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Leadership and Team Management

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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Lesson 15
SITUATIONAL FACTORS
We understand that leadership is a process and not a position. Three components playing important role
in this process are leader, followers and situation. In this lecture, we tried to explain this important
component/part of leadership process.
Situation is the environment or circumstances in which an individual performs. Following are the
factors that can influence the situation;
Task Type: the nature of the work or assignment can also effect the employees
Structure of organization: The organization structure always depend on the size of the
organization. If the structure will be more rigid, more complexities faced by the employees
Stress: Stress in the environment and intensity under which team, organization, or leaders are
working also play important role in leadership process and also situation itself.
Environment: The environment itself effect on the situation prevails in the organization. The
micro (internal factors) and the macro (external factors) always keep on changing, so that this is
big challenge for the leaders to keep the close eyes on changing environment and make
decisions accordingly..
Situational factors influence the leadership process:
Size of the organization
Organizational life cycle stage
Social and psychological climate
Patterns of employment
Type, place, and purpose of work performed
Culture of the organization
Over all environment
Leader-follower interaction
Leader-follower compatibility
Compatibilities within the followers
Size of the organization:
Size of the organization varies organization to organization and its operations and activities in which
organization involve. An organization's size demands certain types of leadership skills which help to
provide right direction. Following two type of leadership, we can see in the organization;
Leaders of small organizations: can be in the form of salespeople, marketing manager and production
managers. These leaders organize the system, assign the task, coach the team and evaluate the system.
The small organizations have a flexible system and flatter structure. The approach of the small
organization is more entrepreneurs.
Leaders of large organizations: In the large organization, the main focus will be on to create public
image and future investment plans. The system of the large organization will be more procedural and
structure of the large organization will also be more rigid and more complex because of its operations
and activities.
Differences between Large and Small Organizations
LARGE
SMALL
Economies of scale
Flexible
Global reach
Regional reach
Complex
Simple
Flat structure
Entrepreneurs
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Changes with size
Formalization increases
Centralization decreases
Complexity increases
­  Vertical
­  Horizontal
Personnel Ratios
­  Top administration Decreases
­  Clerical Ratio Increases
­  Professional Staff Ratio Increases
Growth Rates
 When organizations are growing
­  Administration grows faster
 When organizations are shrinking
­  Administration shrinks more slowly
Organizational life cycle stage:
Every organization has its own life cycle. Which always start from its birth and end with its decline. To
save from decline, most of the organization introduces new products and new paths etc.
Birth
Growth
Shakeout
Maturity
Non-bureaucratic
Pre-bureaucratic
Bureaucratic
Very bureaucratic
Social and psychological climate:
Every organization has its own climate of working and environment in which the employees works
together. Different factors that influence the organizations climate;
Confusion
Anxiety
Conflicts
Mistrust
Stress
Politics
These factors also play their role on the formulation of situation and ultimately the leadership process.
Patterns of employment:
In today's organization the pattern of the employees also varies from organization to organization. We
can now see the permanent or temporary and Short-term or Long-term employees. So it also effects the
situation of the organization. Today's people need more job security and befits instead of their services.
And organizations are facing more challenges in shape of changing the external environment. So it is
another challenge for leadership to create a congenial working environment for satisfaction of
employees.
Type, place, and purpose of work performed:
The type of work is an important factor. The Work duties should be clear­cut. The routine or
monotonous work could create hostile working environment. Many researcher claims that in today's
organization work duties loosely defined which always cause de-motivation and stress.
Culture of the organization:
The system of shared values and beliefs held by organizational members or the system of the shared
values norms and behavior that held by the top management is called organizational culture. All
organizations have their own cultures;
Culture by default: means the culture already exists from the birth of organization.
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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
VU
Culture by design: means the culture exists according to its operations and structure.
The Observable Evidence of the organizational culture is;
Symbols
Ceremonies
Stories
Behaviors
Language
Dress
The bottom line is Culture permeates org. behavior BUT Very hard to observe or quantify
Types of Organizational Cultures
Control cultures
Collaboration cultures
Competence cultures
Cultivation cultures
Culture's Effects on Behavior
Culture effects on behaviors during Communication, Cooperation, Commitment, Decision Making,
Implementation, and Leadership style etc.
Organizational Climate:
Organizational Climate is an important dimension that clearly determines organizational climate and
environment. An organization should have a reward system to motivate its employee and linked with
the performance. A transparent unbiased system in which employees feel satisfied. The standard of the
performance should clearly define to the employee and same for each category and related with job
description. A congenial and supportive working environment should prevails in the organization for
the increasing the productivity of the organization.
Over all environment: The organizational environment is the set of forces surrounding an organization
that have the potential to affect the way it operates and its access to scarce resources. Basically
organization environment has two dimensions internal and external. This can also be known as Macro
and Micro factors or even General Environment and Task Environment. All these factors/forces do
affect the leadership process.
Leader-follower interaction:
For running an organization successfully there is need of leader-followers interaction. There should be
Leader-follower compatibility for working together in the organization. Proper communication and
confidence on each other is very essential for trust and performance.
Similarly, Leader-follower compatibility and Compatibilities within the followers is also very
important for particular situation. All above factor affecting directly or indirectly the situation and
ultimately the leadership process.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION, ORGANIZATION THE STAGE FOR LEADERSHIP:Challenges, Value creation
  2. FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS:People in the Process, Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce
  3. LEADERSHIP:Characteristics of Successful Leader, Why Study Leadership?
  4. LEADERSHIP (CONTD.):Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail, Why Leaders Fail?
  5. MANAGERS VS LEADERS:Characteristics, Effective Leadership, Respect for Diversity
  6. FOLLOWER-SHIP:Importance of Followers, Follower-ship Style
  7. LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Strategies for Cultivating Exemplary Followers, Important Traits of Leaders
  8. LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.):Qualities of Leaders, Self-Confidence, Integrity
  9. LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES:Personal Characteristics of Leaders, Managerial Grid
  10. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory
  11. TRANSACTIONAL, CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Visionary Leadership
  12. THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL:Personality, Situation, Heredity, Environment
  13. ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY:Job Satisfaction, Work Situation, Self - Monitoring
  14. BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI):Sub-Categories Defined, Information Gathering
  15. SITUATIONAL FACTORS:Social and psychological climate, Culture of the organization
  16. BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?:Mission Statement, Leading oneself
  17. BECOMING A LEADER:Elements of Leadership, CONCEPT OF POWER,
  18. UNDERSTANDING POWER:Sources of Power, Responses to the Use of Power, Managing Political Behavior
  19. LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE:Positional Power, Being an Effective Leader
  20. LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT:Power sharing and Empowerment, Share Information
  21. MOTIVATION:Guidelines for Delegating, Human Resource Approach
  22. MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:What Factors Diminish Motivation in the Workplace
  23. LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:Communication & the Four Management Functions
  24. REVIEW-1:Organizational Performance, That is the Role of Management?, Leaders Vs Managers
  25. GROUP & TEAM CONCEPT:Groups versus Teams, Deciding When to Use a Team
  26. TEAM DYNAMICS:Stages of Group Development, Problem-Solving Teams, Benefits of Teams
  27. BUILDING THE TEAM:Leadership success requires, Strategies for Team Building
  28. A TEAM-BASED ORGANIZATION:Basic Steps, Span of Control, Categories of Decisions
  29. DECISION MAKING:Categories of Decisions, The Decision-Making Process
  30. TEAM DECISION MAKING:Team Problem Solving Techniques, Concept of QC
  31. EFFECTIVE TEAM COMMUNICATION:Team/Group Communications
  32. CONFLICT IN TEAM:Sources of Conflict, Scarcity of Resources, Dysfunctional Outcomes
  33. TRAINING/LEARNING OF TEAM:Training Methods, Phases of Learning Cycles
  34. LEARNING ORGANIZATION:A Litmus Test, Work Relations
  35. REWARDING & RECOGNIZING TEAMWORK:Compensating Teams, Individual or Team Rewards?
  36. MANAGING/LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS:Communications in Virtual Organizations, Virtual Leadership
  37. EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETINGS:Better Meetings, Meeting Roles, Meeting Room Facilities
  38. LEADING TEAM:Team Leadership Structures, Leadership Demands and Duties, Leadership Direction
  39. REVIEW-II:Types of Teams, Characteristics of High Performance Teams, Sources of Conflict
  40. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP:Strategic Management, Determining Strategic Direction, Developing Human Capital:
  41. LEADING CHANGE:Dynamics of Change, Change Models, Unfreeze
  42. CREATIVE LEADERSHIP:Awaken Your Senses, How Might These Definitions Be Integrated
  43. ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP:Character Traits Reflect Ethics, Manifests Honesty
  44. LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: WHAT COMES NEXT:Benefits of Teams, Ethical Leadership,
  45. TEAMWORK: LEARNING FROM NATURE:Social Behavior, Termites, Learning from Nature