Change Management MGMT625
SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS
Organizational Learning (OL)
This refers to the continuous improvement of existing approaches and processes of adaptation to
change, leading to new goals and/or approaches. In other words OL can be viewed as the organization's
detection and correction of error, where error is mismatch between the organization's intentions and
what really happened (Argyris 1989)
Single loop learning is defined as the organization's ability to perceive deviation from performance and
to "fix" them (refers to diagnostic management control system). This is something pre-programmed and
Double loop learning (more sophisticated) emphasises that organization must review the underlying
assumption that created the problem to be "fixed" in the first place, and seek and adapt a better
assumptions for future performance. This entails questioning and adjustment of policies and objectives,
and is process -oriented
Learning Organisation (LO)
Peter Senge, the author of fifth discipline gave the concept which essentially means that just like
individuals Organizations also tend to learn. An organization where people continually expand their
capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are
nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to learn
The five disciplines are:
1. Systems thinking
2. Personal mastery - skills, values and competence
3. Mental models - are deeply ingrained assumptions, or even pictures or images that influence
how we understand the world and how we take action
4. Shared vision common aspiration/objective
5. Team Learning dialogue and thinking together
Includes the following stages; planning, execution of plans, assessment of progress revision of plans
Schein believes in unlearning for change to occur the organisation must unlearn previous beliefs, be
open to new inputs, and re-learn new assumptions and behaviour.
The concept is broader in its scope; change that is driven by "strategy" and "environmental forces", and
is tied closely to the organization's ability to achieve its goals. For e.g. merger, acquisition, down-
sizing, acquisition, joint venture. Or in other words it is the role and impact of environmental forces like
Change Management MGMT625
government, societal, technological or political changes is decisive which an organization has to bear
and incorporate in its strategic output.
The focus is with in organization changes, narrower in scope, and is confined to a particular unit,
division or function of the organisation. This relates to basically an examination and adjustment of
organizational or managerial processes. Nadler & Tushman identified as "Tuning" meant to increase
Adaptive changes are incremental and evolutionary in nature, analogous to the concept of "working in
the system" more directed towards changes and management on day-to-day organizational
Changes which likely to entail a quantum break through, generates essentially a new ways of doing
things. Revolutionary in nature and Also referred as transformation "Working on the system"
1. Natural Evolutionary
Some thing which is all the time going on in organization. This is known as learning process occurring
in organization taking placing knowingly and unknowingly. This refers to environmental adaptation,
synonymous with evolutionary change, may be progressive leading to growth and development or
regressive or degenerating one leading to organization illness or death.
2. Planned & Managed Change
As the name suggests this type of change means one can control the direction of change and learning.
Learning can be controlled. Managers can stabilize the processes that need to be stabilised, even
organization culture can be changed and managed. So one can change and stabilize some ways of
3. Unplanned Revolutionary Change
Refers to impact of turbulent and unstable environment which creates disequilibrium and high
uncertainty for organizations' strategy and structure.
A concept which gained wide currency in designing and managing change, articulated by J. B. Quinn.
Change management is complex and time-consuming phenomenon where internal and external forces
exert significant pressures to resist change. Keeping in view this the logical incrementalism process
which focuses on the evolution of the change as broad goals are more narrowly defined and adapted.
The process comprises of the following stages:
1. Change is considered as a general concern a vaguely felt awareness of an issue or opportunity
2. Broadcasting of a general idea without details the idea is floated for reactions pro and con, and for
refinements of change plan or idea.
3. Formal development of a change plan
Change Management MGMT625
4. Use of a crisis or opportunity to stimulate implementation of the change plan. For example retirement
of a senior manager or a sudden loss of market share can facilitate rapid acceptance and implementation
of the change plan
5. Adaptation of the plan as implementation progresses.
This approach has its advocates and critics. Many top level managers consider it appropriate to bring
successful change in organization by floating an idea early on, a leader can improve the quality of
information generated before decisions are made and can overcome emotional and political barriers.
While the critics of logical incrementalism see this as disjointed, garbage-can approach, or as
managerial muddling. These complaints are valid if change plans are unclear or poorly formulated
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