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Financial Management ­ MGT201
VU
Lesson 26
SML GRAPH AND CAPITAL ASSET PRICING MODEL
Learning Objectives:
After going through this lecture, you would be able to have an understanding of the following
topics.
·  SML Graph & CAPM
We will continue our discussion on risk. It is very important in our daily life .we are always
concerned with risky situation. There is risk that you can not watch this lecture due to the power failure.
We have to know that how we can measure and control the risk in every day life. We are going to see
that how we can use required rate of return that we calculated by using the SML equation and use that
required rate of return for the calculation we have been doing in the first two parts of this course. In first
part we did capital budgeting and NPV calculations and in the NPV formula the `r' we are using is the
required rate of return not he expected rate of return. We can use the value of required return from SML
equation in stock or bond pricing. We have studied that in the efficient markets the required rate of
return is come from the market return. There are two methods for the calculation of risk.
First approach the experimental cost base in this approach we use expected rate of return and market
index. Then we plot these points on the graph and we join them with a straight line called regression line
and slope of this line is called beta co- efficient.
The second approach for its calculation is called theoretical beta of stock:
Beta Stock A = σ A σ M ρ AM /  σ  2  M
= σ A  ρ AM /  σ M
Extent to which Actual Stock Return Data lies on Regression Line
Total Risk = Market Risk + Random Company Specific Risk If the experimental data points
All lies exactly on the regression line then this particular stock has only market risk.
Theoretical Market Risk of a Stock:
Market Risk of Stock A =  β A σ M =  σ A  ρ AM
Extent to which Actual Stock Return Data lies on Regression Line
The third formula which we discussed is very important and cornerstone of the CAPM.
Security Market Line (SML) and Required Rate of Return (rA):
It allows us that the value which we have calculated for the beta and from that calculate
the required rate of return of the stock and then we use for stock pricing. So, then the required rate of
return for any stock A is equal to
rA = rRF + (rM - rRF ) β A .
In Efficient Markets, Stock Price (and Value) depends on Required Return which depends on Market
Risk (not the Total Risk).
The required rate of return in efficient markets depends upon the risk premium which depends only
upon the market risk and not on the total risk. We do not have to worry about company's risk because
we assume that investors are rational and maintain diversified portfolio. Now, let's take a look at the
security market line graphically .It is important to understand this graph and many things that it tells us.
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Financial Management ­ MGT201
VU
Security Market Line (SML)
For Efficient Stocks
rA = rRF + (rM - rRF )
yA .c + mx where x =  and  m = Slope =
Required
=
(rM - rRF) / ( M - 0) = (rM - rRF) /1
Return (r*)
rA= 30%
Risky Stock A's
Security Market Line
Risk Premium =
rM= 20%
Market Risk
30-10 = 20.
Premium for
Based on Market
Avg Stock =
rRF= 10%
Risk (not Total
10%
Risk)
A =+ 2.0
M =+ 1.0
RF = 0
Beta Risk (
)
The graph represents the SML in the efficient stock market. On y ­axis we have required rate of
return r* for the stock A for and risk free rate of return and on the x- axis is beta risk which represents
the market risk. SML is straight line and it tells us the relationship between the market risk and the
required return. it starts on the left hand side from risk free rate of return and it passes through a point
ion the middle which is the overall market point. This point is located at the beta of +1.0 and at the
required return of 20%.This means that the market offers a rate of return which is higher then the risk
free rate of return. Because the market fluctuates it has a risk of 1.0 and not 0. if we extend the line it
passes through the point where the beta is +2.0 and the required return is 30%.because this point lies on
the SML it means that stock A has no company risk & what is the risk premium ?
Risk premium=rA-rRF=30%-10%=20%.
It is directly proportion to market risk of stock.
Please note that slope of this line is = (rM-rRF)/ (betaM-0) = (rM-rRF)/1. This is the measure
tendency of the average investors in the market to take risk. If the SML line is steeper the investors will
not take unnecessary risk. In other words they are risk aversive as the slope increase the avoidance for
the risk also increases in the market as whole. It is very important to formulate the equation for SML
You should be able understand the various points that lie on the SML line including the risk free rate of
return or T-BILL return as well as the market point and you should also understand that the slope of
SML line is=(rM-rRF)/(betaM-0)=(rM-rRF)/1.Beta coefficient was the slope of the line for different graph
that graph shows the stock rate of return on y-axis and market rate of return on x-axis. But over there
we are not talking about the required rate of return we were talking about the expected rate of return so;
do not confuse these two different graphs. SML exist for only the efficient markets or perfect capital
markets. SML tells us in detail that rational investor will eliminate the company's specific risk and the
total risk of the company will be equal to the market risk of the company. SML line is an ideal case and
in efficient markets all the stocks lie on the SML line. If stock is not on SML then according to market
equilibrium it will come back on SML. If any stock is not on SML then forces of market equilibrium
will bring it on the security market line. If risk and return combination of any stock is above SML it
means that it is offering the higher rate of return as compare to efficient stock. The people will rush to
buy such stock when the demand will increase the return will decrease.
If any stock is lying below the SML line the price will come down it will offer as much
potential as the efficient stock offers. The supply for such stock will increase and it will offer higher
return in form of capital gain. So, the market forces will throw these points on the SML. Markets are not
risk free .markets index fluctuate .The investors expect that market return will be more than the average
expected return.
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Financial Management ­ MGT201
VU
Security Market Line (SML)
Slope & Risk Taking
Required
Steep Slope SML
Return (r*)
­ Most Investors
Avoid Investors
rM= 20%
Low Slope SML ­
Most Investors in
rRF= 10%
this Market are
Gamblers
M =+ 1.0
RF = 0
Beta Risk (
)
Even Markets and Market Returns Fluctuate because of Macro Systematic Factors. So the Fully
Diversified Market Portfolio consisting of all shares is NOT Risk Free.  The Market has a Risk
Premium over the Risk Free ROR. This Market Risk Premium represents 100% Market Risk and No
Company-Specific or Diversifiable Risk. Efficient Stock combinations of Risk & Return in Efficient
Market Equilibrium must lie ON the SML.
Any Stock whose (Risk, Return) Pair lies ABOVE THE SML is offering Excessive Return (above the
Market). So, all rational investors will rush to Buy it. The present Price would Rise and the Return (as
measured by Capital Gain Yield = ( Pn -Po) / Po) would Fall until it comes back on SML Any Stock
whose (Risk, Return) Pair lies BELOW THE SML is offering a Return that is lower than the Market. So,
Rational Investors will rush to sell it. The Stock Price would Fall and the Return would Rise until it
comes back on the SML.
Now , we will calculate the required rate of return using GORDON FORMULA .so, we need to
calculate required rate of return to understand the risk so, let's use SML formula for required rate of
return by plugging it into the GORDON FORMUL A. price valuation formula by GORDON:
Share A is being traded in the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) at a Market Price of Rs 12. You need to
calculate the Expected Theoretical Fair Price of a Stock A before you can decide whether to buy it or
not. Given the following Data:
DIV1 = Rs 2 (i.e. Forecasted Dividends in the upcoming year on a share of Face Value = Rs 10)
g = 10% pa  (i.e. Forecasted Constant Growth Rate in Dividends)
rRF = 10% pa (i.e. T-Bill Rate of Return or PLS Bank Account ROR)
rM = 20% pa (i.e. The Karachi Stock Exchange's historical average ROR based on the value of the
KSE 100 Index)
Beta of Stock A = 2.0 (i.e. Stock A has historically been twice as volatile or risky as the KSE 100
Index)
Use the Gordon-SML Equation to Estimate Fair Price of Stock A:
Po* = DIV1 / [ (rRF + (rM - rRF )  A ) - g]
= 2 / [10% + (20% - 10%) (2.0))  - 10%]
= 2 / [30% - 10%] = 2 / 20% = Rs 10
The Required Rate of Return for Stock A was calculated to be 30% which is higher than the
Market (20%). The Market is offering a 10% extra return as a Risk Premium because Stock A (Beta =
2.0) is twice as risky as the market (Beta = 1.0).
The Fair Price of Stock A (Rs 10) is LESS than the Market Price (Rs 12) which means that the Market
Speculators have Overvalued Stock A and you should NOT buy it.
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Financial Management ­ MGT201
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So, what does our answer mean? We see that expected fair price of the share is Rs.10 which is lower
than the market price which is Rs.12.keep in mind that price for the share is imperfect market depends
upon the investor psychology , speculation and gambling that is taking place in the stock market .so,
when fair price is lower as in our example and market price is higher it means that the shares price or
stock has been over valued and the rational investor will not purchase it .other thing to note is that we
calculated share premium and required rate of return in our formula is 30%.it is higher than the over all
market risk .because it is twice risky as the market beta A=+2.0therfore it is giving extra return to the
investors for the compensation.
NPV Calculations & Capital Budgeting:
Application of SML (CAPM):
In the beginning of this course while studying capital budgeting and investment criteria we used
the NPV and PV formulas for calculating required rate of return and not for expected rate of return.
Required rate of return is attached to the individual investors. we forecast our dividends and they are
not true cash flows so we discount them to the present .we calculate the standard deviation for over
all industry. NPV (and PV) Calculation which is the Heart of Investment Criteria and Capital
Budgeting uses required return (and NOT Expected ROR). This is why Share Pricing also uses
Required Rate of Return because Share Price was derived from the PV Equation for Dividend Cash
Flows.
We can apply our Probabilistic Risk Analysis to Entire Companies or Real Projects or Assets and
focus on the Volatility or Uncertainty of their Net Cash Flows. We can compare that to the
Volatility of the Cash Flows of the Industry that the Company is a part of to come up with a Beta
Coefficient for the Assets of a Company as a whole. We can then use the Asset Beta to calculate
the Overall Required Rate of Return for a Company (i.e. All Assets - both Equity and Debt).
Risk & Return - Must Consider both:
In Perfect Markets and Efficient Markets where Rational Investors have Diversified Away ALL
Company Specific Risk, Value (and Stock Price) depends on Required Return which depends on Market
Risk (and not Total Risk).In most Real Markets where Investors are not fully Diversified, Total Risk is
important. It can be calculated using the Sigma (Standard Deviation) Formulas, probabilities, and
Expected Return. Total Risk and expected Return must both be considered in Comparing Investments.
Market Risk and required return are related to one another in Efficient Markets according to the SML
equation.  Required Return depends on the Individual Investor's Psychological Risk Profile and
Opportunity Cost of Capital.
Betas:
Stock Beta vs. Real Asset Beta
Objective in FM is to maximize stock holders' (or Owners') Wealth
Negative Side Effect - Treasury Managers of Listed Corporations in USA and Europe spend too
much time manipulating Stock Prices.
Real Assets have Risky Revenue Cash Flows:
Asset Beta = Revenue Beta x [1 + PV (Fixed Costs)/PV (Assets)]
A Stock's Beta or Risk Relative to the Market can change with time. If the Company's business
operations or environment change, its responsiveness to the Market can alter i.e. if it buys another
business, implements a Total Quality Management program, makes an R&D technological discovery,
takes on Debt, etc.
Notes on Measuring Uncertainty
Standard Deviation vs. Beta
For Example, Oil Drilling Companies: possible to have High Standard Deviations in Forecasted
Earnings and Returns but Low Betas or Stock Price volatility relative to Market
Volatility vs. Risk:
Seasonal or macro volatility in Earnings does NOT necessarily signify Risk BUT High Stock
Price volatility does signify Risk.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT:Corporate Financing & Capital Structure,
  2. OBJECTIVES OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, FINANCIAL ASSETS AND FINANCIAL MARKETS:Real Assets, Bond
  3. ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS:Basic Financial Statements, Profit & Loss account or Income Statement
  4. TIME VALUE OF MONEY:Discounting & Net Present Value (NPV), Interest Theory
  5. FINANCIAL FORECASTING AND FINANCIAL PLANNING:Planning Documents, Drawback of Percent of Sales Method
  6. PRESENT VALUE AND DISCOUNTING:Interest Rates for Discounting Calculations
  7. DISCOUNTING CASH FLOW ANALYSIS, ANNUITIES AND PERPETUITIES:Multiple Compounding
  8. CAPITAL BUDGETING AND CAPITAL BUDGETING TECHNIQUES:Techniques of capital budgeting, Pay back period
  9. NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) AND INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (IRR):RANKING TWO DIFFERENT INVESTMENTS
  10. PROJECT CASH FLOWS, PROJECT TIMING, COMPARING PROJECTS, AND MODIFIED INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (MIRR)
  11. SOME SPECIAL AREAS OF CAPITAL BUDGETING:SOME SPECIAL AREAS OF CAPITAL BUDGETING, SOME SPECIAL AREAS OF CAPITAL BUDGETING
  12. CAPITAL RATIONING AND INTERPRETATION OF IRR AND NPV WITH LIMITED CAPITAL.:Types of Problems in Capital Rationing
  13. BONDS AND CLASSIFICATION OF BONDS:Textile Weaving Factory Case Study, Characteristics of bonds, Convertible Bonds
  14. BONDS’ VALUATION:Long Bond - Risk Theory, Bond Portfolio Theory, Interest Rate Tradeoff
  15. BONDS VALUATION AND YIELD ON BONDS:Present Value formula for the bond
  16. INTRODUCTION TO STOCKS AND STOCK VALUATION:Share Concept, Finite Investment
  17. COMMON STOCK PRICING AND DIVIDEND GROWTH MODELS:Preferred Stock, Perpetual Investment
  18. COMMON STOCKS – RATE OF RETURN AND EPS PRICING MODEL:Earnings per Share (EPS) Pricing Model
  19. INTRODUCTION TO RISK, RISK AND RETURN FOR A SINGLE STOCK INVESTMENT:Diversifiable Risk, Diversification
  20. RISK FOR A SINGLE STOCK INVESTMENT, PROBABILITY GRAPHS AND COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION
  21. 2- STOCK PORTFOLIO THEORY, RISK AND EXPECTED RETURN:Diversification, Definition of Terms
  22. PORTFOLIO RISK ANALYSIS AND EFFICIENT PORTFOLIO MAPS
  23. EFFICIENT PORTFOLIOS, MARKET RISK AND CAPITAL MARKET LINE (CML):Market Risk & Portfolio Theory
  24. STOCK BETA, PORTFOLIO BETA AND INTRODUCTION TO SECURITY MARKET LINE:MARKET, Calculating Portfolio Beta
  25. STOCK BETAS &RISK, SML& RETURN AND STOCK PRICES IN EFFICIENT MARKS:Interpretation of Result
  26. SML GRAPH AND CAPITAL ASSET PRICING MODEL:NPV Calculations & Capital Budgeting
  27. RISK AND PORTFOLIO THEORY, CAPM, CRITICISM OF CAPM AND APPLICATION OF RISK THEORY:Think Out of the Box
  28. INTRODUCTION TO DEBT, EFFICIENT MARKETS AND COST OF CAPITAL:Real Assets Markets, Debt vs. Equity
  29. WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL (WACC):Summary of Formulas
  30. BUSINESS RISK FACED BY FIRM, OPERATING LEVERAGE, BREAK EVEN POINT& RETURN ON EQUITY
  31. OPERATING LEVERAGE, FINANCIAL LEVERAGE, ROE, BREAK EVEN POINT AND BUSINESS RISK
  32. FINANCIAL LEVERAGE AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE:Capital Structure Theory
  33. MODIFICATIONS IN MILLAR MODIGLIANI CAPITAL STRUCTURE THEORY:Modified MM - With Bankruptcy Cost
  34. APPLICATION OF MILLER MODIGLIANI AND OTHER CAPITAL STRUCTURE THEORIES:Problem of the theory
  35. NET INCOME AND TAX SHIELD APPROACHES TO WACC:Traditionalists -Real Markets Example
  36. MANAGEMENT OF CAPITAL STRUCTURE:Practical Capital Structure Management
  37. DIVIDEND PAYOUT:Other Factors Affecting Dividend Policy, Residual Dividend Model
  38. APPLICATION OF RESIDUAL DIVIDEND MODEL:Dividend Payout Procedure, Dividend Schemes for Optimizing Share Price
  39. WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT:Impact of working capital on Firm Value, Monthly Cash Budget
  40. CASH MANAGEMENT AND WORKING CAPITAL FINANCING:Inventory Management, Accounts Receivables Management:
  41. SHORT TERM FINANCING, LONG TERM FINANCING AND LEASE FINANCING:
  42. LEASE FINANCING AND TYPES OF LEASE FINANCING:Sale & Lease-Back, Lease Analyses & Calculations
  43. MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS:Leveraged Buy-Outs (LBO’s), Mergers - Good or Bad?
  44. INTERNATIONAL FINANCE (MULTINATIONAL FINANCE):Major Issues Faced by Multinationals
  45. FINAL REVIEW OF ENTIRE COURSE ON FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT:Financial Statements and Ratios