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Introduction to Psychology

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Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
Lesson 5
The approach that concentrated on the unconscious forces that drive our behavior; belief that the inner
forces over which individuals have little control motivate behavior.
Founded by Sigmund Freud, the most influential figure in the history of psychology.
The basis of motivation and behavior lies in inner forces; forces that are predetermined, and forces
over which humans have little control, which the person is not aware of i.e., unconscious
determinants of behavior
It maintained that instincts are the driving force behind individual's personality; there are life instincts
as well as death instincts that play a role in human life.
Significance of Psychodynamic Approach
The most influential theory of the 20th century, that affected psychology and related disciplines
in a revolutionary manner
Gave an entirely new perspective to the understanding of behavior and mental processes as
well as mental illness
The first theory to raise the awareness that not all behavior is rational
Gave an impressive, broad based, therapeutic approach
Provided a basis to understand everyday life phenomena e.g. interpersonal relationships,
aggression, prejudice
Many other, later, approaches built their paradigms on this approach - some by refining it,
some by deviating from it
One of the main ideas is that there is an inner tension for the fulfillment of instincts, the
tension leads to action for fulfillment, the fulfillment leads to reduced tension.
Inner Tension
Reduced Tension
Roots Of Human Action
Inherited Instincts
Satisfaction Of
Needs And
Halted Action
Reduced Drives
Biological Drives
Attempts To Resolve
Conflicts Between Personal
Needs And Social Demands
Deprivation States
Sigmund Freud: 1856-1939
Physiological Arousals
Founder of psychoanalysis
Energy For
Austrian physician, neurologist,
Born in Moravia (Czech Republic) in a
middle class family
Studied at Vienna University where he became interested in
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
neurological research
Spent three years at General Hospital Vienna and worked in nervous diseases, psychiatry, and
1885: Became professor of neuropathology at Vienna University
1885: Following a government grant went to Paris as a student of French neurologist Jean
Charcot, who was treating nervous diseases through hypnotic suggestion
Freud's interest in psychopathology was heightened as a result of his studies of hysteria, under
1886: Established private practice in Vienna specializing in nervous disease. His interest shifted
from physiological to psychological explanation of psychopathology
Started collaborative work with Josef Breuer
1895: wrote "Studies on Hysteria"; main emphasis was that uncharged emotional energy
associated with forgotten psychic traumas resulted into hysterical symptoms
Therapy, at that stage, involved putting the patient in a hypnotic state, where he recalled and
reenacted the traumatic experience = Catharsis
Hence the formal beginning of Psychoanalysis
Foundations of Psychodynamic Approach
Psychic Determinism
All behavior is determined i.e., has a cause that lies in the mind/psyche
Role of Consciousness
A significant part of our behavior is generated by unconscious forces
Continuity of Normal and Abnormal Behavior
Normal and abnormal behavior are different only in terms of degree and not in kind
Emphasis on Clinical Observation
Clinical observation/ case studies were the main source of data
Structure of Consciousness
Contains thoughts and feelings of which one is
immediately aware
Mind level below the level of conscious awareness
Part of the sub conscious that can be accessed by deliberate choice
Part of the sub conscious that cannot be accessed directly although impulses, ideas, and feelings may
permeate out through other sources e.g. dreams, slips of tongue etc.
Dreams in Freudian Approach
Dreams reflect unconscious needs, desires, and impulses.
Dreams have two levels of dream content: manifest and latent.
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
Manifest content
The obvious, apparent part: what a dream appears to be to the dreamer.
Latent content
The dream's true meaning, which is usually disguised or distorted by dream work.
The manifest content is in a symbolic form
The latent content is converted into this form by the `dream censor, a mechanism that ensures
that sleep is not disturbed by unconscious desires, and those desires are presented in a socially
acceptable form. The manifest content is in the symbolic form of the latent content. Only the
psychoanalyst can interpret it.
Motivating Forces
Sources of motivation
Psychodynamic Model of Personality
Destructive energy
Is a three-part structure of the mind;
Life affirming force
expressed in self
expressed in
containing id, ego and super ego.
destructive activities
creative activities
as well as aggression
including procreation
towards others
At birth, the entire mind consists of only id. It consists of pure, unadulterated,
instinctual energy and exists entirely on the unconscious level. It is the source of
basic drives; operates under the `pleasure principle' i.e., it wants immediate
gratification of needs. The id has two means of satisfying bodily needs, reflex
action and wish fulfillment.
Reflex action is responding automatically to a source of irritation .e.g. an infant
may sneeze in response to an irritant in the nose or reflexively move a confined limb, thereby freeing it. In
both cases, reflex action is effective in reducing tension. Coughing and blinking are other examples of reflex
Wish- fulfillment is more complicated. It is the conjuring up of an image of an object or event that is
capable of satisfying a biological need e.g. a hungry person thinks of food- related objects.
Mediates the link of the self with the outside world, "Real World", as well as between the id and superego;
operates under the demands of the environment. It operates under the reality principle and operates in the
services of id. In other words, the ego comes into existence in order to bring the person into contact with
experiences that will truly satisfy his/ her needs. When the person is hungry, the ego finds food; when the
person is sexually aroused, the persons finds an appropriate sex object; and when the person is thirsty, the
ego finds liquid. The ego goes through reality testing to find appropriate objects.
Super Ego
There is a third component of personality that makes things
Super Ego
much more complicated, i.e. super ego. It is governed by the
moral constraints. It develops from the internalized patterns of
reward and punishment that the young child experiences i.e.
Depending on the values of the parents, certain things the child
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
does or says are rewarded and encouraged and others not liked
are punished or discouraged.
Opposes the id and represents the moral demands of the family and society; it is the ` moral self' or the
`conscience' of the person
Development of Personality: A Stage Approach
Psychodynamic approach proposed a stage- theory of the development of personality:
Oral Stage
Birth - 1 ½ Years
Ego  formation  begins,  weaning
begins, delayed gratification is learnt;
body image develops
Anal Stage
1 ½ - 3 Years
Continuation of ego development;
toilet training; formation of super
Phallic Stage
3 - 5 Years
Bodily and genital awareness
Genital Stage
Puberty - end of life
Symbolic gratification of drives;
secondary process thinking
Oral stage
occurs during the first year of life and the erogenous zone during this stage is the mouth. At this stage,
pleasures mainly come from mouth. According to Freud, an adult who is fixated at the early oral stage will
engage in abundance of oral activities such as eating, drinking, or smoking. This person also will engage in
activities that are symbolically equivalent to those oral activities such as collecting things, being a good
listener etc.
Anal stage
starts during the second year of life, and the erogenous zone is the anus- buttocks region. It is the stage
when the child has to gain control over his physiological processes so that they function in accordance with
the demands of the society.i.e the child must be toilet trained. Fixation at this stage may result in physical
Phallic stage
starts from the third year of life to about fifth year, and the erogenous area are the genital area. This is one
of the most complicated and controversial of Freud's stages. It is the stage of Oedipus and Electra
complexes, the resolution of which has profound influence on an adult's life. The male child experiences
the Oedipus complex, which is named after an ancient play by Sophocles, entitled Oedipus Tyrannus, in
which King Oedipus killed his father and married his mother. The male child resents the father, because he
is regarded as a rival for the mother's attention and affection. The female counter part of the Oedipus
complex is Electra complex, named after another play by Sophocles entitled " Electra", in which Electra
causes her brother to kill her mother who had killed Electra's father.
Latency stage
it lasts from about sixth year to about twelfth year. Here the sexual interests are displaced to substitute
activities such as learning, athletics, and peer group activities.
Genital stage
it is the final stage of development that occurs following puberty. It is the time at which the person
emerges from pre genital stages as the adults as he/ she destined to become. Now the child has become a
socialized adult with heterosexual interests leading to marriage and child- rearing. If, however, the
experiences during the pregenital stages cause fixation, they will manifests themselves throughout one's
adult life.
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
An emotional state experienced as a result of felt threat to the self
Anxiety arises when ego cannot cope too much of:
Demands of the id
Demands of the ego
External danger
· In order to protect itself against anxiety and threat, ego uses defense mechanism
Defense Mechanisms
Ego defense system, that may be distorting reality
i. Repression: Blocking unpleasant/ unacceptable thoughts by pushing them into the
unconscious e.g. forgetting events of the painful childhood.
ii. Regression: Reverting back to a stage that was satisfying e.g. a boss showing temper tantrums
like a child; or acting like a baby.
iii. Displacement: Redirecting the expression of unwanted desires or impulses to a substitute
rather than the actual target e.g. beating children when a wife cannot express anger toward
iv. Rationalization: In order to justify one's behavior, one develops a socially acceptable
explanation or reasoning e.g. going for a second marriage saying that the first wife was
v. Denial: Refusing to acknowledge or accept anxiety provoking thoughts or impulses e.g. being a
heavy smoker but saying `I am an occasional smoker'.
vi. Projection: Attributing unwanted thoughts and impulses to others e.g. a person takes bribe and
blames the organization for paying him not enough salary.
vii. Sublimation: Converting unwanted impulses into socially approved thoughts, feelings and
actions e.g. disliking the in-laws but behaving in a very friendly manner, or becoming a
stamp collector to overcome the impulse to steal
Psychotherapy: Psychoanalysis
An intensive, long-term psychotherapeutic procedure.
Requires long sessions over extended periods----- may be years.
Better suited to intelligent individuals.
Involves a special relationship between the therapist and the patient.
Target: To explore unconscious motivation, conflicts, desires.
Goal: Establishing intra psychic harmony by developing awareness of the role of the id,
reducing over compliance with super ego, and by strengthening the ego.
Understanding of `repression': The therapy gives central importance to the understanding of
the manner in which the person uses repression for handling conflict.
Interventions used in Psychotherapy
1. Free association
·  Kept in a comfortable position, the patient is asked to talk aloud and say whatever comes to his
mind without considering whether or not it is relevant, rational, or sensible.
·  The patient is asked to reveal even the most undesirable and strong thoughts that have been
repressed. This leads to emotional release, called `catharsis'.
2. Analysis of Resistance
At times patient feels inhibitions, and is unable or unwilling to express some thought or feeling i.e., barriers
between conscious and unconscious. The psychoanalyst aims to break down such resistances so that the
patient is enabled to face the unpleasant thoughts, impulses, events.
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
3. Dream Analysis
The therapist tries to uncover the latent content of dreams and decipher the symbolism involved.
4. Analysis of Transference & Counter Transference
·  Transference: The patient's emotional response toward the therapist is often an indication of
the patient's relationship with a person who had been the center of the conflict. It may be
negative or positive.
·  Counter Transference: The therapists' emotional reaction toward the patient is also important.
He may also start having positive or negative feelings for the patient.
·  Transference is analyzed and understood as part of the therapeutic process.
Criticism against Freudian Psychodynamic Theory
There is no scientific proof that many psychodynamic constructs, e.g. unconscious, exist
Psychic Determinism: Freudian approach is deterministic and leaves not much room for
conscious, rational, decision making or personal will to act
It ignores the external variables and the environment
It emphasizes the early childhood experiences too much
Mostly criticized for its interpretation of the relationship between the genders
The therapy is too time consuming and therefore expensive
The Psychoanalytic Approach after Freud
The Neo Freudian
The theorists who belonged to the Freudian school and supported it, but later digressed on
some issues and differed from Freud
They emphasized, more than Freud, the following:
Current social environment play an important role in one's life.
Life experiences have a continuing influence and childhood alone should not be of
prime importance.
Positive interpersonal relations of love and social motivation have a significant role.
Ego functioning is significant rather than id.
Development of self-concept is important.
Self-esteem is important.
1. Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
His theory is known as "individual psychology" which in many ways is the opposite of Freud's theory. For
Freud, individuals are constantly in conflict with one another and with society; Adler saw them seeking
relationships and harmony, he looked upon mind as an integrated whole working to help to attain the future
Initially he was Freud's closest friend.
1911: Diverted and launched his version of psychoanalytic approach.
Differed from Freud in:
Freud's negativity (e.g. Thanatos instincts)
Freud's idea that libido is the prime impulse
Adler's Approach
Main concepts: Esteem, inferiority complex, birth order, will to power and style of life
We are a product of the social influences on our personality
Goals and incentives drive us more than drives and instincts
Our goal in life is to achieve success and superiority
Inferiority complex: the feeling of being less able than others. It affects one's relationship with others and
his achievement in many ways.
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
Motivating Forces of Human Life
Feeling of inferiority
People are primarily motivated to overcome inherent feelings of inferiority
Birth Order: has effect on personality. The first- born is different from the last one, and so is the
middle- born different from others.
Sibling Rivalry: Siblings feel a kind of rivalry toward each other.
Psychopathology: Compensation: i.e., Compensatory defense mechanism combined with conscious
or unconscious feelings of inferiority is the main cause of psychopathological behavior.
Function of the Psychoanalyst: To discover and rationalize such feelings and break down the
compensatory, neurotic will for power.
2. Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961)
A Swiss psychiatrist, founder of the analytical school of psychology, Jung presented a complex theory of
1913: left the inner circle of Freud's students and colleagues, although he had chosen Jung as
his successor.
Was mystical in his understanding and description of personality.
Had a positive approach toward one's ability to control one's destiny.
His view of human nature is among the most complex ever portrayed. The human psyche is
embedded in past, present, and future; it consists of conscious and unconscious elements,
rational and irrational impulses, masculine and feminine tendencies, and a tendency to bring all
these contradictory tendencies into harmony with each other. Self- actualization is achieved
when such harmony exists, but self- actualization must be sought; it does not occur
Believed that the spiritual side must be satisfied, which usually happens in middle age when
many of the components of psyche have been discovered.
Religion to him is the major vehicle in the journey towards self- actualization.
Jung's disagreements with Freud
The understanding and description of the genders.
The nature of unconscious.
The main Jungian concepts
Major goal of life: Unification of all aspect of our personality:
·  Conscious And Unconscious
·  Introversion (Inner Directed), Extroverted (Outer Directed)
Energy for personal growth and development
Types of Unconscious
Personal unconscious: Similar to Freudian view
Collective unconscious: ideas beyond personal experience, inherited from ancestors' all
generations, and common to all of humanity.
Part of collected unconscious, universal forms and patterns of thought: These include themes
that can be seen in myths e.g. masculinity, femininity, good, evil opposites, motherhood.
3. Karen Horney (1885-1952)
·  German- American psychologist.
·  Trained as a psychoanalyst in Germany who later shifted to the US.
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
She agreed with Freud on the levels of unconscious, anxiety, and repression.
She emphasized childhood experiences, social interaction and personal growth.
Disagreement with Freud
Differed from Freud on primary impulses; impulses are not the main motivating force.
Disagreed on Freudian position regarding the biological basis of differences between genders.
Main Concepts in Horney's Theory:
Basic Anxiety
A Major Concept: If The Environment Is Hostile And The Child Feels Lonely And Isolated,
Then This Anxiety Develops. It Can Be Overcome By Proper Parental Nurturing
Basic Hostility
Children develop such hostility if parents are over strict, punishing, indifferent, or inconsistent.
Children feel very aggressive and hostile but cannot express it. Repressed hostility leads to anxiety.
Social Interaction and Interpersonal Styles
She talked about the ways in which people interact with each other, and these were thought to have an
impact upon the personality of an n individual:
·  Moving away from others: seeking self sufficiency and independence
·  Moving toward others: being compliant and dependant
·  Moving against others: trying to gain control, power, and independence
Arise from emotional conflicts that arise from childhood experiences, and disturbances in interpersonal
relationships in later life
Relationship with the real self and the ideal self
Horney maintained that the real self includes those things that are true about us at any particular time. The
ideal self reflects what we would like to become. For normal people, the ideal self is the goal that they
would like to reach in the future; it is something around which they can organize their lives and to which
they can aspire. For the neurotic person, according to her, the relationship between the real and the ideal
self is a problem. In the first place, the neurotic's impression of the real self is distorted. For him, the ideal
self is a wish instead of reality and idealized self is an unrealistic, immutable dream
Goal of the therapy
For her, the goal is to create a realistic relationship between the real self and the ideal self. Horney was
optimistic about human nature and the ability to change. Human interactions caused problem and human
interactions solved problems also.
Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?:Theoretical perspectives of psychology
  3. SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT:Biological Approach, Psychodynamic Approach
  4. PERSPECTIVE/MODEL/APPROACH:Narcosis, Chemotherapy
  5. THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH/ MODEL:Psychic Determinism, Preconscious
  6. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH:Behaviorist Analysis, Basic Terminology, Basic Terminology
  8. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (I):Scientific Nature of Psychology
  9. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (II):Experimental Research
  11. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:Socio- Cultural Factor, The Individual and the Group
  12. NERVOUS SYSTEM (1):Biological Bases of Behavior, Terminal Buttons
  13. NERVOUS SYSTEM (2):Membranes of the Brain, Association Areas, Spinal Cord
  14. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland, Dwarfism
  15. SENSATION:The Human Eye, Cornea, Sclera, Pupil, Iris, Lens
  16. HEARING (AUDITION) AND BALANCE:The Outer Ear, Auditory Canal
  17. PERCEPTION I:Max Wertheimer, Figure and Ground, Law of Closure
  18. PERCEPTION II:Depth Perception, Relative Height, Linear Perspective
  19. ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS:Electroencephalogram, Hypnosis
  20. LEARNING:Motor Learning, Problem Solving, Basic Terminology, Conditioning
  21. OPERANT CONDITIONING:Negative Rein forcer, Punishment, No reinforcement
  22. COGNITIVE APPROACH:Approach to Learning, Observational Learning
  23. MEMORY I:Functions of Memory, Encoding and Recoding, Retrieval
  24. MEMORY II:Long-Term Memory, Declarative Memory, Procedural Memory
  25. MEMORY III:Memory Disorders/Dysfunctions, Amnesia, Dementia
  26. SECONDARY/ LEARNT/ PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES:Curiosity, Need for affiliation
  27. EMOTIONS I:Defining Emotions, Behavioral component, Cognitive component
  28. EMOTIONS II:Respiratory Changes, Pupillometrics, Glandular Responses
  29. COGNITION AND THINKING:Cognitive Psychology, Mental Images, Concepts
  31. PERSONALITY I:Definition of Personality, Theories of Personality
  32. PERSONALITY II:Surface traits, Source Traits, For learning theorists, Albert Bandura
  33. PERSONALITY III:Assessment of Personality, Interview, Behavioral Assessment
  34. INTELLIGENCE:The History of Measurement of Intelligence, Later Revisions
  35. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:Plato, Aristotle, Asclepiades, In The Middle Ages
  36. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR I:Medical Perspective, Psychodynamic Perspective
  37. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR II:Hypochondriasis, Conversion Disorders, Causes include
  38. PSYCHOTHERAPY I:Psychotherapeutic Orientations, Clinical Psychologists
  39. PSYCHOTHERAPY II:Behavior Modification, Shaping, Humanistic Therapies
  40. POPULAR AREAS OF PSYCHOLOGY:ABC MODEL, Factors affecting attitude change
  41. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:Understanding Health, Observational Learning
  42. INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:‘Hard’ Criteria and ‘Soft’ Criteria
  43. CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Focus of Interest, Consumer Psychologist
  44. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Some Research Findings, Arousal level
  45. FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY:Origin and History of Forensic Psychology