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Introduction to Business

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Introduction to Business ­MGT 211
VU
LESSON 20
STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING JOB SATISFACTION AND MORALE
These strategies are ways to apply manager's knowledge of what provides job satisfaction
and motivates workers.
a. Reinforcement/Behavior Modification Theory--theory that behavior can be
encouraged  or  discouraged  by  means  of  rewards  or  punishments.
Most managers prefer giving rewards and placing positive value on
performance to doling out punishment.
b. Management by Objectives--set of procedures involving both managers and
subordinates in setting goals and evaluating progress. Experts agree that
motivation is the biggest advantage of MBO if it is used properly.
c. Participative Management and Empowerment--method of increasing job
satisfaction by giving employees a voice in the management of their jobs and
the company. As an example, workers who no longer report product defects to
supervisor but have the freedom to correct problems themselves, or even return
defective products to the workers who are responsible for them, have been
empowered to take greater responsibility for their own performance.
Teamwork is not for every situation. Levi Strauss dismantled production teams
in which faster workers became resentful of slower workers who reduced the
group's total output, when teach member's pay was determined by the team's
level of productivity.
i. Team
Management--employees
are
given
decision-making
responsibility for certain narrow or broad activities.
d. Job Enrichment and Job Redesign
i. Job Enrichment Programs--method of increasing job satisfaction by
adding  one  or  more  motivating  factors  to  job  activities.
Job rotation plans, for example, expand growth opportunities and the
chance to learn new skills.
ii. Job Redesign Programs--method of increasing job satisfaction by
designing a more satisfactory fit between workers and their jobs.
Job redesign is usually implemented in one of three ways: through
combining task, forming natural work groups, or establishing client
relationships.
e. Modified Work Schedules
i. Work-Share Programs--method of increasing job satisfaction by
allowing two or more people to share a single full-time job.
ii. Job sharing usually benefits both employees and employers, although
job-sharing employees generally receive fewer benefits than full-time
counterparts.
iii. Flextime Programs and Alternative Workplace Strategies--method
of increasing job satisfaction by allowing workers to adjust work
schedules
on
a
daily
or
weekly
basis.
Flextime can include starting later and leaving later in the day, starting
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Introduction to Business ­MGT 211
VU
and leaving earlier, or choosing which 4, 5, or 6 days to work during the
week while still completing 40 hours.
iv. Telecommuting
and
Virtual
Offices
Telecommuting--form of flextime that allows people to perform some
or  all  of  a  job  away  from  standard  office  settings.
Among salaried employees, the telecommuter workforce grew by 21/5
percent in 1994, to 7.6 million; the number of telecommuters now
exceeds
25
million
employees.
The key to telecommuting is technology--networked computers, fax
machines, cellular phones, and overnight delivery services make it
possible
to
work
from
home
or
while
traveling.
Virtual office--redesigned conventional office space to accommodate
jobs and schedules that are far less dependent on assigned spaces and
personal
apparatus.
Informal work carrels or nooks and open areas can be made available to
every employee.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Modified Schedules and Alternative Workplaces
1. Employees benefit from more freedom in their professional and
personal lives.
2. Employers benefit from higher levels of commitment and job
satisfaction.
3. Flextime sometimes complicates coordination because people
who need to work together are working different schedules.
4. Telecommuting and virtual offices may not be for everyone.
Those who can work best in these new environments tend to be
disciplined self-starters who require little direct supervision
during the day and are not uncomfortable working away from
their managers and colleagues.
One other disadvantage is that it can be difficult for telecommuters to convince management
that if they are not being supervised, they are still working, a perception based on the often
erroneous assumption that "if you can see them, they are working."
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:CONCEPT OF BUSINESS, KINDS OF INDSTRY, TYPES OF TRADE
  2. ORGANIZATIONAL BOUNDARIES AND ENVIRONMENTS:THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
  3. BUSINESS ORGANIZATION:Sole Proprietorship, Joint Stock Company, Combination
  4. SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS:ADVANTAGES OF SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP
  5. PARTNERSHIP AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS:ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PARTNERSHIP
  6. PARTNERSHIP (Continued):KINDS OF PARTNERS, PARTNERSHIP AT WILL
  7. PARTNERSHIP (Continued):PARTNESHIP AGREEMENT, CONCLUSION, DUTIES OF PARTNERS
  8. ORGANIZATIONAL BOUNDARIES AND ENVIRONMENTS:ETHICS IN THE WORKPLACE, SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
  9. JOINT STOCK COMPANY:PRIVATE COMPANY, PROMOTION STAGE, INCORPORATION STAGE
  10. LEGAL DOCUMENTS ISSUED BY A COMPANY:MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION, CONTENTS OF ARTICLES
  11. WINDING UP OF COMPANY:VOLUNTARY WIDNIGN UP, KINDS OF SHARE CAPITAL
  12. COOPERATIVE SOCIETY:ADVANTAGES OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETY
  13. WHO ARE MANAGERS?:THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS, BASIC MANAGEMENT SKILLS
  14. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Human Resource Planning
  15. STAFFING:STAFFING THE ORGANIZATION
  16. STAFF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT:Typical Topics of Employee Training, Training Methods
  17. BUSINESS MANAGERíS RESPONSIBILITY PROFILE:Accountability, Specific responsibilities
  18. COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS:THE LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR MANAGEMENT, DEALING WITH ORGANIZED LABOR
  19. COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS (Continued):MOTIVATION IN THE WORKPLACE
  20. STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING JOB SATISFACTION AND MORALE
  21. MANAGERIAL STYLES AND LEADERSHIP:Changing Patterns of Leadership
  22. MARKETING:What Is Marketing?, Marketing: Providing Value and Satisfaction
  23. THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT:THE MARKETING MIX, Product differentiation
  24. MARKET RESEARCH:Market information, Market Segmentation, Market Trends
  25. MARKET RESEARCH PROCESS:Select the research design, Collecting and analyzing data
  26. MARKETING RESEARCH:Data Warehousing and Data Mining
  27. LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF STUDENTS EARNING LOWER LEVEL CREDIT:Discussion Topics, Market Segmentation
  28. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR:The Consumer Buying Process
  29. THE DISTRIBUTION MIX:Intermediaries and Distribution Channels, Distribution of Business Products
  30. PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION:Transportation Operations, Distribution as a Marketing Strategy
  31. PROMOTION:Information and Exchange Values, Promotional Strategies
  32. ADVERTISING PROMOTION:Advertising Strategies, Advertising Media
  33. PERSONAL SELLING:Personal Selling Situations, The Personal Selling Process
  34. SALES PROMOTIONS:Publicity and Public Relations, Promotional Practices in Small Business
  35. THE PRODUCTIVITY:Responding to the Productivity Challenge, Domestic Productivity
  36. THE PLANNING PROCESS:Strengths, Weaknesses, Threats
  37. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT:Planning for Quality, Controlling for Quality
  38. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (continued):Tools for Total Quality Management
  39. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (continued):Process Re-engineering, Emphasizing Quality of Work Life
  40. BUSINESS IN DIGITAL AGE:Types of Information Systems, Telecommunications and Networks
  41. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION MODES:Body Movement, Facial Expressions
  42. BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS:Organization as a System
  43. ACCOUNTING:Accounting Information System, Financial versus Managerial Accounting
  44. TOOLS OF THE ACCOUNTING TRADE:Double-Entry Accounting, Assets
  45. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT:The Role of the Financial Manager, Short-Term (Operating) Expenditures