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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
LESSON 12
STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT
At the end of the lecture the students will be able to understand:
1. The Concept of Rules of Business
2. The structure of government which comprise ministries, divisions, attached department
3. What are functions? An example of one of the ministry/division will be given explain functions of
a ministry:
In the last lecture the structure of government was explained as per article 91(1) of the constitution.
The cabinet is headed by the Prime Minister who is the Executive head of the government. It has been
stated that the president is the Head of the State and the prime minister helps him in decision making and it
is the Prime Minister who is responsible for running of government. Thus, the structure of government can
be understood from Figure A and Figure B. Figure A shows the relationship of the Constitution with the
legislature which comprise the National and Provincial assemblies and the Senate. That is the Constitution
gives the structure, formations, functioning and methods of these institutions. Then, as shown in figure B
the constitution also provides for the structure, functions and operations of the three branches of
government i.e. legislature, judiciary and executive. It is mentioned here that while the Constitution provides
broad framework of government, the operational level functioning are regulated by the specific Acts which
have to be placed before the legislature and approved.
Structure of Government
Figure A
Constitution
National
Provincial
Assembly
Assembly
Senate
Figure B
Constitution
National/Provincial
The Executive
Assemblies
Courts
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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Organization Chart of Government
As mentioned earlier that the president is the head of the State and Prime Minister (PM) is the head
of Executive is shown in the Figure. The PM heads the Cabinet and the Cabinet comprises ministers. The
number of Ministers keeps varying. Some time it is 29; sometime 16 and sometimes 39. These ministers
head the ministries.
President
Head of the State
Prime Minister
Chief Executive
Cabinet
Comprising Ministers (39)
Rules of Business
The question that can arise is, how ministries work. The Constitution of the country under Article
90-99 states the formulation of `Rules of Business'. This means that Rules have to be framed for the
working of the ministries and divisions. What is Business? `Business' means all work done by the Federal
Government, and the Federal Government means all the ministries, divisions and attached departments and
autonomous bodies etc. Thus Rules of Business explain the responsibilities of the Secretary who heads the
division. It also delineates the ministries and the division/department under each ministry. Just as there are
Rules of Business for the Federal government, there are Rules of Business for the provincial governments
Ministries of Federal Government (39)
Although it has be stated that in 2004 there are 39 ministries, but only the list of few selected
ministries is given below:
1.
Cabinet Secretariat
2.
Ministry of Commerce
3.
Ministry of Culture, Sports & Youth Affairs
4.
Ministry of Communication
5.
Ministry of Defence Production
6.
Ministry of Finance & Revenue
7.
Ministry of Information & Technology
8.
Ministry of Interior
9.
Ministry of Housing and Works
The Cabinet Secretariat, is the Secretariat of the Cabinet, which maintain all its paper work.
Ministries cited above are indicative of the kind of work that government do.
Structure of Ministry
It would be in the fitness of things to first define ministry A Ministry is Division or Group of
Division. The Division is entrusted with one task: For example: Ministry of Finance has divisions. The
division are shown in the Figure are Finance Division, Economic Affairs Division, statistics Division and
Revenue Division.
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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Figure
Ministry of Finance
Finance Division
Revenue Division
Economic Division
Statistics Division
The Ministry of Finance oversees the work of all these Divisions. To further understand the
responsibilities of these Divisions, for the purpose of illustration we look at the functions of Finance
division and Economic Affairs Division.
Main Functions of Finance Division:
The main functions of the Finance Division are as follows:
1. Finances of Federal government and financial matters affecting the whole of the country
2. The Annual Budget Statement & supplementary/excess Budget to be placed before the National
Assembly
3. Allocation of shares of proceeds from the taxes collected by the Federal Government
4. Public debt of the Federation both internal and external
5. Currency, coinage, and legal tender Pakistan Security Printing Corporation and Pakistan Mint
6. Regulatory functions pertaining to Banking sector, Stock exchanges, foreign currency, etc.
Main Functions of the Economic Affairs Division
The main functions of the Economic Affairs division are as follows:
1. Negotiations with the foreign governments and organizations pertaining to economic assistance,
requirement
2. Matters relating to technical assistance to foreign countries
3. Review and appraisal of international and regional economic trends and its impact on national
economy
Organization of Finance Division
How is Division structured? Or who Heads the Division. As we know a ministry may have more
then one Division, so the Minister is the political head (usually a politician) he/she provides policy
guidelines to the Ministry. The division is headed by Secretary, who is a career civil servant (Figure 1).
Figure 2 gives the simplified structure of Finance. Secretary Finance head of the Division and Joint
Secretary (JS) (expenditure & Administration), JS (Budget) and JS (Finance) help the Secretary in day to day
working.
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Figure 1
Minister for
Finance
Special
Advisor
Assistant
Secretary
Secretary
Secretary
Finance
Revenue Division
Economic Affairs
Figure 2
Secretary
Finance
Joint Secretary
Joint Secretary
Joint Secretary
(Exp & Adm.)
(Budget)
(Finance)
Attached Departments
Secretary Finance sits in Islamabad, but the Ministry of Finance has its offices all over Pakistan. For
example finance division military would be in Rawalpindi. The Central Directorate of Savings has its office
all over the country.
An attached department is administratively under the control of Ministry of Finance. Some of the
attached departments are as follows:
- Finance Division Military
- Office of the Controller General of Pakistan
- Auditor General of Pakistan
- Central Directorate of Savings
Autonomous Bodies under Ministry of Finance
Following are the Autonomous Bodies of Ministry of Finance:
Monopoly Control Authority
Nationalized Commercial Banks
Pakistan Security Printing Corporation
Autonomous bodies are not administratively controlled by the ministry. These bodies have their
own Board of Governors. In this way they do not receive directives from the ministry
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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Conclusion
By now structure for government should be fairly clear. The Federal executive branch comprises of
ministers who head 39 ministries. The Federal Secretaries of the ministries assist the ministers in
formulation of policies, execute the policy, write proposal for legislation to be submitted to the cabinet, and
keep the minister informed. The Minister is responsible for the working of the Division and in the question
answer sessions of the National Assembly he answers the questions raised on the working of the Ministry in
the Assembly.
Concepts
Cabinet:
A group of ministers working under the guidance of
Prime Minister
Rules of Business:
Rules that explain the working of government
Ministry:
A group of more than one Division.
Division:
A unit assigned with a task e.g. Finance Division
Functions:
Work to be performed by the Division
Autonomous Body:
An organization that has its own Board of governors that
sets policy for it. Autonomous Bodies are more
independent in decision making.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  8. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION II
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  20. PLANNING COMMISSION AND PLANNING DEVELOPMENT:Functions, Approval Authority
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  25. SELECTION AND TRAINING AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS:Performance Evaluation,
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  44. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA I
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management