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Conflict Managment

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Conflict Management ­HRM624
Lesson 29
Life is one long process of getting tired. Samuel Butler (1835-1902) British writer, Painter and
Life is making us abandon established stereotypes and outdated views, it is making us discard illusions.
Michail Gorbachev (1931- ) Russian statesman.
Dual-Process Theory
When peoples are forming impressions about people and things in the world, they either gather the
information they need "from scratch" or draw inferences about the person by fitting him/ her into various
categories, including his/her own social category. The former type of impression formation is called
systematic processing, whereas the latter is called category-based processing.
The thinkers behind the dual-process theory view category-based and systematic processing as the poles
of continuum. A person who needs to form an impression of someone else in order to action will engage in
some category-based processing, plus a limited amount of systematic processing.
Dual-process theory relies on so-called cognitive miser assumption. This assumption is, in essence, that,
category-based processing is lot easier than systematic processing, category-based processing will be used
unless the person forming the impressions judges it to be insufficient under the circumstances.
Systematic processing may also be promoted by two other motivational sets:
1. Defense motivation
2. Impression motivation
One designed to protect the impression farmer's deeply seated, deeply valued self concepts if threatened,
called defense motivation.
One designed to reach a conclusion that satisfies a social goal, such as agreeing with more powerful person
or going along with a group---called impression motivation.
Dual-process theory predicts that category-based processing will be used, anyway, if there are insufficient
resources (time ,energy, attention) to devote to systematic impression formation, Why because, without
sufficient resources to process systematically, category based processing provides the best available
prediction of what others will do. This corollary to the dual-process theory is called the Sufficiency
Sufficiency principle can be expressed as follows:
People use systematic processing to try to understand other people only if
1. They have plenty of time and resource to devote to task, AND
2. They are highly motivated to understand the situation accurately.
In the absence of these two requirements, people will use categories, such as stereotypes, to draw inferences
about people.
Cognitive Load
A competitive conflict stets the stage for the use of stereotyping: the sharing of information is minimized
and the stress and emotionality of a competitive and escalating conflict add to the cognitive load of the
Think through whether you have actual knowledge that a stereotype is true and what the implication of your
knowledge is for this situation: don't apply stereotypes unless absolutely necessary and only in the manners
that respect the dignity of the other negotiator.
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Individual Difference and Social Category
Remember that social group membership is but one facet of a person's identity; there are many more
differences among people of the same social group than difference between different social groups taken as
a whole.
If it is safe and appropriate within the context of the various relationships among conflict participants, make
the stereotyping issues part of the discussion. Besides helping the negotiation, this act will build bridges
among members of cultural groups. The term `in dependant self' and `interdependent self' have been
coined to describe how the orientation to social context plays out in an individual. Because an
interdependent self is role-dependent, this person tends to see his or her own characteristics as somewhat
fluid and changeable.
When independent and interdependent selves negotiate, the interdependent self may experience the
independent self as arrogant and insensitive, unwilling to bend to the vicissitudes of the situation because of
`principle,' whereas the independent self may experience the interdependent self's fluidity as dishonest and
lacking in integrity.
When culture produces variations in self-concept, these variations create differences in the manner in which
interests and basic needs are interpreted and expressed.
Although one can stereotype a Westerner as an independent self and an Easterner as an independent self, in
specific instances, these stereotypes will prove wrong. Even in a conflict that appears to lack cultural
diversity, self-interdependence may be an important variable.
Cultural differences in values
Cultural groups are also associated with commonalities in values, for example, religious freedom in US is
assumed as a basic value and transcends cultural differences. On the other hand, in certain countries, single
religion is considered as an appropriate enforcement. It is important to balance the rights of the individual
against the needs of the collective. Interpersonal harmony is important in collective cultures and creates
interdependence selves. Collectivists are, on average, more comfortable than individualists with mediation
by strong personalities. Collectivists value conflict resolution to restore social harmony.
We have learnt in this lesson, dual process theory, cognitive load and independent and interdependent
selves. These concepts are important to prevent, avoid and restore conflict.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONFLICT:Dispute, Legal Dispute, Call the police
  2. DISPUTE RESOLUTION 1:Positive affect in Negotiation, Alternative Dispute Resolution
  3. DISPUTE RESOLUTION II:Adjudication, Litigation, Mediation-Arbitration
  4. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT I:Pedagogical development, Pressures against Innovation
  5. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT II:Cultural beliefs about interpersonal conflict, Why strategies of change fail
  6. CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS:Who Needs to Know About Conflict Diagnosis?, Steps in Conflict Diagnosis
  7. RECURRENT THEMES IN CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS I:The Seven Steps of Social Behavior, Seven steps to diagnose conflict
  9. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT I:Description of Conflict, Identifying Interpersonal Conflict
  10. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT II:Step 1 for Conflict Diagnosis, interpersonal or intrapersonal
  11. SOURCES AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT I:Main Sources of Conflict, Discussing major sources of conflict
  13. INTEREST ANALYSIS I:Analyzing your interests, Analyzing the other disputant’s interests
  14. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:What are interests?, Tips for Interest Trees
  15. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:Principles and values, Basic Human Needs
  16. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT I, Premises of Deutsch’s Theory
  17. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT II:Techniques to transform competitive conflict into cooperative
  18. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE I:What is Mistrust,Trust and business,Three levels of trust
  19. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE II:Advantages of high trust level, Building of trust
  20. ASSESSING IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT I:Motivation to seek vengeance, Mistrust
  21. ASSESSING THE IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVING THE CONFLICT II:Disempowered Disputant, Unpleasant Disputant
  22. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE I:Dual Concern Model, Dominating or competition style
  23. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE:Dual Concern Model, Tactics Used In Integrating
  24. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS:Conflict and Power, Kinds of power in the Relationship Domain
  25. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS II:Sources of Relationship Power, Context and Power
  26. POWER, CONFLICT, AND BATNA III:Role of Third Party in BATNA, Dealing with Power Imbalance
  27. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT I:Stereotyping, Stereotyping in Interpersonal Conflict
  28. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT:Categories of Diversity Issues, Seven Mental Processes to Prove Stereotypes
  29. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY AND CONFLICT III:Individual Difference and Social Category, Cultural differences in values
  30. MEDIATION I:When is mediation required, Processes Related to Mediation, Product of Mediation
  31. MEDIATION II:Important distinguishing factors, More Advantages and Disadvantages of Pure Mediation
  32. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION I:Efficiency Consideration, Conflict Management and Prevention
  33. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION II:Quality of Consent, Effects on the parties to mediation
  34. PROCESS OF MEDIATION:Stages of Mediation, Facilitative tactics in mediation
  35. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION I:Characteristics of mediation, Confidentiality
  36. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION II:Role of ethics in mediation, 8 Dimensions of Ethics in Mediation
  37. ARBITRATION I:Ways to Resolve Conflict, Advantages of Arbitration, Disadvantages of Arbitration
  38. ARBITRATION II:Varieties of Arbitration, Process of Arbitration, Contents of Arbitration Act
  39. NON BINDING EVALUATION:Disadvantage, Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation
  40. NON BINDING EVALUATION II:Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation, Advantages and disadvantages of Non-binding Evaluation
  41. MIXED AND MULTIMODAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION:Six System Design Principles, Extensions of Dispute Systems Design
  42. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS I:Introduction, Necessity of conflict diagnosis, Using conflict diagnosis
  43. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS II:Proposed Contents of a Clients’ Interview, Impediments to use facilitative mediation
  44. PANCHAYAT, LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM, AND ADR, Definitions of Panchayat, Definition of Jirga
  45. SUMMARY AND MESSAGE OF THE COURSE:Definitions of conflict, Negotiation, Meditation, Adjudication