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Human Resource Development

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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
Lesson 29
TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
Vocational education (or Vocational Education and Training (VET), also called Career and Technical Education
(CTE)) prepares learners for careers that are based in manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic
and totally related to a specific trade, occupation or vocation, hence the term, in which the learner participates. It
is sometimes referred to as technical education, as the learner directly develops expertise in a particular group of
techniques or technology.
Generally, vocation and career are used interchangeably. Vocational education might be contrasted with
education in a usually broader scientific field, which might concentrate on theory and abstract conceptual
knowledge, characteristic of tertiary education. Vocational education can be at the secondary or post-secondary
level and can interact with the apprenticeship system. Increasingly, vocational education can be recognised in
terms of recognition of prior learning and partial academic credit towards tertiary education (e.g., at a
university) as credit; however, it is rarely considered in its own form to fall under the traditional definition of a
higher education.
Up until the end of the twentieth century, vocational education focused on specific trades such as for example,
an automobile mechanic or welder, and was therefore associated with the activities of lower social classes. As a
consequence, it attracted a level of stigma. Vocational education is related to the age-old apprenticeship system
of learning.
However, as the labor market becomes more specialized and economies demand higher levels of skill,
governments and businesses are increasingly investing in the future of vocational education through publicly
funded training organizations and subsidized apprenticeship or traineeship initiatives for businesses. At the
post-secondary level vocational education is typically provided by an institute of technology, or by a local
community college.
Vocational education has diversified over the 20th century and now exists in industries such as retail, tourism,
information technology, funeral services and cosmetics, as well as in the traditional crafts and cottage industries
VET Internationally
Australia
In Australia vocational education and training is mostly post-secondary and provided through the Vocational
Education and Training (VET) system and by Registered Training Organisations. This system encompasses
both Government and private providers in a nationally recognised quality system based on agreed and
consistent assessment standards.
The National Centre for Vocational Education Research or NCVER is a not-for-profit company owned by the
federal, state and territory ministers responsible for training. It is responsible for collecting, managing,
analysing, evaluating and communicating research and statistics about vocational education and training (VET).
Commonwealth of Independent States
The largest and the most unified system of vocational education was created in the Soviet Union with the
Professional`no-tehnicheskoye uchilische and, Tehnikum. But it became less effective with the transition of the
economies of post-Soviet countries to a market economy.
Finland
There are two kinds of vocational education, secondary and post-secondary. Secondary education at a
vocational school (ammattikoulu) is usually taken immediately after primary school, at ages of 16-21. Some
programmes, however, require a secondary academic degree (ylioppilastutkinto, or matriculation examination).
The education is primarily vocational, and little academic general education is given.
With academic or vocational secondary education one can enter higher vocational schools (ammattikorkeakoulu,
or AMK). AMK degrees take 3,5-4,5 years. Legally, they are not university degrees in Finland, although in
foreign countries similar degrees may be called "university level". This is reflected by some Finnish schools
giving English titles such as Bachelor of Science, with no Finnish translation.
German language areas
Vocational education is an important part of the education systems in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein and
Switzerland (including the French speaking part of the country).
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For example, in Germany a law (the Berufsausbildungsgesetz) was passed in 1969 which regulated and unified the
vocational training system and codified the shared responsibility of the state, the unions, associations and
chambers of trade and industry.
The system is very popular in modern Germany: in 2001, two thirds of young people aged under 22 began an
apprenticeship, and 78% of them completed it, meaning that approximately 51% of all young people under 22
have completed an apprenticeship. One in three companies offered apprenticeships in 2003; in 2004 the
government signed a pledge with industrial unions that all companies except very small ones must take on
apprentices.
The vocational education systems in the other German speaking countries are very similar to the German
system and a vocational qualification from one country is generally also recognized in the other states within
this area.
Additionally there is the Fachhochschule (FH) since the 1970s in West Germany and since the 1990s in Austria,
former East Germany, Liechtenstein and in Switzerland. Historically, Fachhochschulen were meant as a way of
academic qualification for people who went through an apprenticeship, especially in technical professions. This
is called Zweiter Bildungsweg (rough literal translation: second educational path), i.e., an alternative to the classical
academic career path from Gymnasium (school) to a university. However, nowadays Fachhochschule have
become a fixture in German higher education and a considerably percentage of the FH students do not have an
apprenticeship, but rather enter the FH straight after secondary school. Until recently, Fachhochschulen only
offered Diploma (FH) degrees (e.g., a diploma in engineering of social work) in programs which stretched over
7 or 8 semesters, and typically include one semester or so of industrial internship. More recently, many
Fachhochschulen switched to a system where they offer Bachelor's and Master's degrees.
New Zealand
New Zealand is served by 41 Industry Training Organizations(ITO). The unique element is that ITOs purchase
training as well as set standards and aggregate industry opinion about skills in the labour market. Industry
Training, as organised by ITOs, has expanded from apprenticeships to a more true life long learning situation
with, for example, over 10% of trainees aged 50 or over. Moreover much of the training is generic. This
challenges the prevailing idea of vocational education and the standard layperson view that it focuses on
apprenticeships.
The best source for information in New Zealand is through the Industry Training Federation: www.itf.org.nz.
Polytechnics, Private Training Establishments, Wananga and others also deliver vocational training, amongst
other areas.
United States
In the United States, the approach is varied from state to state. Most of the technical and vocational courses are
offered by Community Colleges, though several states have their own institutes of technology which are on an
equal accreditational footing with other state universities.
Historically, junior high schools and high schools have offered vocational courses such as home economics,
wood and metal shop, typing, business courses, drafting and auto repair, though schools have put more
emphasis on academics for all students because of standards based education reform. School to Work is a
series of federal and state initiatives to link academics to work, sometimes including spending time during the
day on a job site without pay.
Federal involvement is principally carried out through the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act.
Accountability requirements tied to the receipt of federal funds under this Act help provide some overall
leadership. The Office of Vocational and Adult Education within the US Department of Education also
supervises activities funded by the Act.
The Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE) is the largest private association dedicated to the
advancement of education that prepares youth and adults for careers. Its members include CTE teachers,
administrators, and researchers.
India
Vocational training in India is provided on a full time as well as part time basis. Full time programs are
generally offered through industrial training institutes. Part time programs are offered through state technical
education boards or universities who also offer full-time courses. Vocational training has been successful in
India only in industrial training institutes and that too in engineering trades. There are many private institutes in
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India which offer courses in vocational training and finishing, but most of them have not been recognized by
the Government of India. India is a pioneer in vocational training in Film & Television, and Information
Technology .AAFT
Traditional Education or Technical Education?
College is not for everyone, but that does not mean you shouldn't pursue some sort of higher education or job
training. When you think about your future, what do you envision? Are you doing something you love, or are
you just working for a paycheck? If you are one of the many who is trying to make a decision about where to
spend your money and invest your future, read on. This article provides a comparison of 4 year colleges and
technical schools. Which one is right for you?
How to choose between 4-year colleges and technical schools: Ask yourself these questions and then
consider the benefits and disadvantages of each type of school.
What are your goals? Do you have a specific career goal? What are your educational goals? Do you want to learn
as much as you can about a variety of subjects? Do you want to learn as much as you can about one specific
topic (become an expert)?
What are your strengths? Weaknesses? Would you benefit from a shorter more targeted program?
Lifestyle. How will school fit into your life? Would you benefit from non-traditional scheduling such as online,
evening, or distance learning? 4-year colleges and technical colleges both offer such options, but it varies by
school so check with any schools you are interested in attending.
What do you need? Realistically, what sort of degree or training do you need to pursue your dreams? Research
your desired field--know what the requirements are and how they compare to the programs you are
considering. The US Department of Education website offers resources for career and training research.
4-year Colleges
Some people like to learn just for the sake of learning, while some are more focused and driven and use school
as a steppingstone for job advancement. If you are interested in more scholarly pursuits a traditional 4-year
college might be your best option.
Benefits: liberal arts training applies to many fields, diverse topics to explore, prestige, "college life"
Disadvantages: expensive, time consuming, may get degree in area you no longer wish to pursue, high admission
standards and prerequisites, job market may be slower upon graduation-may require additional training
Technical Schools
If college was for everyone, technical schools would not exist. Some people may feel a stigma is attached to
technical schools. In a society where attending college has become standard, we lose sight of the value of skills
training. People feel abnormal and may be angry if they don't want to go to college but feel pressured to do so
anyway.
Benefits: shorter duration, focused programs, easier admission standards, flexible scheduling, certifications not
necessarily offered at 4-year colleges, hands on training
Disadvantages: may be viewed as less prestigious, can be expensive, may be less room for exploration of other
subjects, accreditation, for-profit institutions
Many of the fastest growing jobs do not require a bachelor's degree but do require post-secondary education
(education beyond high school). These jobs include:
 Medical Assistants
 Social and human service assistants
 Home health aides
 Medical records and health information technicians
 Physical therapist aides
 Physical therapist assistants
 Fitness trainers and aerobics instructors
 Veterinary technologists and technicians
 Hazardous materials removal workers
 Dental hygienists
 Occupational therapist aides
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Dental assistants
Personal and home care aides
Self-enrichment education teachers
Occupational therapist assistants
Environmental science and protection technicians, including health
Preschool teachers, except special education
Respiratory therapists
Sources: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vocational_education &
http://www.collegesearchengine.net/article/How-to-Decide-Between-a-4-year-College-and-Trade-School/1/
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  2. FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR:Attitudes, Personality, Emotional Intelligence
  3. PERCEPTION:Attribution Theory, Shortcuts Frequently Used in Judging Others
  4. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:Why Choose Big Five Framework?, THE OUTCOME OF FIVE FACTOR MODEL
  5. FIVE FACTOR MODEL:The Basis of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior, Intrinsic Motivation and Values
  6. MOTIVATION:EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION, Designing Motivating Jobs
  7. The Motivation Process:HOW TO MOTIVATE A DIVERSE WORKFORCE?,
  8. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION:PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  9. THE WORLD BEYOND WORDS:DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, MINDFUL LISTENING
  10. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:EGO STATES, Parent Ego State, Child Ego State
  11. TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS:Complementary Transactions, Crossed Transactions, Ulterior Transactions
  12. NEURO-LINGUISTIC-PROGRAMMING
  13. CREATE YOUR OWN BLUEPRINT
  14. LEADERSHIP:ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOCRACY
  15. LEADERSHIP:Environment and Strategic Leadership Link, Concluding Remarks
  16. UNDERSTANDING GROUP BEHAVIOR:Stages of Group Development, Advantages of Group Decision Making
  17. UNDERSTANDING TEAM BEHAVIOR:TYPES OF TEAMS, Characteristics of Effective Teams,
  18. EMOTIONAL FACET:PHYSICAL FACET
  19. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & THE ROLE OF GOVERNACE:Rule of Law, Transparency,
  20. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and Its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  21. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI):Methodology,
  22. REPORTS:Criticisms of Freedom House Methodology, GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS
  23. SECTORS OF A SOCIETY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS:PUBLIC SECTOR, PRIVATE SECTOR
  24. NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS):Types, Methods, Management, Citizen organization
  25. HEALTH SECTOR:Health Impact of the Lebanon Crisis, Main Challenges,
  26. A STUDY ON QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
  27. ADULT EDUCATION:Lifelong learning
  28. THE PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADULT EDUCATION:Problems of Adult Literacy, Strategies for Educating Adults for the Future
  29. TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:VET Internationally, Technical Schools
  30. ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL FORMATION AND PERFORMANCE OF A UNIVERSITY
  31. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION:Social responsibility, Curriculum content
  32. ENVIRONMENT:Dark Greens and Light Greens, Environmental policy instruments
  33. HDI AND GENDER SENSITIVITY:Gender Empowerment Measure
  34. THE PLIGHT OF INDIAN WOMEN:
  35. ENTREPRENEURSHIP:Characteristics of entrepreneurship, Advantages of Entrepreneurship
  36. A REVISIT OF MODULE I & II
  37. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & ECONOMIC GROWTH (1975 TO 2003):
  38. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP:Origins, The Desired Outcomes of PPPs
  39. PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP):Situation in Pakistan,
  40. DEVOLUTION REFORMS A NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT:
  41. GOOD GOVERNANCE:Participation, Rule of law, Accountability
  42. MACROECONOMIC PROFILE OF A COUNTRY: EXAMPLE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN
  43. COORDINATION IN GOVERNANCE: AN EXAMPLE OF EU, The OMC in Social Inclusion
  44. MOBILIZING REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: THE ASEAN UNIVERSITY NETWORK, A CASE STUDY
  45. GOVERNMENT PRIORITIES AND POLICIES:Role of Government, Socio Cultural Factors in Implementing HRD Programs