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Human Resource Management

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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
Lesson 21
After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following:
Explain Socialization
Describe Training
Identify Development
Understand Training and Development Trends
Evaluate the Recruitment Process
Today we will be discussing the orientation or the socialization process that acclimatizes the new hires to
the organization. We will discuss in detail that who is responsible for conducting this process and the stages
of the socialization process. Further we will also have overview of the training and development process.
A. Socialization
In order to reduce the anxiety that new employees may experience, attempts should be made to integrate
the person into the informal organization. The initial T&D effort designed for employees is Socialization,
the guided adjustment of new employees to the company, the job, and the work group.
I. Purposes of Socialization
Socialization formats are unique to each firm. However, some basic purposes include emphasizing these
areas: the employment situation (job, department, and company), company policies and rules, compensation
and benefits, corporate culture, team membership, employee development, dealing with change, and
a.  The Employment Situation
A basic purpose, from the firm's viewpoint, is to have the new employee become productive as quickly as
possible. Therefore, specific information about performing the job may be provided at an early point in
b. Company Policies and Rules
Every job within an organization must be performed considering the guidelines and constraints provided by
policies and rules. Employees must have an understanding of these to permit a smooth transition to the
c. Compensation and Benefits
Employees will have a special interest in obtaining information about the reward system. Although this
information is usually provided during the recruitment and selection process, a review of the data is
appropriate during Socialization.
d. Corporate Culture
The firm's culture reflects, in effect, how we do things around here. This relates to everything from the way
employees dress to the way they talk.
e. Team Membership
A new employee's ability and willingness to work in teams is most likely determined before he or she is
hired. In Socialization, the importance of becoming a valued member of the company team may be
f.  Employee Development
Employees should know exactly what is expected of them and what is required by the firm for advancement
in the job or via promotion.
g. Dealing With Change
Employees at all levels must learn to effectively deal with change in order to survive in their jobs. The best
way individuals can be prepared for change is to continually develop and expand their skills.
h. Socialization
In order to reduce the anxiety that new employees may experience, attempts should be made to integrate
Human Resource Management (MGT501)
the person into the informal organization.
II. Stages in socialization Process:
Socialization can be conceptualized as a process made up of three stages.
a. Pre-arrival Stage:
This stage explicitly recognizes that each individual arrives with a set of organizational values, attitudes, and
expectations. For instance, in many jobs, particularly high skilled and managerial jobs, new members will
have undergone a considerable degree of prior socialization in training and in school. Pre-arrival
socialization, however, goes beyond the specific job. The selection process is used in most organizations to
inform perspective employees about the organization as whole. In addition, of course, interviews in the
selection process also act to ensure the inclusion of the "right type" determining those who will fit in.
Indeed, the ability of the individuals to present the appropriate face during the selection process determines
their ability to move into the organization in the first place. Thus success depends upon the degree to which
aspiring members have correctly anticipated the expectations and desires of those in the organization in
charge of selection.
b. Encounter Stage:
Upon entry into the organization, new members enter the encounter stage. Here the individuals confront
the possible dichotomy between their expectations about their jobs, their coworkers, their supervisors, and
the organization in general and reality. If expectations prove to have been more or less accurate, the
encounter state merely provides a reaffirmation of the perceptions generated earlier. However, this is often
not the case. Where expectation and reality differ; new employees must undergo socialization that will
detach them from their previous assumption and replace these with the organization's pivotal standards.
Socialization, however, cannot solve all the expectation differences. At the extreme, some new members
may become totally disillusioned with the actualities of their jobs and resign. It is hoped that proper
selection would significantly reduce this latter occurrence.
c. Metamorphosis Stage:
Finally the new member must workout any problems discovered during the encounter stage. This may mean
going through changes. Hence the last stage is termed as metamorphosis stage. Metamorphosis is complete
as is the socialization process ­ when new members have become comfortable with the organization and
their work teams. In this situation they will have internalized the norms of the organization and their
coworkers; and they understand and accept these norms. New members will feel accepted by their peers as
trusted and valued individuals. They will have gained an understanding of the organizational system- not
only their own tasks but the rules, procedures and informally accepted practices as well. Finally they will
know how they are going to be evaluated. They will know what is expected of them and what constitutes a
good job. Consequently, successful metamorphosis should have positive effect on a new employees
productivity and the employee's commitment to the organization, and should reduce the likelihood that the
employee will leave the organization any time soon.
III. Many People Socialize new Hires
New employee socialization or orientation covers the activities involved in introducing a new employee to
the organization and to his or her work unit. How is responsible for the orientation of new employee? This
can be done by the supervisor, the people in HRM, Peers, CEO, or combination of any of these.
HRM Department: HRM department can conduct the orientation in order to socialize
the newly hired employees with the working environment of the organization. HRM plays
a major role in new employee orientation-the role of coordination, which ensures that the
appropriate components are in place. In addition HRM also serves as a participant in
program. As job offers are made and accepted, HRM should instruct the new employee
when to report to work. However, before the employee formally arrives, HRM must be
prepared to handle some of the more routine needs of these individuals.
b. Supervisor: Immediate supervisor of particular department can also be the source of
informing the employees about the culture, rules, procedures and policies of the
Human Resource Management (MGT501)
organization. Mostly in smaller organizations, orientation may mean the new member
reports to supervisor, who then assigns the new member to other employee who will
introduce the new member to other coworkers. This may be followed by a quick tour to
show the different parts and departments of the organization.
Peers: Peers and coworkers of the new hires can perform the orientation function in order
to tell the expectation of employers and requirements of the organization as can also
answer the queries raised from the employee side.
d. Organizational culture: Organizational culture itself can express the do's and don'ts of
any organization. Every organization has its own unique culture. This culture includes
longstanding, and often unwritten, rules and regulation; a special language that facilitates
communication among members; shared standards of relevance as to the critical aspects of
the work that is to be done; standards for social etiquette, customs for how members
should relate to peers, employees, bosses and outsiders; what is appropriate and smart
behavior with in organization and what is not.
CEO: Prior to mid 1980s, new employee orientation operated, if at all, with out any
output from the company's executive management. But that began to change, due in part
to management consultants advocating that senior management become more accessible to
employees. The CEO's first responsibility is to welcome new employees aboard and talk to
them about what a good job choice they made. The CEO is in position to inspire these
new employees by talking about what it is like to work for the organization. When CEO is
present in the socialization process, the company is sending a message that it truly cares for
its employees.
IV. Topics covered in employee Orientation program:
Following topics are covered in orientation or socialization process.
a. Introduction: Regarding the organization, supervisor, trainers, and coworkers and to
b. Job Duties: It provides job related information like, Job location Job tasks Job safety
requirements Overview of job, Job objectives Relationship to other jobs
Organizational Issues: This provides the information about the overall organization it
may include; History of employer, organization of employer, name & titles of key
executive, employee's titles and departments, layout of physical facilities, probationary
period, overview of production process, company policies and rules, disciplinary
regulations, employee handbook, safety procedures etc
d. Employee Benefits: This part provides the information about the benefits that are
offered by the organization like; Pay scales & paydays, vacations rest break, training &
education benefits, counseling, housing facilities, insurance benefits, retirement program,
employee-provided services for employees, rehabilitation program
The Hiring Process
Hiring process is completed here because orientation or the socialization process is the last step of hiring.
Next we will be discussing the training programs in the organization.
B. Training
Training is a process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of organizational goals.
It involves planned learning activities designed to improve an employee's performance at her/his current
job. Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform
their jobs.
Human Resource Management (MGT501)
C. Development
All efforts to provide employees with the abilities the organizations will need in the future
D. Training and Development Trends:
Skill requirements will continue to increase
Workforce will become significantly better educated & more diverse
Corporate restructuring reshapes businesses
Technology will revolutionize certain training delivery methods
The role of training departments will change
More flexible courses aimed specifically at performance improvement
More firms will strive to become learning organizations
Emphasis on human performance management will accelerate
Key Terms
Socialization: In order to reduce the anxiety that new employees may experience, attempts should be made
to integrate the person into the informal organization.
Training: Training is a process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of
organizational goals. It involves planned learning activities designed to improve an employee's performance
at her/his current job.
Corporate Culture: The firm's culture reflects, in effect, how we do things around here. This relates to
everything from the way employees dress to the way they talk.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HRM:Growing Importance of HRM, Road Map of the Course
  2. ESSENTIALS OF MANAGEMENT:Concepts and Essential of Management, Manager’s Roles
  3. ORGANIZATION AND COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATION:Open versus Closed Systems, The Hawthorne Studies
  4. PEOPLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR:Why to work in organizations?, The Goals of Organizational Behavior
  5. INDIVIDUAL VS. GROUP BEHAVIOR:What Are Roles?, Problem solving Team
  6. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Records and Administration, Competitive Advantage
  7. HRM IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT:Productivity, New Trends at Work Place
  8. How organization Cultivate a Diverse Workforce, STEPS TOWARD MANAGEMENT OF DIVERSITY
  9. FUNCTIONS AND ENVIRONMENT OF HRM:Compensation and Benefits, Safety And Health, Interrelationships of HRM Functions
  10. LINE AND STAFF ASPECTS OF HRM:Authority, Line versus Staff Authority, Staff Manager
  11. LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR DECISIONS:Doing the Right Thing, Affirmative Action, Unintended Consequences
  12. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP):Benefits of HR Planning, Forecasting Human Resource Availability
  13. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND HRIS:HR’s Strategic Role, Human Resource Information System, Common HRIS Functions
  14. JOB ANALYSIS:Purposes of the job Analysis, Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
  15. JOB ANALYSIS:Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information, Observation, Source of Data
  16. JOB ANALYSIS (CONTD.):SURPLUS OF EMPLOYEES FORECASTED, Diversity through Recruiting Efforts
  17. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT, Quantity of the Applicants, Quality of the Applicants
  18. SELECTION:Initial Screening, Advantages of Successful Screening
  19. SELECTION TESTS:Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests, Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
  20. SELECTION PROCESS… CONTD:Background Investigations, Physical Exam, Selecting Managers
  21. SOCIALIZATION:Compensation and Benefits, Team Membership, Stages in socialization Process, Training and Development Trends
  22. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:Learning, Phases of Training, Why Transfer of Training Fails
  23. MAXIMIZING LEARNING:Following up on Training, Repetition, Feedback, Purposes of T & D
  24. CAREER MANAGEMENT:Individual career planning, Career Planning and Development Methods
  25. PERFORMANCE:Determinants of Job Performance, Why is performance measured?, Performance Management
  28. COMPENSATION SYSTEM:Pay, Job Pricing, Compensation: An Overview, Compensation Surveys
  29. BENEFITS:Total Compensation, Discretionary Benefits (Voluntary), Workplace Flexibility
  30. ROLE OF MONEY IN PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES:Types of Pay-for-Performance Plans, Empower Employees
  31. MOTIVATION:The Motivation Process, Motivational Theories, Challenges of motivating employees
  32. OCCUPATION, HEALTH & SAFETY:Physical Conditions, Accident Investigation, Smoking in The work place
  33. STRESS MANAGEMENT:Symptoms of Stress, Managing Stress,
  34. COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATION:Burnout, Social Support at Work & Home, Communication in organization, Meetings
  35. TRADE UNIONS:Collective Bargaining, The HRM Department in a Nonunion Setting, Phases of Labor Relations
  36. CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION:Transitions in Conflict Thought, Individual Conflict Management Styles
  37. POWER AND POLITICS:Sources of Power, Advantages and Disadvantages of PowerPower and Politics in Context
  38. EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND DISCIPLINE:Contractual Rights, Management Rights, Disciplining Employees,
  39. DISCIPLINE (CONT...):Factors to Consider when Disciplining, Disciplinary Guidelines, Employee Separations
  40. LEADERSHIP:The Leader’s Behavior, Situational Theories of Leadership, Becoming a Leader
  41. REVISION (LESSON 12-21):Plans, Job Specification, Human resource planning, Selection Process, Corporate Culture
  42. REVISION (LESSON 22-26):Training, Case Study Method, Training, Performance
  43. REVISION (LESSON 27-35):Classification Method, Compensation, Empowerment, Mediation
  44. INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF HRM:Global Corporation, Type of staff members, Approaches to Global Staffing
  45. CONCLUSION & REVIEW:Strategies for Gaining Competitive Advantage, High-performance Work System