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E-COMMERCE ­ IT430
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Lesson 10
STYLE SHEETS
Suppose you want all headings to appear in a 24-point font but the first one to appear in a
40-point  font.  For  that  you  can  use  in  line  style  for  40pt  font  heading.
Example <HTML> <head> <style> h1 {font-size:24pt; Color:Blue} </style> </head> <body> <h1
style="font-size:40pt;Color:red">This heading has font-size 40-point</h1> <h1>This heading has 24-
point font-size</h1> </body></html>
Result is shown in Fig. 1 below.
Fig. 1
Applying a style to a section <DIV> tag is used to divide a page into separate sections. Browser inserts a
line break before the <DIV> tag and after the </DIV> end tag. By including the "style" attribute inside
the <DIV> tag, one can apply an inline style to everything inside <DIV> and </DIV> tags.
Example - <DIV> tag
<HTML>
<body>
<DIV style="font-size:30pt">
<h1>This heading uses a 30-point font</h1>
This sentence will have 30-point font
<h2>This heading, too</h2>
</DIV>
</body></html>
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Result is shown in Fig. 2 below.
Fig. 2
Applying a style to a word or phrase Use <SPAN> and </SPAN> and insert the style attribute inside the
<SPAN> tag. <SPAN> tag does not provide any line break. Example <HTML> <body> <h1> This
<Span style="font-size:40pt">heading </Span> has font-size 40-point </h1> </body> </HTML>
Result is shown in Fig. 3 below.
Fig. 3
Method # 4: style classes
They are used when you want to apply a specific style to a number of different tags and sections throughout
the document. Set up a style class within the <style> tag or within an external style sheet file, e.g;
Classname {style definitions go here}. Add a "class" attribute to the tags you want the styles applied to and
put it equal to classname (without the dot).
Example ­ style classes <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Style Sheets: Style Classes</TITLE> </HEAD>
<STYLE> <!--.Text1{font-size: 20pt;color:red;text-align:center} .Text2{font-size: 16pt;color:green;text-
align:center} --> </STYLE> <BODY> <DIV CLASS="Text1"><h1>This text is in red</h1></DIV>
<DIV CLASS="Text2"><h2>This text is in green</h2></DIV> </BODY> </HTML>
Result is shown in Fig. 4 below.
Fig. 4
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Using styles to control fonts
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>Style Sheets: Font Sizes</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
Our store offers books on following subjects:<br>
<SPAN
STYLE="font-size:
xx-small">Physics</SPAN>,
<SPAN
STYLE="font-size:
x-
small">Math</SPAN>, <SPAN STYLE="font-size: small">Computer Science</SPAN>, <SPAN
STYLE="font-size:
medium">Literature</SPAN>,
<SPAN
STYLE="font-size:
large">E-
commerce</SPAN>,
<SPAN
STYLE="font-size:
x-large">History</SPAN>
and<SPAN
STYLE="font-size: xx-large">Islam</SPAN> <br> You can also buy <SPAN STYLE="font-size:
smaller">DVDs</SPAN> and <SPAN STYLE="font-size: larger">music CDs</SPAN>. <br> We
offer<SPAN STYLE="font-size: 24pt">Greeting Cards</SPAN>, too. </BODY></HTML>
Result is shown in Fig. 5 below.
Fig. 5
Font family styles
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>Style Sheets: Font Families</TITLE>
<STYLE>
<!--
.fonttype1 {font-size: 20pt; font-family: "Times New Roman"}
.fonttype2 {font-size: 20pt; font-family: Arial}
.fonttype3 {font-size: 18pt; font-family: "Courier New"}
-->
</STYLE> </HEAD> <BODY BGCOLOR="yellow"> <DIV CLASS="fonttype1">This sentence is
in Times New Roman</DIV> <DIV CLASS="fonttype2">This one is in Arial Font Type</DIV>
<DIV CLASS="fonttype3">This is in Courier New Font Type</DIV> <HR> <DIV STYLE="font-
size:34pt;color:red"> <DIV STYLE="font-family: Arial">The Arial Font Family</DIV> <DIV
STYLE="font-family:  Tahoma">This  line  is  in  Tahoma  Font  Family</DIV>  </DIV>
</Body></HTML>
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Result is shown in Fig. 6 below.
Fig. 6
Font weight styles
The font weight controls the thickness of text. Predefined weight values are
normal,bold,bolder,lighter. Specific weight values are in the range 100 ­ 900.
<HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Font Weights</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY bgcolor=yellow> <DIV
STYLE="font-size:20pt"> You can find books in this shop on <SPAN STYLE="font-family: 'Courier
New',Courier">subjects such as:</SPAN> <BR> <SPAN STYLE="font-weight:
100">Physics</SPAN>, <SPAN STYLE="font-weight: 200">Math</SPAN>, <SPAN STYLE="font-
weight: 300">History</SPAN>, <SPAN STYLE="font-weight: 400">Fiction</SPAN>, <SPAN
STYLE="font-weight: 500">Poetry</SPAN>,
<SPAN STYLE="font-weight: 600">E-commerce</SPAN>, <SPAN STYLE="font-weight:
700">Computer Science</SPAN>, <SPAN STYLE="font-weight: 800;font-
style:italic;color:red">Sociology</SPAN>, <SPAN STYLE="font-weight: 900;font-
style:italic;color:red">Music</SPAN> </DIV></BODY> <HTML>
Result is shown in Fig. 7 below.
Fig. 7
Indenting the first line of a paragraph
We can use the property text-indent keeping its value in inches or centimeters.
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Indenting the first line </TITLE>
<STYLE>
<!--
P {text-indent: 0.5in}
-->
</STYLE>
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</HEAD>
<BODY>
<P>
Faith, unity and discipline are the qualities through which we can progress as a nation. The focus of our
young generation must be on receiving modern education. </P> <P>Religion can play a very important
role in the life of an individual. Islam teaches a complete way of life. It ensures success in this world and
hereafter. The need is to understand the real message of Islam. </P> </BODY></HTML>
Result is shown in Fig. 8 below.
Fig. 8
Aligning the text
We can use the property `text-align' keeping its value as left, right, center or justify. Consider
the following example:
<HTML> <BODY> <TABLE bgcolor=yellow BORDER="1"> <TR> <TD WIDTH="25%"
STYLE="text-align: left"> Hypertext Markup Language was initially developed in America for military
purposes. Now it is a popular tool for creating web pages. It is a language of tags. It has a fixed vocabulary.
It is not case sensitive. </TD> <TD WIDTH="25%" STYLE="text-align: center"> Hypertext Markup
Language was initially developed in America for military purposes. Now, it is a popular tool for creating
web pages. It is a language of tags. It has a fixed Vocabulary. It is not case sensitive. </TD> <TD
WIDTH="25%" STYLE="text-align: right"> Hypertext Markup Language was initially developed in
America for military purposes. Now, it is a popular tool for creating web pages. It is a language of tags. It
has a fixed vocabulary. It is not case sensitive. </TD>
<TD WIDTH="25%" STYLE="text-align: justify"> Hypertext Markup Language was initially developed
in America for military purposes. Now, it is a popular tool for creating web pages. It is a language of tags. It
has a fixed vocabulary. It is not case sensitive. </TD> </TR> </TABLE></Body></HTML> Result
is shown in Fig. 9 below.
Fig. 9
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Text decoration styles
We can use the property `text-decoration' in inline styles as follows: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Text
Decoration</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <H2 STYLE="text-decoration: none">Introduction to E-
commerce</H2> <H2 STYLE="text-decoration: line-through">Introduction to E-commerce</H2>
<H2 STYLE="text-decoration: overline">Introduction to E-commerce</H2> <H2 STYLE="text-
decoration: underline">Introduction to E-commerce</H2> </BODY> </HTML>
Result is shown in Fig. 10 below.
Fig. 10
Working with the upper case and lowercase letters
The property named "text-transform" is used which has four values ­ capitalize, lowercase,
none and uppercase.
<HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Style Sheets: Text Transform</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <H2
STYLE="text-transform: capitalize"> We love Pakistan</H2> <H2 STYLE="text-transform:
lowercase"> We love Pakistan</H2> <H2 STYLE="text-transform: none"> We love Pakistan</H2>
<H2 STYLE="text-transform: uppercase"> We love Pakistan</H2> </BODY> </HTML>
Result is shown in Fig. 11 below.
Fig. 11
Coloring the web page with color styles
Using Cascading Style Sheets one can apply a background color or image to sections of one's
page or even to individual words.
Syntax:
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background-color:blue
background-color:#0000FF
background-image:URL(filename)
Example ­ Color Styles <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Backgrounds using Style Sheets</TITLE>
</HEAD> <BODY> <DIV STYLE="background-color: yellow; color: blue"> This is an example of
some blue text in yellow background using Style Sheets. </DIV><Br> <DIV STYLE="background-
color: green; color: white"> This example uses a different background color and a different font color
using style sheets. Style sheets provide us more flexibility and a greater editing control over the content.
</DIV> <P>We can also use different background style to <SPAN STYLE="background-color:
red">highlight individual words</SPAN> as in the present case.
<P>
<DIV STYLE="background-image: URL(image2.gif); font-size: 16pt;color:white"> <B>We are studying
e-commerce. E-commerce is an emerging concept that describes the process of buying and selling or
exchanging of products, services and information via computer networks including the internet</B>
</DIV>
</Body></HTML>
Result is shown in Fig. 12 below.
Fig. 12
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