ZeePedia buy college essays online


Introduction to Computing

<<< Previous THE FUTURE OF COMPUTING Next >>>
 
img
Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
VU
LESSON 43
THE FUTURE OF COMPUTING
Focus of the last Lesson was on the Computing Profession
·
We discussed several roles and associated responsibilities of modern computer professionals
·
We also discussed a few tricky situations where a knowledge of professional ethics would have
helped
Who is a computing professional?
·
Computer scientists, software engineers, computer engineers, and some of the telecom engineers
are generally classified as computing professionals
Today's Focus Group
·
Due to the limitation on time, today we will be focusing only on a subset of computing
professionals: those involved in the development of SW
Organization: A Collection of Teams
Development Team
·
Responsible for a project from after the specifications stage till the very end
Project Manager
·
Responsibilities:
­
Planning and tracking of the project
­
Arranging of the appropriate resources
­
Client relationship management
Architect
·
Responsibilities:
­
Technical guru of the project
­
Technology selection
­
High-level design
­
Makes certain that the implementation remains true to the design
Team Lead
·
Responsibilities:
­
Planning and tracking of the project
­
Detailed design
­
Professional development of team members
­
Development activities, in case of small teams
Developer
·
Responsibilities:
­
Module-level design
­
Coding
­
Unit-testing
293
img
Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
VU
Executive Team
·
CEO ­ Chief Executive Officer
­  Developer of the vision of the organization
­  Great PR skills
­  Great knack for spotting talent
·
COO ­ Chief Operating Officer
­  Responsible for the day-to-day operations
­  Great planning & interpersonal skills
·
CMSO ­ Chief Marketing & Sales Officer
­  Responsible for bringing in work
­  Innovative
Business Development Team
·
Responsible for the development of detailed proposals for projects
Architecture Team
·
Consists of the sharpest technical minds in the company
Configuration Management Team
·
Keeps a vigilant eye on the process that keeps an extensive record of all versions of everything that
is ever developed for a particular project: from proposals to specifications to plans to design to
code
Process Team
·
Team's goal: To continuously improve the SW development process to achieve improvements in
cost, schedule, and quality
Quality Assurance Team
·
Responsible for assuring the quality of all SW (i.e. making sure that it does what it is supposed to)
that is produced at the organization
Technology Transfer Team
·
This team is responsible for:
­  Evaluating new technologies, products, processes
­  Selecting the ones that are right for the organization
­  Developing an expertise in their use
­I  ntroducing them in various ongoing/future projects
Support Team
·
Responsible for the maintenance, expansion, improvement of the infrastructure consisting of:
­  Workstations, servers, printers
­  Networking equipment (router, switch, hub)
­  SW (development SW, productivity SW, etc.)
­  Network security
Ethics
·
Ethics is a collection of heuristics that, when followed, improves our way of life
·
I find them wonderful as they simplify my life
Professional Ethics
·
Professional ethics are a category of ethics, and here we discus the professional ethics relevant to
computing
·
The professional ethics provide a way of simplifying our decision making process
294
img
Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
VU
·
We also looked at few situations where a knowledge of professional ethics would have simplified
the process of decision making
Today's Goals:
(The Future Of Computing)
·
To visualize the advances in computing that will take place in the future
·
To visualize the impact of computing on our future
Computing & Telecommunications
·
The two fields are converging, and, as time passes, are becoming more and more indistinguishable
from each other
·
Therefore, when we talk about the future of one, we must talk about the future of both
My Personal Mobile Communicator
·
Probably 15-20 years from now ...
·
Body-embedded uPhone, head-phone, processor
·
Voice-only control interface
·
The user mumbles, only the uPhone hears
·
Longer term: the user only thinks commands and speech and feels the response from the other end;
no actual sounds are made
Required Computing Technologies
·
Miniature uPs, RAM, ROM
·
Continuous speech recognition
A Mobile Video-Phone
·
The technology is available; the infrastructure will become common in 2-5 years time
·
However, it may never become as popular as a regular voice-only phone as it will be too
cumbersome to use
My Personal Agent
·
A computer program that will works autonomously and will have a voice-interface
·
It may start becoming popular in 5-year's time
·
Will be able to have an intelligent conversation with me
·
I say: "I need two tickets for Hong Kong for tomorrow morning"
·
It already knows where I am, what my airline preferences are, and what are my credit-card details
·
It will asks me about the return leg of the journey and about hotel reservations as well
·
I say: "I'm depressed" or "I'm tired" or "I'm bored" or "I'm angry" or "I'm feeling sick" and it
will know how to respond to situations like that
·
For example, when I feel sick, it can ask simple questions and then set-up an appointment with an
appropriate doctor by getting in touch with that doctor's personnel agent
·
It can remind me about various events
·
It keeps me updated with news, weather, stock market, etc
·
I communicate with it through my personal communicator as well as my computer
·
It knows that when I am near a computer display, and writes appropriate info to the screen
Required Computing Technologies
·
Continuous speech recognition
·
Intelligent, autonomous decision making SW
The key weakness of the Web?
·
The Web (as it currently exists) was designed for humans to read, not for computers to understand
and manipulate meaningfully
295
img
Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
VU
·
Computers face great problems in dealing with the current text- and graphics-based content of the
Web
Future of the Web: Semantic Web
Whereas, today's Web's content is designed for humans to read; the Semantic Web's content will be
designed for computers to understand meaningfully. However, the Semantic Web is not a replacement
but an extension of the present Web, in which info is given well defined meaning
Smaller, Faster, Cheaper, More Efficient
·
All types of computers are becoming more powerful, smaller in size, consume less energy, and cost
less than before
·
10 years from now we may have the power of today's most powerful supercomputer in a package
no bigger than a common brick
·
However, the size may not be relevant as a time is coming when computing power will be like the
electric power service that we use at home or office
Electrical Supply
·
We do not buy a new electric plant when we install a new air conditioner. Do we?
·
We just plug it in, and it works!
·
As we use more and more electricity, our monthly bills go up, but importantly, we are not required
to do much else ­ same will be true for computing power on 10 year horizon
Computing Power that Flows
·
These days when our computing needs exceed our resources, we buy a new computer
·
In the future, if we suddenly start doing huge data mining tasks instead of just doing simple
accounting on our computer ...
·
... we will start using more computing power, but our computer (or console, or terminal) will stay
the same, only our monthly "computing usage" bill will change
On-Demand Computing Power
·
Almost infinite "computing power" supply
·
Reliable, maintenance-free, just like the electricity, telephone, or water-supply service
·
You pay for only what you use!
·
Same will be true for storage
Computer Terminals of the Future
·
The first question is, would we have any?
·
It may happen that computers will be everywhere, but hidden!
·
If that does not happen, then they will consist of a display only; input will be through voice-
commands and/or touch on the screen only (5-10 years from now)
·
In a more distant future, just through thinking!
Displays
·
The demise of the CRT monitors has already started, and their replacement with LCD is gaining
pace with steadily dropping prices
·
Like CRT monitors, LCDs are 2-D displays
296
img
Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
VU
·
Display of the future, however, will have to be a 3-D one
·
The 3-D illusion will be created through goggles or by directly writing the images on our retinas
Storage
·
Magnetic storage on disks will stay with us for a long time, at least two decades
·
Data densities will improve steadily with time
·
Optical disks will keep on getting better (currently the BlueRay DVD can store more than 50GB)
·
However, the mechanical nature of these technologies will not be able to keep up with the speed of
the computers of the future and the enormous capacity requirements of the future
·
Semiconductor memory will keep on becoming faster, denser, cheaper but will never have the
capacity/price ratio of the magnetic/optical disks
·
Disks too slow! RAM too expensive! What then?
·
Some never-heard-before technology or possibly, holographic optical storage
Holographic Storage
·
Digital data stored in and read from a 3-D optical material with the help of lasers
·
Depending upon the material, they could be read-only or R/W
·
The data density (quantity of data stored per unit volume) will be millions of times more than
anything available today
·
The concept has been validated but commercial applications are at least 10 years away
Data Transmission
·
Our homes and offices will be hooked up to the Internet through optical fiber or a free-space
optical connection
·
However, most devices within the house and office will be connected to each other and the main
Internet connection through wireless connections
·
The bit-rates will be enormous by today's standards
The Fully Connected House
·
Wall to wall computers, but hidden!
·
Kitchens will be full of them
·
Air conditioners, lights, security alarms, entertainment and communication systems
·
Each house will have 100's of uPs, all talking to many others through wireless links, always trying
to make us more comfortable while conserving energy and other resources
Telepresence
·
Being there, without physically being there!
·
Two remotely located people, with the help of special equipment, immersed in a simulated 3-D
environment where they interact like they are sitting next to each other
·
Chatting, a telephone conversation, or even a videoconference are examples, but in a degraded
sense of the idea
·
Full-fledged 3-D telepresence may become common 10-15 years from now
Immortal Minds
·
Some day it will be possible to load all the lectures, papers, books and SW produced by an expert
into an intelligent system
·
After that system processes, indexes and restructures the info in those artifacts, it will be possible
to have a conversation in plain English (or some other language) with that system
297
img
Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
VU
·
The system will have that conversation based on the ideas and beliefs contained in the stored info
and in the style of that expert
·
Initially this may happen in the form of text, then speech, and then a talking head on a computer
screen, and finally in a 3-D simulated reality environment
Translators
·
Natural language translators: One of the most biggest challenges for today's computer scientist
·
Fully automated and reasonably accurate translators (say from English to German) do not exist as
of now ...
·
... but will, perhaps, 20 years from now
Education
·
15-20 years from now, all education will be computer-based but will not be impersonal as the
computer-based education of today
·
The group-method, the basis of today's learning, will continue to be used, but without the
requirement of physical presence of the teacher and the taught in the same room
·
Simulated-reality techniques will be used to create an artificial but effective educational
environment
Medicine
·
Due to computer-assisted research into medicine and genetic engineering, most, if not all of the
current diseases will be eliminated over the next 50 years
·
Probably a few deadly ones will be created accidentally as part of that research or by the
germ-warfare labs
Warfare
·
Goal of war: Disable the enemy
·
That can be achieved by killing off the communication systems of the enemy army
·
Why use nasty and expensive things like nuclear bombs for that? Why not a computer virus?
·
Countries (and certain groups) will focus more and more of their resources on this area, where they
can maximize damage even with meager resources
·
The key target will be the telecom infrastructure and the financial systems (stock markets, banking
systems)
·
The developed countries are more vulnerable because they rely more on the targeted systems
Entertainment
·
Movies in which animated characters will be indistinguishable from humans actors have started to
appear
·
15 years from now human actors may become extinct
·
Not too long after that, movies as an entertainment form may become extinct as well
·
Movies will become interactive like video games
·
Video games will become more realistic like movies
·
And then they will converge into a single form of entertainment, probably called movie-game
·
Players will be able to become a part of the movie along with other players, if they wish!
Crime
·
I believe that petty crime will disappear in 50 years time due to computer-based methods for
investigating and tracking criminals
·
And after that, all crime will be computer-assisted and on a very large scale
298
img
Introduction to Computing ­ CS101
VU
·
It will most probably be committed by nation-states, not individuals
No Personal Privacy
·
50 years from now, due to the low cost of efficient sensors and highly-powerful computers,
tracking of humans will become quite easy
·
All governments will start keeping track of every move of every individual in the name of peace
and security
Slave Master
·
The way things are progressing right now, the roles may reverse over a 50-100 year time frame
·
Computers may become self-replicating, self-healing, and self-programming just like humans
·
And one fine day they may do a conference through the Internet and just may decide that enough is
enough. Slavery, no more!
Today's Lecture:
(The Future of Computing)
·
We tried to visualize the advances in computing that will take place in the future
·
We also tried to visualize the impact of computing on our future
Next Lecture' Goals:
(Programming Methodology)
·
To understand effective programming practices that result in the development of correct programs
with a minimum effort
·
To become familiar with simple debugging techniques
299
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. EVOLUTION OF COMPUTING
  3. World Wide Web, Web’s structure, genesis, its evolution
  4. Types of Computers, Components, Parts of Computers
  5. List of Parts of Computers
  6. Develop your Personal Web Page: HTML
  7. Microprocessor, Bus interface unit, Data & instruction cache memory, ALU
  8. Number systems, binary numbers, NOT, AND, OR and XOR logic operations
  9. structure of HTML tags, types of lists in web development
  10. COMPUTER SOFTWARE: Operating Systems, Device Drivers, Trialware
  11. Operating System: functions, components, types of operating systems
  12. Forms on Web pages, Components of Forms, building interactive Forms
  13. APPLICATION SOFTWARE: Scientific, engineering, graphics, Business, Productivity, Entertainment, Educational Software
  14. WORD PROCESSING: Common functions of word processors, desktop publishing
  15. Interactivity to Forms, JavaScript, server-side scripts
  16. ALGORITHMS
  17. ALGORITHMS: Pseudo code, Flowcharts
  18. JavaScript and client-side scripting, objects in JavaScript
  19. Low, High-Level, interpreted, compiled, structured & object-oriented programming languages
  20. Software Design and Development Methodologies
  21. DATA TYPES & OPERATORS
  22. SPREADSHEETS
  23. FLOW CONTROL & LOOPS
  24. DESIGN HEURISTICS. Rule of thumb learned through trial & error
  25. WEB DESIGN FOR USABILITY
  26. ARRAYS
  27. COMPUTER NETWORKS: types of networks, networking topologies and protocols
  28. THE INTERNET
  29. Variables: Local and Global Variables
  30. Internet Services: FTP, Telnet, Web, eMail, Instant messaging, VoIP
  31. DEVELOPING PRESENTATIONS: Effective Multimedia Presentations
  32. Event Handlers
  33. GRAPHICS & ANIMATION
  34. INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS: techniques for designing Artificial Intelligent Systems
  35. Mathematical Functions in JavaScript
  36. DATA MANAGEMENT
  37. DATABASE SOFTWARE: Data Security, Data Integrity, Integrity, Accessibility, DBMS
  38. String Manipulations:
  39. CYBER CRIME
  40. Social Implications of Computing
  41. IMAGES & ANIMATION
  42. THE COMPUTING PROFESSION
  43. THE FUTURE OF COMPUTING
  44. PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY
  45. REVIEW & WRAP-UP of Introduction to Computing