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Conflict Managment

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Conflict Management ­HRM624
VU
Lesson 11
SOURCES AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT I
Quotation
"It is essential to the sanity of mankind that each should think the other crazy..."
Emily Dickinson
We have met the enemy and it is us. Walt Kelly, "Pogo comic strip"
Main objectives of this lecture
Following are the main objectives of this lecture
·  How the obvious cause of an interpersonal conflict is seldom the only cause or even the most
important one.
·  Usually the sources of conflict are multiple and many of them are hidden
·  Need to determine and understand many sources of conflict.
·  12 main sources of many conflicts
Source of conflict
The `source' of an interpersonal conflict is the underlying reason for the emergence of conflict.
Understanding and conceptually organizing the sources of conflict can greatly help improve the chances of
resolving the conflict. Understanding human behavior can help reveal the motivations of individuals
involved in the conflict. While interest analysis illuminates the motivations of individual conflict
participants, the process of identifying the sources of conflict illuminates the features of the relationship
among conflict participants that foster conflict.
Main Sources of Conflict
Following are the main sources of conflict.
1. Resources
2. Data-type or about facts or laws
3. Preferences and nuisances
4. Differing attributions of causation
5. Communication problems
6. Differences in conflict orientation
7. Structural or interpersonal power
8. Identity
9. Values
10. Displaced and misattributed
Multiple sources of conflict
It is vital to know that there are usually multiple sources of any given conflict.
Leaving one or more sources of conflict may aggravate conflict. That is why you have to think through
coolly and sleep over it. It will improve your understanding about the conflict.
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Conflict Management ­HRM624
VU
Conflict between two partners
Partner 2
Partner 1
The conflict:
(supplied the
(does day-to-
Distribution of
venture
day work)
revenues
capital)
The tip of the iceberg: a resource and data-type conflict
(who's entitled to how much revenue?)
Hidden conflict: threats to identity and self-concept
Discussing major sources of conflict
Now let us go through individual sources of conflict, one by one. It will develop your understanding about
the sources of conflict.
This exercise will make you learn how to identify various sources of conflict in a dispute.
Conflict
Explanation Example
Useful approach
type
Control
Disputant's
The dispute
Many conflicts that
over
degree over
is between
appear at first glance to
resources
control of
neighbours
be resource conflicts
valued items
over property
can be resolved by
or struggle
boundaries
understanding and
over
dealing with deeper
ownership of
sources of conflict that
scarce
may be operating.
commodities
(tactics aimed at
expanding the pie).
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Conflict Management ­HRM624
VU
Conflict
Explanation
Example
Useful approach
type
Sometimes, a focus on
Two drivers
The conflicts
Data-type
satisfying the underlying
disagree over
is over
conflicts:
interests of the disputants
who drifted
reality, either
conflicts
avoids the need to resolve the
into whose
past or
over facts
factual issue.
traffic lane
present
If not, these types of conflicts
can be resolved through fact
finding, non-binding
evaluation, or adjudication.
Many disputes over facts mask
other, deeper conflicts.
Conflict
Explanatio
Example
Useful approach
type
n
Ironically, litigation is probably
Data-type
The
The
the least desirable way to handle
conflicts:
disagreement
disagreement is
most of these kinds of conflicts,
conflicts
is over how
between
because they typically arise when
the law
divorcing
over law
the law is vague.
impacts the
spouses over the
relationship
appropriate
Often, the best tactic is for the
between the
appraisal and
disputants to educate themselves
allocation of
disputants.
about the law (to verify the
property rights.
degree of uncertainty), then to
engage in principle negotiation
aimed at developing solutions
that accommodate mutual
interests.
Litigation should be used
primarily when the legal conflict
masks a dispute over social
structure and interpersonal
power imbalance.
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Conflict Management ­HRM624
VU
Explanation
Example
Useful approach
Conflict
type
Preferenc One
Factory
These types of disputes
es and
disputant's
runoff
are particularly amenable
nuisances behaviour
pollutes the
to creative problem
disturbs the
stream of a
solving that acknowledges
other.
landowner
and seeks to preserve the
who loves
underlying interests of the
to fish.
disputant but rearranges
the environment, modify
people's schedules, and so
on.
Conflict
Explanat Example
Useful approach
type
ion
Communi  The
Frequently,
Approaches include
cation
meanings
self-interested
becoming familiar with
difficulties of
tactics on the
the other disputant and
language
part of one
his or her cultural
and
disputant are
practices; using active
behaviour
misunderstood
listening; hiring and
may be
by an
mediator, an agent, a
misunder
opponent.
consultant who shares
stood
the cultural background
of the other disputant, or
a translator.
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Conflict Management ­HRM624
VU
Conflict
Explanation
Example
Useful approach
type
It helps resolve the conflict if
One disputant
Differences There are
the disputant recognize the
sees the
differences in
in conflict
style differences to minimize
relationship of
orientation  the basic
communication difficulties that
the parties as
approach to
result from differences in
mutually
relationship.
conflict orientation.
cooperative.
The cooperative disputant can
The other
refuse to negotiate unless the
disputant is
parties agree to use a set of
basically
objective principles to guide the
competitive.
negotiation.
The cooperator may need to
signal a willingness to fight
hard if the other disputant fails
to act cooperatively.
Conflict
Explanation
Example
Useful approach
Type
Sometimes, values conflicts can
Ongoing
Conflicts are
Values
be resolved if the disputants can
conflicts in
over
agree to disagree about the
Iraq and
personal
underlying values, as when a
Afghanistan
beliefs and
disputant agrees to go along with
may have
deeply held
a settlement without admitting
religious
values.
liability.
origins,
which
Values conflicts are difficult to
include
resolve peacefully if the values
values
involved are central to the self-
conflicts.
concepts or world views of the
disputants or if coupled with
many other sources of conflict,
such as disputes over limited
resources.
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Conflict Management ­HRM624
VU
Conflict Type
Explanation
Example
Useful approach
Threats to self- What
In a medical mal-
As with values conflicts,
concept and
disputant's
practice case, the
occasionally these conflicts can
viewpoint
patient's
be managed by having the
world view
threatens the
allegations of
disputants agree to disagree
other
negligence threaten
while implementing a solution
disputant's
the physician's
that threatens neither
central ideas
self-concept as a
disputant's self-concept or
about him- or
competent
world view.
herself or
professional.
about how the
It helps to use negotiation
An employee's
tactics that confirm and protect
world works.
allegation of
the dignity of each participant.
racism on the part
of a supervisor
Sometimes, these conflicts can
threatens the
be handled through the use of
supervisor's self-
negotiating agents. Conflicts
concept as racially
based on the negative
stereotypes held by one social
tolerant.
group about another social
group are very difficult to
resolve.
Conflict Type
Explanation
Example
Useful approach
Structural and
A disputant
School
The more powerful disputant is
inter-personal
perceives an
integration
generally unwilling to give up power
unjust
and
and may honestly fail to see that a power
power issues
balance of
affirmative
imbalance exists.
power and
action
If this disputant is made aware of this
struggles to
disputes
imbalance, sometimes he or she can be
are
rectify it.
convinced to give up power to preserve
examples.
long-term social structure, avoid
violence struggle, or make his or her
own actions consistent with deeply held
values (as when discriminatory laws are
pointed out as being inconsistent with
national values of equality and equal
rights).
Frequently, however, appeal to a more
powerful authority (e.g., litigation) is the
only method that produces lasting
change.
Summary
Understanding the sources of conflict will make you go through the multiple sources of conflict. It has
been noted that identifying all the sources of conflict is very important for mapping the conflict and
then resolving the conflict. While mapping the conflict, try to keep in mind all the sources of the
conflict.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONFLICT:Dispute, Legal Dispute, Call the police
  2. DISPUTE RESOLUTION 1:Positive affect in Negotiation, Alternative Dispute Resolution
  3. DISPUTE RESOLUTION II:Adjudication, Litigation, Mediation-Arbitration
  4. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT I:Pedagogical development, Pressures against Innovation
  5. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT II:Cultural beliefs about interpersonal conflict, Why strategies of change fail
  6. CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS:Who Needs to Know About Conflict Diagnosis?, Steps in Conflict Diagnosis
  7. RECURRENT THEMES IN CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS I:The Seven Steps of Social Behavior, Seven steps to diagnose conflict
  8. RECURRENT THEMES IN CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS II:Themes of Conflict Diagnosis
  9. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT I:Description of Conflict, Identifying Interpersonal Conflict
  10. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT II:Step 1 for Conflict Diagnosis, interpersonal or intrapersonal
  11. SOURCES AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT I:Main Sources of Conflict, Discussing major sources of conflict
  12. SOURCES AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT II
  13. INTEREST ANALYSIS I:Analyzing your interests, Analyzing the other disputant’s interests
  14. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:What are interests?, Tips for Interest Trees
  15. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:Principles and values, Basic Human Needs
  16. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT I, Premises of Deutsch’s Theory
  17. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT II:Techniques to transform competitive conflict into cooperative
  18. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE I:What is Mistrust,Trust and business,Three levels of trust
  19. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE II:Advantages of high trust level, Building of trust
  20. ASSESSING IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT I:Motivation to seek vengeance, Mistrust
  21. ASSESSING THE IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVING THE CONFLICT II:Disempowered Disputant, Unpleasant Disputant
  22. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE I:Dual Concern Model, Dominating or competition style
  23. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE:Dual Concern Model, Tactics Used In Integrating
  24. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS:Conflict and Power, Kinds of power in the Relationship Domain
  25. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS II:Sources of Relationship Power, Context and Power
  26. POWER, CONFLICT, AND BATNA III:Role of Third Party in BATNA, Dealing with Power Imbalance
  27. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT I:Stereotyping, Stereotyping in Interpersonal Conflict
  28. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT:Categories of Diversity Issues, Seven Mental Processes to Prove Stereotypes
  29. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY AND CONFLICT III:Individual Difference and Social Category, Cultural differences in values
  30. MEDIATION I:When is mediation required, Processes Related to Mediation, Product of Mediation
  31. MEDIATION II:Important distinguishing factors, More Advantages and Disadvantages of Pure Mediation
  32. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION I:Efficiency Consideration, Conflict Management and Prevention
  33. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION II:Quality of Consent, Effects on the parties to mediation
  34. PROCESS OF MEDIATION:Stages of Mediation, Facilitative tactics in mediation
  35. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION I:Characteristics of mediation, Confidentiality
  36. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION II:Role of ethics in mediation, 8 Dimensions of Ethics in Mediation
  37. ARBITRATION I:Ways to Resolve Conflict, Advantages of Arbitration, Disadvantages of Arbitration
  38. ARBITRATION II:Varieties of Arbitration, Process of Arbitration, Contents of Arbitration Act
  39. NON BINDING EVALUATION:Disadvantage, Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation
  40. NON BINDING EVALUATION II:Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation, Advantages and disadvantages of Non-binding Evaluation
  41. MIXED AND MULTIMODAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION:Six System Design Principles, Extensions of Dispute Systems Design
  42. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS I:Introduction, Necessity of conflict diagnosis, Using conflict diagnosis
  43. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS II:Proposed Contents of a Clients’ Interview, Impediments to use facilitative mediation
  44. PANCHAYAT, LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM, AND ADR, Definitions of Panchayat, Definition of Jirga
  45. SUMMARY AND MESSAGE OF THE COURSE:Definitions of conflict, Negotiation, Meditation, Adjudication