Defined Problem
·
Clear, definite and well-formed problem. Means of solving that problem are available. E.g. when solving the mathematical
equation in which the problem is rather difficult, but the method used to solve it is direct and available.
Ill- Defined Problem
·
Indefinite, unclear, ill- formed problem whose nature is not specifically defined and the ways for solving them is also
difficult__ how do we build the morale of the crowd when their own team is losing the match???
·
. In this, the problem is not specific and so the solution.
·
The main shortcoming of this type of problem is that it is not possible to draw the immediate and absolute conclusions and
solutions of the problem.
Kinds of Problems
Problems are typically of three types
·
Arrangement problems
·
Problems of inducing structures
·
Transformation problems
Arrangement Problems
·
Solutions of the problems require rearrangement and re evaluation of the components so that certain criterion will be
satisfied
·
There are a number of solutions to certain problems, but there are only specific solutions that fulfill certain requirements
e.g. solving mathematical equation
Problems of Inducing Structures
·
It refers to the problems whose solution depends on the relationship of components among them so that new construct which
has a relationship can be developed.
·
e.g. see and tall what number comes next? 221- 412- 321- 512- 421- 612-. Firstly, one has to consider the existing
relationship between these numbers then make out the other relationship
·
**521-712
Transformation Problems
· Problems that require understanding and that should be solved in a manner that involves series of methods so that the
initial problematic state can be changed into the goal attaining state.
Steps for Problem Solving
Four steps are important for solving certain problem.
·
Means- ends analysis: Repeated testing of the behavior in order to lessen the distance
between the goal and current existence e.g. taking instructions or asking questions for
solving puzzles
·
Sub goals: Divide the problem into small element and then solve them in steps or
sequentially
·
Insight: Instant awareness of the relationship among the existing components, which
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formally seems independent of each other. A German psychologist Wolfgang Kohler was
one of the first psychologists who observed this phenomenon, especially when facing
challenges.
·
Evaluation of solution: The final step in problem solving which involves appraising the
existing solution of the problem to demonstrate whether the solution is adequate or not.
Impediments to Problem Solving
There are various factors, which serve as an obstacle in finding solutions. They are;
·  Functional fixedness.
·  Mental set.
Functional fixedness is the capacity to think about certain phenomena in its most typical use or form.
Mental set is the tendency to think of a solution in a most old patterned ways___ old means of finding and
answering problems.
Creativity and Thinking
·
The word "creative" is derived from the Latin word "creare" means "to make" or Greek word "Krainein" means, " to
fulfill".
·
Creativity may be defined as the innovative, novel responses and ideas into a harmonious
whole/ form.
·
Creativity can be flourished by two means;
·
Inspiration.
·
Hard work.
Stages in Creative Thinking:
·
Creativity mainly involves four steps;
·
Preparation,
·
Incubation,
·
Illumination,
·
Verification,
·
Revision.
i. Preparation: It includes assembling or combining the material and think thoroughly about it.
ii. Incubation: After thinking intensely about the certain problem, the person lets his mind free by putting the
problem aside and let its solution incubate in the mind.
iii. Illumination: It also refers to as " insight" when innovative ideas are instantly generated__ a sudden flash
comes to mind when one is brainstorming at it. Scientific innovations are one of the examples.
iv.Verification: Evaluation of the problem to find out whether the solution is correct or not
v.Revision: This involves the whole of the above steps involved that should be used in order to reach on
some solution
Factors Associated With Creativity
·
The main factors that may contribute in enhancing creativity is
i. Divergent thinking,
ii. Convergent thinking.
·
Divergent thinking involves varied thoughts and solutions to a certain problem.
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Convergent thinking includes various thoughts and solutions for a particular
problem.
Creative thinking is `GOING BEYOND'
Creative thinking is going beyond:
·
The obvious
·
The defined
·
The laid out
·
The conventional
·
The common
·
The usual
Creative thinking is:
The ability to generate a variety of unusual solutions to a problem
Creative thinking is:
·
Open
·
Original
·
Imaginative
·
Uninhibited
·
Exciting
·
Fulfilling
·
Lateral
·
May be stray and wild at times
Lateral versus Vertical Thinking
Lateral thinking
·
Finds new ways of looking at things
·
Avoids looking for what is "right" or" wrong".
·
Analyzes ideas to generate new ideas
·
Considers the irrelevant
·
Progresses by avoiding the obvious
Vertical thinking
·
Tries to find absolutes
·
Seeks continuity
·
Finds what is right: seeks "yes" or "no" justifications
·
Looks for stability: rejects irrelevant information.
·
Uses established patterns & considers the obvious.
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Lateral Thinking
A deliberate process and set of techniques for generating new ideas by changing an individual's or
team's way of perceiving and interpreting information; as opposed to vertical thinking i.e., a logical
step-by-step process of developing ideas by proceeding continuously from one bit of information to
the next.
Lateral/Creative Problem Solving
·
Reversal Technique: examining problem and turning it completely around; inside out or
upside down.
·
Analogy Technique: developing a statement about similarities between objects, persons, or
situations.
·
Cross Fertilization Technique: asking experts from other fields (totally different fields) to
view the problem and suggest methods for solving it from their own area of interest.
Assessing and Examining Creative Thinking
·
Name all the things you can think of that are round/circular in shape.
·
List as many white, edible things as you can.
·
List all the uses that you can think of a watermelon.
·
List all the possible uses of a pencil.
·
Mr. X has been told a number of times to be in office at 9 but he is always late. WHY???
·
Ms. Q has a number of clothes, but she has been wearing the same dress for the last two
weeks. WHY???
·
Your rich client comes to your office. You offer him coffee but he refuses. WHY???
"You can become what you imagine yourself to be!!!"
As If:
Appearing for an interview
Imagine
you were to introduce yourself to an interviewing board.
As if
Think
As if you were introducing yourself to an interviewing board.
Act
As if you were actually introducing yourself to an interviewing board
Thinking Loud
Your friends Z and X have stopped talking to each other, whereas they have to work together in the
same office.
a: Think of as many reasons as you can of the dispute.
b: Think of as many ways as you can of a possible patch up planned by you.
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Creative Thinking and Problem Solving
Clearly thinking about all possible aspects of the issue before taking decisive action
The cases of shop lifting in a super market rose to such a high level that they had to increase the
prices. They hired guards but that did not work much. However they finally found a solid solution.
How???
Concept Challenge
Challenging the established ideas for new solutions
· Women should do house work.
· In solving disputes all parties should have equal part in decision-making.
Cognitive Complexity
Persons who are high in cognitive complexity are interested in use of more philosophical and
abstract ways of thinking___ these types of people give preference in using complex, abstract
and intricate stimuli and thinking patterns. Comedy, jokes and humor is its best example
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Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?:Theoretical perspectives of psychology
  2. HISTORICAL ROOTS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY:HIPPOCRATES, PLATO
  3. SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT:Biological Approach, Psychodynamic Approach
  4. PERSPECTIVE/MODEL/APPROACH:Narcosis, Chemotherapy
  5. THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH/ MODEL:Psychic Determinism, Preconscious
  6. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH:Behaviorist Analysis, Basic Terminology, Basic Terminology
  7. THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH AND THE COGNITIVE APPROACH:Rogers’ Approach
  8. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (I):Scientific Nature of Psychology
  9. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (II):Experimental Research
  10. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND NATURE NURTURE ISSUE:Nature versus Nurture
  11. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:Socio- Cultural Factor, The Individual and the Group
  12. NERVOUS SYSTEM (1):Biological Bases of Behavior, Terminal Buttons
  13. NERVOUS SYSTEM (2):Membranes of the Brain, Association Areas, Spinal Cord
  14. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland, Dwarfism
  15. SENSATION:The Human Eye, Cornea, Sclera, Pupil, Iris, Lens
  16. HEARING (AUDITION) AND BALANCE:The Outer Ear, Auditory Canal
  17. PERCEPTION I:Max Wertheimer, Figure and Ground, Law of Closure
  18. PERCEPTION II:Depth Perception, Relative Height, Linear Perspective
  19. ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS:Electroencephalogram, Hypnosis
  20. LEARNING:Motor Learning, Problem Solving, Basic Terminology, Conditioning
  21. OPERANT CONDITIONING:Negative Rein forcer, Punishment, No reinforcement
  22. COGNITIVE APPROACH:Approach to Learning, Observational Learning
  23. MEMORY I:Functions of Memory, Encoding and Recoding, Retrieval
  24. MEMORY II:Long-Term Memory, Declarative Memory, Procedural Memory
  25. MEMORY III:Memory Disorders/Dysfunctions, Amnesia, Dementia
  26. SECONDARY/ LEARNT/ PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES:Curiosity, Need for affiliation
  27. EMOTIONS I:Defining Emotions, Behavioral component, Cognitive component
  28. EMOTIONS II:Respiratory Changes, Pupillometrics, Glandular Responses
  29. COGNITION AND THINKING:Cognitive Psychology, Mental Images, Concepts
  30. THINKING, REASONING, PROBLEM- SOLVING AND CREATIVITY:Mental shortcuts
  31. PERSONALITY I:Definition of Personality, Theories of Personality
  32. PERSONALITY II:Surface traits, Source Traits, For learning theorists, Albert Bandura
  33. PERSONALITY III:Assessment of Personality, Interview, Behavioral Assessment
  34. INTELLIGENCE:The History of Measurement of Intelligence, Later Revisions
  35. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:Plato, Aristotle, Asclepiades, In The Middle Ages
  36. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR I:Medical Perspective, Psychodynamic Perspective
  37. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR II:Hypochondriasis, Conversion Disorders, Causes include
  38. PSYCHOTHERAPY I:Psychotherapeutic Orientations, Clinical Psychologists
  39. PSYCHOTHERAPY II:Behavior Modification, Shaping, Humanistic Therapies
  40. POPULAR AREAS OF PSYCHOLOGY:ABC MODEL, Factors affecting attitude change
  41. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:Understanding Health, Observational Learning
  42. INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:‘Hard’ Criteria and ‘Soft’ Criteria
  43. CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Focus of Interest, Consumer Psychologist
  44. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Some Research Findings, Arousal level
  45. FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY:Origin and History of Forensic Psychology