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Human Resource Management

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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
Lecture 33
After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following:
A. Explain Stress
We will discuss the concept of stress in this chapter we will see either stress is positive or negative in nature.
Further we will see different sources that can create stress at workplace and programs that can be used to
manage the stress.
A. Stress
Stress is the body's nonspecific reaction to any demand made on it. For various reasons, programs dealing
with stress and its related problems are becoming increasingly popular. Long-term productivity depends
largely on the dedication and commitment of the company's employees. Employees are increasingly holding
their employers liable for emotional problems they claim are work related. And, stress-related mental
disorders have become the fastest-growing occupational disease. There is increasing evidence indicating that
severe, prolonged stress is related to the diseases that are leading causes of death--coronary heart disease,
stroke, hypertension, cancer, emphysema, diabetes, and cirrhosis; stress may even lead to suicide. Some
signs that may indicate problems include impaired judgment and effectiveness, rigid behavior, medical
problems, increased irritability, excessive absences, emerging addictive behaviors, lowered self-esteem, and
apathetic behavior.
I. Sources Of Stress
Regardless of its origin, stress possesses the same devastating potential. Some factors are controllable to
varying degrees, whereas others are not.
The person or event that triggers the stress response, it can be organizational, personal or environmental
factor that can become the source of stress.
Organizational Factors--Many factors associated with a person's employment can be
potentially stressful. These include the firm's culture, the individual's job, and general
working conditions.
b. Personal Factors--Stress factors outside the job and job environment also may affect job
performance. Factors in this category include the family, financial problems, and living
c. The General Environment--Stress is a part of everyone's everyday life and its potential
lurks not only in the workplace and the home but also in our general environment. The
three-hour commute in rush traffic, the unrelenting rain, the oppressive heat, or chilling
cold can all create stress. Excessive noise, wherever it is encountered, can drive some
people up the wall.
II. Symptoms of Stress:
Stress can express following four types of the symptoms:
a.  Short-term physical symptoms: Short-term physical symptoms include; faster
heart beat, increased sweating, cool skin Cold hands and feet Feelings of nausea,
or 'Butterflies in stomach' Rapid Breathing, Tense Muscles, dry Mouth, desire to
urinate, diarrhea
b. Long-term physical symptoms: Change in appetite frequent colds illnesses
(such as asthma Back pain digestive problems headaches aches and pains)
Human Resource Management (MGT501)
feelings of intense and long-term tiredness, Risk factors (Heart attacks and
strokes Hypertension and headaches Ulcers Allergies)
Internal symptoms: Internal symptoms include Worry or anxiety, Confusion,
and an inability to concentrate or make decisions, Feeling ill, Feeling out of
control or overwhelmed by events, Mood changes, Depression, Frustration,
d. Helplessness, Restlessness, Being more lethargic, Difficulty sleeping, drinking
more alcohol and smoking more, Changing eating habits, relying more on
Behavioral symptoms: Behavioral Symptoms include, talking too fast or, too
loud Bad moods being irritable Defensiveness Being critical Aggression,
Irrationality, Overreaction and reacting emotionally Reduced personal
effectiveness Being unreasonably negative Making less realistic judgments Being
unable to concentrate and having difficulty making decisions being more
forgetful Making more mistakes being more accident-prone Changing work
habits Increased absenteeism Neglect of personal appearance
Outcomes of Organization due to stress:Continuous stress in working
environment results in some problem in organizational operations like poorer
decision-making, decreased creativity, lost work time, Increased turnover and
more sabotage.
III. Stress & Job Performance
Stress can affect the performance in positive as well as negative ways. Stress is a dynamic condition in which
an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraints or demand related to what he or she desires,
and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Stress is a complex issue, so
let's look at it more closely. Stress can manifest itself both in positive and negative way. Stress is said to be
positive when the situation offers an opportunity for one to gain something; for example, the "psyching-
up" that an athlete goes through can be stressful, but this can lead to maximum performance. It is when
constraints or demands are placed on us that stress can become negative. Constraints are barriers that keep
us from doing what we desire. Demands, on the other hand, may cause you to give up something. Demands
are desires that are backed by the purchasing power or affordability.
Managing Stress
Experts emphasize that some stress is healthy and moderate stress is the key to survival.
INDIVIDUAL COPING APPROACHES--There are a number of ways, that
individuals may take to control excessive stress. There are several specific techniques that
individuals can utilize to deal with stress. These methods include hypnosis, biofeedback,
and transcendental meditation.
Hypnosis: An altered state of consciousness that is artificially induced and characterized by increased
receptiveness to suggestions.
Biofeedback: A method that can be used to control involuntary bodily processes, such as blood
pressure or heart beat rate.
Transcendental meditation (TM): A stress-reduction technique whereby a secret word or phrase
(mantra) provided by a trained instructor is mentally repeated while an individual is comfortably seated.
b. Organizational Coping Approaches--A number of programs and techniques may
effectively prevent or relieve excessive stress. General organizational programs, although
not specifically designed to cope with stress, may nevertheless play a major role.
Human Resource Management (MGT501)
Key Terms
Safety Involves protecting employees from injuries due to work-related accidents.
Health Refers to the employees' freedom from physical or emotional illness.
Stress: Stress is the body's nonspecific reaction to any demand made on it.
Burnout The total depletion of physical and mental resources caused by excessive striving to reach an
unrealistic work-related goal.
Hypnosis An altered state of consciousness that is artificially induced and characterized by increased
receptiveness to suggestions.
Constraints: Constraints are barriers that keep us from doing what we desire.
Demands desires that are backed by the purchasing power or affordability.
Biofeedback A method of learning to control involuntary bodily processes, such as blood pressure or heart
Transcendental Meditation A stress-reduction technique in which an individual, comfortably seated,
mentally repeats a secret word or phrase provided by a trained instructor.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HRM:Growing Importance of HRM, Road Map of the Course
  2. ESSENTIALS OF MANAGEMENT:Concepts and Essential of Management, Managerís Roles
  3. ORGANIZATION AND COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATION:Open versus Closed Systems, The Hawthorne Studies
  4. PEOPLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR:Why to work in organizations?, The Goals of Organizational Behavior
  5. INDIVIDUAL VS. GROUP BEHAVIOR:What Are Roles?, Problem solving Team
  6. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Records and Administration, Competitive Advantage
  7. HRM IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT:Productivity, New Trends at Work Place
  8. How organization Cultivate a Diverse Workforce, STEPS TOWARD MANAGEMENT OF DIVERSITY
  9. FUNCTIONS AND ENVIRONMENT OF HRM:Compensation and Benefits, Safety And Health, Interrelationships of HRM Functions
  10. LINE AND STAFF ASPECTS OF HRM:Authority, Line versus Staff Authority, Staff Manager
  11. LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR DECISIONS:Doing the Right Thing, Affirmative Action, Unintended Consequences
  12. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP):Benefits of HR Planning, Forecasting Human Resource Availability
  13. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND HRIS:HRís Strategic Role, Human Resource Information System, Common HRIS Functions
  14. JOB ANALYSIS:Purposes of the job Analysis, Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
  15. JOB ANALYSIS:Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information, Observation, Source of Data
  16. JOB ANALYSIS (CONTD.):SURPLUS OF EMPLOYEES FORECASTED, Diversity through Recruiting Efforts
  17. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT, Quantity of the Applicants, Quality of the Applicants
  18. SELECTION:Initial Screening, Advantages of Successful Screening
  19. SELECTION TESTS:Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests, Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
  20. SELECTION PROCESSÖ CONTD:Background Investigations, Physical Exam, Selecting Managers
  21. SOCIALIZATION:Compensation and Benefits, Team Membership, Stages in socialization Process, Training and Development Trends
  22. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:Learning, Phases of Training, Why Transfer of Training Fails
  23. MAXIMIZING LEARNING:Following up on Training, Repetition, Feedback, Purposes of T & D
  24. CAREER MANAGEMENT:Individual career planning, Career Planning and Development Methods
  25. PERFORMANCE:Determinants of Job Performance, Why is performance measured?, Performance Management
  28. COMPENSATION SYSTEM:Pay, Job Pricing, Compensation: An Overview, Compensation Surveys
  29. BENEFITS:Total Compensation, Discretionary Benefits (Voluntary), Workplace Flexibility
  30. ROLE OF MONEY IN PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES:Types of Pay-for-Performance Plans, Empower Employees
  31. MOTIVATION:The Motivation Process, Motivational Theories, Challenges of motivating employees
  32. OCCUPATION, HEALTH & SAFETY:Physical Conditions, Accident Investigation, Smoking in The work place
  33. STRESS MANAGEMENT:Symptoms of Stress, Managing Stress,
  34. COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATION:Burnout, Social Support at Work & Home, Communication in organization, Meetings
  35. TRADE UNIONS:Collective Bargaining, The HRM Department in a Nonunion Setting, Phases of Labor Relations
  36. CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION:Transitions in Conflict Thought, Individual Conflict Management Styles
  37. POWER AND POLITICS:Sources of Power, Advantages and Disadvantages of PowerPower and Politics in Context
  38. EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND DISCIPLINE:Contractual Rights, Management Rights, Disciplining Employees,
  39. DISCIPLINE (CONT...):Factors to Consider when Disciplining, Disciplinary Guidelines, Employee Separations
  40. LEADERSHIP:The Leaderís Behavior, Situational Theories of Leadership, Becoming a Leader
  41. REVISION (LESSON 12-21):Plans, Job Specification, Human resource planning, Selection Process, Corporate Culture
  42. REVISION (LESSON 22-26):Training, Case Study Method, Training, Performance
  43. REVISION (LESSON 27-35):Classification Method, Compensation, Empowerment, Mediation
  44. INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF HRM:Global Corporation, Type of staff members, Approaches to Global Staffing
  45. CONCLUSION & REVIEW:Strategies for Gaining Competitive Advantage, High-performance Work System