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Change Management

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Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
LESSON # 26
STRATEGIC CHANGE
Before going to discuss the concept of strategic change let us first discuss the concept of strategy. What
do we mean by strategy, its components and its usage as a word "strategic" especially? For instance
one may observe its wide usage as strategic investment, strategic management, strategic finance and
strategic planning and strategic marketing etc. Therefore when ever we talk of strategy it is essentially
assumed that we are also dealing with its inalienable components which are as under:
1. Objectives - this may also mean vision, mission, goals and targets
2. Resources ­ financial, human, informational, technological etc.
3. Environment ­ Government, customer, society, economic conditions and specific environment means
particular to industry in which organization operates like vendors, buyers competitors etc. The
environment may be friendly, hostile or neutral.
4. Time orientation ­ short term or long term orientation
5. Competitors ­ strategy or tactics of competitors, nature of competition and rivalry
Therefore for students of business it is important to know the constituent elements of the word
strategy whenever it is referred.
This lecture is based on the chapter of a very popular book on strategic management, comprising of a
comprehensive framework for managing strategic change is given which is as under.
A Framework for Managing Strategic Change
1. Diagnosing the Change situation
· Types of Strategic Change
· The Importance of context
· Organization culture
· Force field analysis
2. Management Styles and Roles
· Styles of managing change
· Change agency roles: Strategic leaders, Middle managers, Outsiders
3. Levers for managing change
· Structure and control
· Routine
· Symbolic processes
· Political processes
· Communication
· Change tactics
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Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
1. Diagnosing the change situation
· Types of Strategic Change
First step in diagnosing the change situation is whether change is needed or not. If the change is needed
then related question would be of what type? Therefore our concern is to identify various types of
change. Balogun and Hailey have given the following typology of strategic change so as to identify the
types of change required. The nature of change in an organization can be incremental or big bang one.
Incremental change is built on skills, routines and beliefs for bringing in efficiency. While the big-bang
approach to change might be needed on occasions, for example if the organization is facing crisis or
needs to change its direction. The scope of the change means whether change can occur within the
current paradigm that is, current organizational beliefs and assumptions, and can be classified further
as realignment of strategy rather than a fundamental change of strategic direction. Or change requires a
paradigm change, that is, transformational change. Combining these two axes we have four types of
strategic change, as given in the figure below:
Scope of Change
Realignment
Transformation
Evolution
Adaptation
Incremental
Nature of Change
Revolution
Reconstruction
Big bang
Adaptation is change which can be accommodated within the current paradigm and occur
incrementally. It is the most common form of change in organizations
Reconstruction is concerned with rapid change and upheaval in an organization. For example
organization may make structural changes like major cost-cutting programmes to deal with difficult
or changing market conditions.
Evolution is change in strategy which requires paradigm change but over time. Evolution can also
explained in terms of taking organization as learning system continually adjusting their strategies
with the changing environment. This we discussed earlier as learning organization. But the danger in
following incremental and evolutionary and incremental change lies in experiencing strategic drift, as
organizations are based and bounded by the existing paradigm and routines of the organization
Revolution is change which require rapid and major strategic and paradigm change, or where
strategic drift has resulted in developing extreme pressures for change.
· The Importance of Context
There is no one right for the management of change. The success of managing change will also be
dependent on the wider context in which that change is taking place. Balogun and Hailey therefore
build a number of important contextual features that need to be taken into account in designing
change programmes. Some contextual features are:
i) Time - How quick change is needed?
ii) Scope - What degree of change is needed?
iii) Preservation - What characteristics to retain and what combination to change?
iv) Diversity - How homogeneous or heterogeneous the organization is from within?
v) Capability - What is the managerial and personal capability to implement change?
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Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
vi) Capacity - What is the degree of change resource available?
Vii) Readiness - How ready workers and managers at multiple levels are?
Viii) Power - What power does the change leaders have to impose? Who has the power to effect
change?
Organisation Culture as context
·
It is the organization culture which always shape and guide strategy. We will now look more closely
at the process of culture change. Culture change is difficult and time consuming because "culture" is
rooted in the collective history of an organization, and because so much of it is below the surface of
awareness. In general, the process of culture change must include the following steps:
- Uncover core values and beliefs. These may include stated values and goals, but they are also
embedded in organizational metaphors, myths, and stories, and in the behaviours of members.
- Acknowledge, respect, and discuss differences between core values and beliefs of different
subcultures within the organization.
- Look for in-congruencies between conscious and unconscious beliefs and values and resolve by
choosing those to which the organization wishes to commit. Establish new behavioural norms
(and even new metaphor language) that clearly demonstrate desired values.
- Repeat these steps over a long period of time. As new members enter the organization, assure
that they are surrounded with clear messages about the culture they are entering.
- Reinforce desirable behaviour.
- It's clear that culture change is an ongoing process, so it's very hard to identify organizations that
have "completed" a successful culture change.
Force field Analysis
·
We have earlier talked about force field analysis. A force field provides an initial view of change
problems that need to be tackled, by identifying forces for and against change. More relevant
questions in this context can be asked like the followings:
What aspects of the current culture might aid change in the desired direction, and how might these be
reinforced? What aspects of the current culture would block such change, and how can these be
overcome? What needs to be introduced or developed to aid change? Johnson and Johnson have
identified a generic example of force field analysis as pushing forces and resisting forces
Pushing forces
Resisting forces
High quality service
Work load / Overload
Ethos of hard work
Fire fighting
Flexibility
Departmentalism
Devolved services
departmental barons
Formality of management
Stories of good old days
Blame culture
Deference
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Table of Contents:
  1. COURSE ORIENTATION:Course objectives, Reading material, Scope of the subject
  2. BENEFITS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT:Traditional management domain
  3. KURT LEWIN MODEL: ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Change Movement, Refreeze
  4. IMPLICATIONS OF KURT LEWIN MODEL:Sequence of event also matters, A Critical Look
  5. SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS:Strategic change, Logical incrementalism
  6. TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Micro-changes, Organisation Development
  7. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  8. LIFE CYCLE THEORY:Unit of Change, Mode of change, Organisation death
  9. TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of change, Mode of Change, Limitations
  10. DIALECTICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of Change, Strategic planning
  11. A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY AND PLANNING:
  12. LIMITATION OF DIALECTICS; DA AND DI:Overview of application of dialectics
  13. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  14. APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY:Managerial focus
  15. FURTHER APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES:Criticism
  16. GREINER’S MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL– EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION
  17. GROWTH RATE OF THE INDUSTRY:CREATIVITY, DIRECTION, DELEGATION
  18. COORDINATION:COLLABORATION, The Crisis
  19. ORGANISATION ECOLOGY:Structural Inertia, Internal Structural Arrangements, External Factors
  20. CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIES:Extent of Environmental Selection, Determinants of Vital Rates,
  21. FOOTNOTES TO ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE:Stable Processes of Change, Rule Following, Conflict
  22. SOME COMPLEXITIES OF CHANGE:Superstitious Learning, Solution Driven Problems
  23. ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION:The Entrepreneurial problem, The Administrative Problem
  24. PROSPECTORS:Analyzer, Reactors, Adaptation and Strategic Management
  25. SKELETAL MODEL OF ADAPTATION:Determinants of Adaptive ability, The Process of Adaptation
  26. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Nature of Change, The Importance of Context, Force field Analysis
  27. Management Styles and Roles:Change Agent Roles, Levers for managing strategic Change
  28. SYMBOLIC PROCESSES:Political Processes, COMMUNICATING CHANGE, Change Tactics
  29. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Pettigrew & Whipp’s Typology, Context on X-axis (Why of change)
  30. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Attributes of SOC Model, Implications for Management
  31. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Flow of Information, Recruitment, SOC Process
  32. Determinants of a Successful Change Management:Environmental, Management Orientation, Management Orientation
  33. Higgins 08 S Model – An Adaptation from Waterman’s Seven S model:Strategy, Systems and Processes, Resources
  34. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  35. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  36. WHY IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIC CHANGE IS SO DIFFICULT?:Change Typology, Technical Change
  37. IMPLEMENTATION APPROACHES:Attributes of incremental change,
  38. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  39. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Definition of Leadership, Follower Work Facilitation
  40. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Recognize the challenge
  41. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  42. IMPLEMENTATION: PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL:Features of Radical Change, Theory of P-E model
  43. CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION: OD MODELS:The Transactional Factors
  44. CULTURE, VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Significance and Role of Values, Values Compete
  45. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES, CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Issues in Change Management