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Database Management Systems

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Database Management System (CS403)
Lecture No. 12
Reading Material
"Database Systems Principles, Design and Implementation"
written by Catherine Ricardo, Maxwell Macmillan.
Overview of Lecture
In today's lecture we will discuss the ER Data model for an existing system and will go
through a practice session for the logical design of the system
The system discusses is an examination section of an educational institute with the
implementation of semester system.
Steps in the Study of system
Preliminary study of the system
o Students are enrolled in programs.
o The programs are based on courses
o Different courses are offered at the start of the semester
o Students enroll themselves for these courses at the start of semesters
o Enrolled courses by students and offered courses must not be same.
o The difference is due to the individual situation of every student, because if one
student has not pass a certain course `A' in the previous semester he will not be
able to register for a course `B' offered in this semester as the course `A' is the
prerequisite for course `B'.
o After valid registration classes start.
o A Course which is offered is assigned to a teacher also
o There can be any mid term exams and in this system we have only one mid term
o All the students are given assignments and quizzes and are awarded marks against
their performance.
o Result of the student is prepared on the basis of assignment marks, sessional and
mid term marks and the final exam.
o GP (Grade point) for students is calculated in each subject.
o Average grade point is calculated on the basis of GPs in individual subjects
Database Management System (CS403)
o And the Cumulative GPA is calculated for all the passed semesters.
Outputs Required
o Teachers and controller need class list or attendance sheet, class result; subject
and overall
o Students need transcripts, semester result card, subject result
Entities associated with the system
o Students
o Teachers
o Controllers
Once the analysis of the system is done it is important to make a draft of the system using
a standard tool which specifies the component and design of the system. This design is
useful because anyone using the design can work on the existing system and clearly
understand the working without working on the system from the scratch.
Tool used for such graphical design is Data Flow Diagram (DFD)
In the Figure -1 of the system we have a context diagram of the system which shows
integration of different entities with the examination system, these include Registration
system, controller, student and teacher entities.
o From the diagram we can understand basic functionality of the system and can
find how the data is flowing in the system and how different external entities are
communicating or interacting with the system.
Database Management System (CS403)
o First of all we have registration system, which provides the data of students to the
systems once the registration process has been completed, this data is now free of
errors in terms of validity of a certain student for a certain course or a semester.
o Second external entity interacting with the system is the teacher, a Teacher is
given a list of students who are enrolled in a class and the registration system has
declared them as valid students for that very course. Then the teacher allows those
students in the class and continues the process of teaching the class, during this
process the teacher takes test of the students and prepares papers for the students
and also prepares quizzes to be submitted by students. All the data of students'
attendance quizzes and assignments along-with different sessional results is then
submitted by the teacher to the examination system which is responsible for
preparation of results of the students
o Third interacting entity with the system is the controller's office it is provided
with the semester overall result, subject results and also the result of each class fir
performance evaluation and many other aspects.
o Fourth entity is student which externally interacts with the system for getting its
result, the result is submitted to the student and may be in one of different forms
such as, transcript and result card etc.
Level 0 Diagram
The three major modules which have been identified are given below our level 0 diagram
will be based on these three modules and will elaborate and describe each of the modules
in details.
o Subject registration
o Result submission
o Result calculation
Database Management System (CS403)
Fig 2
The first module identified in the system is the Registration of the students for the system
As the DFD show a student applies for registration along-with certain registration
information which is required by the system, Process 1.0 of the system checks the
validity of information in the form if the Registration form is found to be valid the
information in the form is passed onto the second process where the validity of
registration is determined by checking certain prerequisites for the courses to which
student wishes to be enrolled. After the prerequisite checking the data of the student is
stored in a registration database for use by other processes in the system.
During this process the result of the students is also checked for the previous semester or
previously studied subject to confirm whether the student has passed a certain pre-
requisite subject before he can attempt to enroll for a second course which is based on
that prerequisite.
Database Management System (CS403)
The Second DFD is in fact combination of the last diagram and some new details to the
DFD this portion adds the result submission to the whole process of the system The
teacher is the external entity here which is submitting the result, the result collection
process is numbered 3.0, result is submitted by the teacher in parts, i.e. ­separately for
assignments, quizzes, tests, sessional and final result. The Collection process then
forward the collected result to the Calculate GP Process, this process calculates the Grade
point for the subject, the result with GP calculated is then moved forward to the update
result process which then makes a change in the result data store by updating the result
data for that specific student.
Database Management System (CS403)
After the process of result submission the result for all the subjects is taken and the GPA
is calculated, once the GPA is calculated the it is used for further calculation of CGPA
and is forwarded to another process which is numbered 7.0 this process will calculate the
CGPA by taking all the results of the current and previous semesters.
Further detailed diagram i.e.--Detailed DFD can be created using the given level 0 DFD
and by expanding all the Processes further.
Cross Reference Matrix: doth:
This matrix is used to find out that what values or attributes will appear in which reports,
for this purpose we write the major item names on a matrix in the row wise order and the
reports which will be generated will be written on top or in column wise order.
Database Management System (CS403)
Cross Reference Matrix
Attendance  Class Result
Result Card
(Subject Wise)
This process infact is just cross link So the first Item transcript which may be or it will be
needed by a specific student, second is Result card, next is attendance sheet then we have
Class result (Subject wise) and finally the Class result as a whole, here by subject wise
class result means that all the results of a specific class for a specific student considering
each component, such as assignments, quizzes, sessional and terminal results.
Similarly all the mentioned items are marked with a tick which may needed by a certain
Let us see how the DFD and CRM are used in creating the ER-Diagram
The process of Creating ER-Diagram in fact lies in the Analysis phase and is started with
identifying different entities which are present in the system. For this purpose we can use
the DFD first of all.
Lets check our DFD, from there we can find the following entities.
Database Management System (CS403)
Courses Offered
Here the point to be noted is that, we have picked the controller as the entity, although
the controller is acting as an external entity for providing or getting information from
the system, but in case of ER-Diagram the controller can not be represented as an
entity because there is only one controller in any examination system and for such an
entity instances a complete entity is not used.
So in this way we can exclude the controller entity, we will also take care of other
entities before including them in our ED-Diagram. Another such example is results,
which may not be as it is, added to the ER-Diagram, because there can be a number of
result types at different stages of the Process, so there will be a number of different
We use our CRM in creating the ER-Diagram, because when we see the CRM, it has
a number of item/attributes appearing on it, now from there we can see that whether
these items belong to the same entity or more than one entity. And even if they belong
to multiple entities we can find the relationship existing between those entities.
Considering our CRM we have transcript, it has a number of items appearing on it , as
we know that there is to appear result for each semester on the transcript. So the
attributes which belong to the personal information of the student shall be placed in
the student entity and the data which belongs to the students' academic data will be
placed in the courses or results entity for that student.
In the next phase we have to draw different entity type and the relationship which
exist between those entities.
These we will discuss in the next lecture that how we draw relationships between
different entities.
Table of Contents:
  1. Introduction to Databases and Traditional File Processing Systems
  2. Advantages, Cost, Importance, Levels, Users of Database Systems
  3. Database Architecture: Level, Schema, Model, Conceptual or Logical View:
  4. Internal or Physical View of Schema, Data Independence, Funct ions of DBMS
  5. Database Development Process, Tools, Data Flow Diagrams, Types of DFD
  6. Data Flow Diagram, Data Dictionary, Database Design, Data Model
  7. Entity-Relationship Data Model, Classification of entity types, Attributes
  8. Attributes, The Keys
  9. Relationships:Types of Relationships in databases
  10. Dependencies, Enhancements in E-R Data Model. Super-type and Subtypes
  11. Inheritance Is, Super types and Subtypes, Constraints, Completeness Constraint, Disjointness Constraint, Subtype Discriminator
  12. Steps in the Study of system
  13. Conceptual, Logical Database Design, Relationships and Cardinalities in between Entities
  14. Relational Data Model, Mathematical Relations, Database Relations
  15. Database and Math Relations, Degree of a Relation
  16. Mapping Relationships, Binary, Unary Relationship, Data Manipulation Languages, Relational Algebra
  17. The Project Operator
  18. Types of Joins: Theta Join, Equi–Join, Natural Join, Outer Join, Semi Join
  19. Functional Dependency, Inference Rules, Normal Forms
  20. Second, Third Normal Form, Boyce - Codd Normal Form, Higher Normal Forms
  21. Normalization Summary, Example, Physical Database Design
  23. Physical Record and De-normalization, Partitioning
  24. Vertical Partitioning, Replication, MS SQL Server
  25. Rules of SQL Format, Data Types in SQL Server
  26. Categories of SQL Commands,
  27. Alter Table Statement
  28. Select Statement, Attribute Allias
  29. Data Manipulation Language
  30. ORDER BY Clause, Functions in SQL, GROUP BY Clause, HAVING Clause, Cartesian Product
  31. Inner Join, Outer Join, Semi Join, Self Join, Subquery,
  32. Application Programs, User Interface, Forms, Tips for User Friendly Interface
  33. Designing Input Form, Arranging Form, Adding Command Buttons
  34. Data Storage Concepts, Physical Storage Media, Memory Hierarchy
  35. File Organizations: Hashing Algorithm, Collision Handling
  36. Hashing, Hash Functions, Hashed Access Characteristics, Mapping functions, Open addressing
  37. Index Classification
  38. Ordered, Dense, Sparse, Multi-Level Indices, Clustered, Non-clustered Indexes
  39. Views, Data Independence, Security, Vertical and Horizontal Subset of a Table
  40. Materialized View, Simple Views, Complex View, Dynamic Views
  41. Updating Multiple Tables, Transaction Management
  42. Transactions and Schedules, Concurrent Execution, Serializability, Lock-Based Concurrency Control, Deadlocks
  43. Incremental Log with Deferred, Immediate Updates, Concurrency Control
  44. Serial Execution, Serializability, Locking, Inconsistent Analysis
  45. Locking Idea, DeadLock Handling, Deadlock Resolution, Timestamping rules