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Conflict Managment

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Conflict Management ­HRM624
Lesson 28
Leaders have to break out of old habits and stereotypes to build organizations that continually improve
quality and reduce costs to prosper in the turbulent marketplace.
Dean Tjosvold U.S. psychologist and author.
I believe world civilization can be built only upon the common basis of international living...The ideal
life...to live in an English cottage, with American heating, and have a Japanese wife, a French mistress, and a
Chinese cook. Lin Yutang (1895 - 1976), Chinese-born writer and philologist.
Main source of conflict is diversity. Diversity is being different. There are three sources of difference!
Categories of Diversity Issues
Diversity issues fall into three main categories.
1. First category is stereotyping. Stereotyping is the attribution of thoughts, qualities, behaviors, and
attitudes to others based on their categorization into a social group.
2. Second category includes considerations of culture. This category includes considerations of culture. It
includes issues of language difference, cultural values, and frames of reference, and cultural attitude towards
conflict, negotiation, and conflict resolution.
3. Third category of diversity issue is the issue of power. Power problems in diversity conflict include the
disempowerment of particular social groups and the existence of bigotry and prejudice based on social
group membership.
These categories frequently influence one another.
Why People Stereotype
The effect of stress and situational complexity; the more stressful the situation, the more likely it is that
stereotyping will occur
Interpersonal conflict tends to be an inherently stressful and complex situation that tends to impose a high
degree of cognitive load.
Fatigue, illness, hunger, and intense emotion; personal factors contribute to cognitive load. It also affects
the propensity to stereotype.
Unfamiliarity with the other person
Unfamiliarity with the racial, ethnic, religious, or other social group
Social group salience
Strong category is a social category associated with a particularly strong likelihood of stereotypes
Strong categories tend to be those associated with obvious physical attributes and rigid social roles.
(Gender roles is an example)
Strong category features: Physical obviousness and restricted social role. There are also greater
propensities to stereotype people based on social groups that have two special qualities.
First, social groups that are associated with obvious physical attributes, such as skin and hair color, size,
facial features,
Second, gender characteristics are associated with a greater propensity to stereotype.
Third, social groups associated with rigid social roles in the society are more likely to be the targets of
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Seven Mental Processes to Prove Stereotypes
Processes and stereotype reinforcement: Individuals may hold their own unique stereotypes
Processes of stereotype confirmation: People of a belief tend to confirm group's stereotypes.
1. Ignoring
2. Explaining away
3. Memory intrusions (memories of things that didn't happen)
4. Selective weighting processes
5. Stereotype over interpretation
6. Stereotype-consistent perception
7. Active processes that confirm stereotypes
Processes of Stereotype Confirmation
Stereotype inconsistent traits are ignored, allowing the
stereotype to go unchallenged
Explaining away
Stereotype inconsistent behavior is explained as either a
fluke or a result of special circumstances, whereas
stereotype consistent behavior is attributed to innate
Memory intrusion
Stereotype-consistent aspects of a situation are imagined
Selecting Weighting Processes
Stereotype-consistent  events  are  attributed  greater
importance than stereotype inconsistent events
Stereotype over interpretation
Stereotypes that are true in a limited sense are
overextended in importance or applicability
Stereotype-consistent perception
Ambiguous situations are interpreted in a way that
confirms stereotypes
Fundamental attribution error
Behavior that is due to restricted social roles is attributed
to innate characteristics
Behavioral confirmation
Responses to people based on social categorization tend
to create a self-fulfilling prophecy
Data collection errors
Information available in the overall social environment is
biased in favor of prevailing stereotypes
Stereotype, diversity, and conflict are related concepts. Diversity is perpetuated and reinforced through
stereotype images. Stereotype images are confirmed through a step-by-step process. It is interesting and we
can learn about this mental process by experiencing/doing it.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONFLICT:Dispute, Legal Dispute, Call the police
  2. DISPUTE RESOLUTION 1:Positive affect in Negotiation, Alternative Dispute Resolution
  3. DISPUTE RESOLUTION II:Adjudication, Litigation, Mediation-Arbitration
  4. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT I:Pedagogical development, Pressures against Innovation
  5. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT II:Cultural beliefs about interpersonal conflict, Why strategies of change fail
  6. CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS:Who Needs to Know About Conflict Diagnosis?, Steps in Conflict Diagnosis
  7. RECURRENT THEMES IN CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS I:The Seven Steps of Social Behavior, Seven steps to diagnose conflict
  9. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT I:Description of Conflict, Identifying Interpersonal Conflict
  10. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT II:Step 1 for Conflict Diagnosis, interpersonal or intrapersonal
  11. SOURCES AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT I:Main Sources of Conflict, Discussing major sources of conflict
  13. INTEREST ANALYSIS I:Analyzing your interests, Analyzing the other disputant’s interests
  14. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:What are interests?, Tips for Interest Trees
  15. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:Principles and values, Basic Human Needs
  16. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT I, Premises of Deutsch’s Theory
  17. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT II:Techniques to transform competitive conflict into cooperative
  18. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE I:What is Mistrust,Trust and business,Three levels of trust
  19. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE II:Advantages of high trust level, Building of trust
  20. ASSESSING IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT I:Motivation to seek vengeance, Mistrust
  21. ASSESSING THE IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVING THE CONFLICT II:Disempowered Disputant, Unpleasant Disputant
  22. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE I:Dual Concern Model, Dominating or competition style
  23. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE:Dual Concern Model, Tactics Used In Integrating
  24. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS:Conflict and Power, Kinds of power in the Relationship Domain
  25. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS II:Sources of Relationship Power, Context and Power
  26. POWER, CONFLICT, AND BATNA III:Role of Third Party in BATNA, Dealing with Power Imbalance
  27. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT I:Stereotyping, Stereotyping in Interpersonal Conflict
  28. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT:Categories of Diversity Issues, Seven Mental Processes to Prove Stereotypes
  29. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY AND CONFLICT III:Individual Difference and Social Category, Cultural differences in values
  30. MEDIATION I:When is mediation required, Processes Related to Mediation, Product of Mediation
  31. MEDIATION II:Important distinguishing factors, More Advantages and Disadvantages of Pure Mediation
  32. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION I:Efficiency Consideration, Conflict Management and Prevention
  33. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION II:Quality of Consent, Effects on the parties to mediation
  34. PROCESS OF MEDIATION:Stages of Mediation, Facilitative tactics in mediation
  35. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION I:Characteristics of mediation, Confidentiality
  36. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION II:Role of ethics in mediation, 8 Dimensions of Ethics in Mediation
  37. ARBITRATION I:Ways to Resolve Conflict, Advantages of Arbitration, Disadvantages of Arbitration
  38. ARBITRATION II:Varieties of Arbitration, Process of Arbitration, Contents of Arbitration Act
  39. NON BINDING EVALUATION:Disadvantage, Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation
  40. NON BINDING EVALUATION II:Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation, Advantages and disadvantages of Non-binding Evaluation
  41. MIXED AND MULTIMODAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION:Six System Design Principles, Extensions of Dispute Systems Design
  42. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS I:Introduction, Necessity of conflict diagnosis, Using conflict diagnosis
  43. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS II:Proposed Contents of a Clients’ Interview, Impediments to use facilitative mediation
  44. PANCHAYAT, LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM, AND ADR, Definitions of Panchayat, Definition of Jirga
  45. SUMMARY AND MESSAGE OF THE COURSE:Definitions of conflict, Negotiation, Meditation, Adjudication