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Human Resource Management

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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
VU
Lesson 19
SELECTION TESTS
After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following:
A. Explain Employee Tests
B. Describe Job Interviews
A. Employment Tests
I. Administration of selection tests:
A personnel testing is a valuable way to measure individual characteristics. Hundreds of tests have been
developed to measure various dimensions of behavior. The tests measure mantel abilities, knowledge,
physical abilities, personality, interest, temperament, and other attitudes and behaviors. Evidence suggests
that the use of tests is becoming more prevalent for assessing an applicant's qualifications and potential for
success. Tests are used more in the public sector than in the private sector and in medium-sized and large
companies than in small companies. Large organizations are likely to have trained specialists to run their
testing programs.
·  Advantages and disadvantages of using tests:
Selection testing can be a reliable and accurate means of selecting qualified candidates from a pool of
applicants. As with all selection procedures, it is important to identify the essential functions of each job and
determine the skills needed to perform them.
·  Potential Problems Using Selection Tests
Selection tests may accurately predict an applicant's ability to perform the job, but they are less successful in
indicating the extent to which the individual will want to perform it. Another potential problem, related
primarily to personality tests and interest inventories, has to do with applicants' honesty. Also there is the
problem of test anxiety. Applicants often become quite anxious when confronting yet another hurdle that
might eliminate them from consideration.
II. Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests
Properly designed selection tests are standardized, objective, based on sound norms, reliable and--of
utmost importance--valid.
1.
Standardization: Refers to the uniformity of the procedures and conditions
related to administering tests. It is necessary for all to take the test under
conditions that are as close to identical as possible.
2.
Objectivity: Achieved when all individuals scoring a given test obtain the same
results.
3.
Norms: Provide a frame of reference for comparing applicants' performance with
that of others. A norm reflects the distribution of scores obtained by many people
similar to the applicant being tested. The prospective employee's test score is
compared to the norm, and the significance of the test score is determined.
4.
Reliability: The extent to which a selection test provides consistent results. If a
test has low reliability, its validity as a predictor will also be low. To validate
reliability, a test must be verified.
5.
Validity: The extent to which a test measures what it purports to measure. If a test
cannot indicate ability to perform the job, it has no value as a predictor.
·  Types of Validation Studies
There three main approaches that may be followed to validate selection tests: criterion-related validity,
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content validity, and construct validity.
a.  Criterion-Related Validity
It is determined by comparing the scores on selection tests to some aspect of job performance. A close
relationship between the score on the test and job performance suggests the test is valid.
b. Content Validity
It is a test validation method whereby a person performs certain tasks that are actually required by the job
or completes a paper-and-pencil test that measures relevant job knowledge.
c.  Construct Validity
It is a test validation method to determine whether a test measures certain traits or qualities that are
important in performing the job. However, traits or qualities such as teamwork, leadership, and planning or
organization ability must first be carefully identified through job analysis.
III. Types Of Employment Tests
Individuals differ in characteristics related to job performance. These differences, which are measurable,
relate to cognitive abilities, psychomotor abilities, job knowledge, work samples, vocational interests, and
personality. Various tests measure these differences.
a.  Cognitive Aptitude Tests
It measures an individual's ability to learn, as well as to perform a job. Job-related abilities may be classified
as verbal, numerical, perceptual speed, spatial, and reasoning.
b. Psychomotor Abilities Tests
This type of test is used to measure strength, coordination, and dexterity. It is feasible to measure many
abilities that are involved in many routine production jobs and some office jobs.
c. Job Knowledge Tests
This sort of test is designed to measure a candidate's knowledge of the duties of the position for which he
or she is applying.
d. Work-Sample Tests (Simulations)
It identifies a task or set of tasks that are representative of the job. The evidence concerning these tests, to
date, is that they produce high predictive validity, reduce adverse impact, and are more acceptable to
applicants.
e. Vocational Interest Tests
It indicates the occupation in which a person is most interested and is most likely to receive satisfaction.
f.  Personality Tests
It is a selection tools, personality tests have not been as useful as other types of tests. They are often
characterized by low reliability and low validity. Because some personality tests emphasize subjective
interpretation, the services of a qualified psychologist are required.
g. Drug and Alcohol Testing
Basic purpose of the drug-testing programs contends that it is necessary to ensure workplace safety,
security, and productivity.
h. Genetic Testing
As genetic research progresses, confirmed links between specific gene mutations and diseases are emerging.
Genetic testing can now determine whether a person carries the gene mutation for certain diseases,
including heart disease, colon cancer, breast cancer, and Huntington's disease.
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Human Resource Management (MGT501)
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i.  Honest Test/Polygraph Tests
For many years, another means used to verify background information has been the polygraph, or lie
detector, test. One purpose of the polygraph was to confirm or refute the information contained in the
application blank. Special tests have been constructed to measure the orientation of the individuals toward
the issue of the honesty and personal integrity. Honesty tests are the most frequently used psychological
tests in industry. These tests contain questions regarding such situations as whether a person who has taken
company merchandise should be trusted in another job that involves handling company money. An
individual's response to the test statements indicates the individual's attitudes towards theft, embezzlement,
and dishonest practices. Extensive research has shown that some of these instruments not only produce
reliable information that validly predicts dishonest behavior, but that they also are free from biases of age,
race, and sex. These honesty tests represent a valuable selection tool for choosing employees who will
occupy positions that involve handling company money.
j.  Internet Testing
The Internet is increasingly being used to test various skills required by applicants.
B. Job Interviews
THE EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW: Interview is a goal-oriented conversation in which the interviewer
and applicant exchange information. The employment interview is especially significant because the
applicants who reach this stage are considered to be the most promising candidates.
I. Interview Planning
Interview planning is essential to effective employment interviews. The physical location of the interview
should be both pleasant and private, providing for a minimum of interruptions. The interviewer should
possess a pleasant personality, empathy and the ability to listen and communicate effectively. He or she
should become familiar with the applicant's qualifications by reviewing the data collected from other
selection tools. In preparing for the interview, a job profile should be developed based on the job
description.
II. Content of The Interview
The specific content of employment interviews varies greatly by organization and the level of the job
concerned.
1.
Occupational experience: Exploring an individual's occupational experience
requires determining the applicant's skills, abilities, and willingness to handle
responsibility.
2.
Academic achievement: In the absence of significant work experience, a
person's academic background takes on greater importance.
3.
Interpersonal skills: If an individual cannot work well with other employees,
chances for success are slim. This is especially true in today's world with increasing
emphasis being placed on the use of teams.
4.
Personal qualities: Personal qualities normally observed during the interview
include physical appearance, speaking ability, vocabulary, poise, adaptability, and
assertiveness.
5.
Organizational fit: A hiring criterion that is not prominently mentioned in the
literature is organizational fit. Organizational fit is ill-defined but refers to
management's perception of the degree to which the prospective employee will fit
in with, for example, the firm's culture or value system.
III. Types of Interviews
Interviews may be classified in two types by the degree to which they are structured.
a. The Unstructured (Nondirective) Interview
Unstructured interview is an interview where probing, open-ended questions are asked. This type of
interview is comprehensive, and the interviewer encourages the applicant to do much of the talking.
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b. The Structured (Directive Or Patterned) Interview
An interview consisting of a series of job-related questions that are asked consistently of each applicant for
a particular job is known as structured interview. A structured interview typically contains four types of
questions.
1.
Situational questions: Pose a hypothetical job situation to determine what the
applicant would do in that situation.
2.
Job knowledge questions: Probe the applicant's job-related knowledge.
3.
Job-sample simulation questions: Involve situations in which an applicant may
be actually required to perform a sample task from the job.
4.
Worker requirements questions: Seek to determine the applicant's willingness to
conform to the requirements of the job.
c. Behavior Description Interviewing
A structured interview that uses questions designed to probe the candidate's past behavior in specific
situations. It avoids making judgments about applicants' personalities and avoids hypothetical and self-
evaluative questions. Benchmark answers derived from behaviors of successful employees are prepared for
use in rating applicant responses. Questions asked in behavior description interviewing are legally safe
because they are job related.
IV. Methods of Interviewing
Interviews may be conducted in several ways.
a. One-On-One Interview
In a typical employment interview, the applicant meets one-on-one with an interviewer. As the interview
may be a highly emotional occasion for the applicant, meeting alone with the interviewer is often less
threatening.
b. Group Interview
Several applicants interact in the presence of one or more company representatives.
c. Board Interview
One candidate is interviewed by several representatives of the firm.
d. Stress Interview
Intentionally creates anxiety to determine how an applicant will react to stress on the job.
V. Realistic Job Previews
RJP Conveys job information to the applicant in an unbiased manner, including both positive and negative
factors
VI. Legal Implications of Interviewing
Because the interview is considered to be a test, it is subject to the same validity requirements as any other
step in the selection process, should adverse impact be shown. For the interview, this constraint presents
special difficulties.
VII. How To Avoid Common Interviewing Mistakes
Snap judgments
a. Snap Judgments:
This is where the interviewer jumps to a conclusion about the candidate during the first few minutes of
the interview. Using a structured interview is one way to help avoid this, as well as properly training the
interviewers.
b. Negative Emphasis:
When an interviewer has received negative information about the candidate, through references or other
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sources, he or she will almost always view the candidate negatively. The best way to avoid this is to keep
references or other information from the interviewer. If possible, have different people do the reference
checks and the interviews and not share the information until afterwards.
c. Poor Knowledge of Job:
When interviewers do not have a good understanding of the job requirements, they do not make good
selections of candidates. All interviewers should clearly understand the jobs and know what is needed for
success in those jobs.
d. Pressure to Hire:
Anytime an interviewer is told that he or she must hire a certain number of people within a short time
frame, poor selection decisions may be made. This type of pressure should be avoided whenever possible.
e. Candidate Order
(Contrast) Error: When an adequate candidate is preceded by either an outstanding, or a poor candidate,
by contrast he or she looks either less satisfactory or much better. This can be countered through
interviewer training, allowing time between interviews, and structured interviews with structured rating
forms.
f.  Influence of Nonverbal Behavior:
Candidates who exhibit stronger nonverbal behavior such as eye contact and energy level are perceived
as stronger by the interviewers.  This can be minimized through interviewer training and structured
interviews.
VIII.
Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
1.
Plan the interview.
2.
Establish rapport.
3.
Ask questions.
HR in Practice gives do's and don'ts of interview questions.
4.
Close the interview.
5.
Review the interview.
Key Terms
Standardization: Refers to the uniformity of the procedures and conditions related to administering tests.
It is necessary for all to take the test under conditions that are as close to identical as possible.
Objectivity: Achieved when all individuals scoring a given test obtain the same results.
Norms: Provide a frame of reference for comparing applicants' performance with that of others. A norm
reflects the distribution of scores obtained by many people similar to the applicant being tested. The
prospective employee's test score is compared to the norm, and the significance of the test score is
determined.
Reliability: The extent to which a selection test provides consistent results. If a test has low reliability, its
validity as a predictor will also be low. To validate reliability, a test must be verified.
Validity: The extent to which a test measures what it purports to measure. If a test cannot indicate ability to
perform the job, it has no value as a predictor.
Snap Judgments: This is where the interviewer jumps to a conclusion about the candidate during the first
few minutes of the interview.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HRM:Growing Importance of HRM, Road Map of the Course
  2. ESSENTIALS OF MANAGEMENT:Concepts and Essential of Management, Manager’s Roles
  3. ORGANIZATION AND COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATION:Open versus Closed Systems, The Hawthorne Studies
  4. PEOPLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR:Why to work in organizations?, The Goals of Organizational Behavior
  5. INDIVIDUAL VS. GROUP BEHAVIOR:What Are Roles?, Problem solving Team
  6. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Records and Administration, Competitive Advantage
  7. HRM IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT:Productivity, New Trends at Work Place
  8. How organization Cultivate a Diverse Workforce, STEPS TOWARD MANAGEMENT OF DIVERSITY
  9. FUNCTIONS AND ENVIRONMENT OF HRM:Compensation and Benefits, Safety And Health, Interrelationships of HRM Functions
  10. LINE AND STAFF ASPECTS OF HRM:Authority, Line versus Staff Authority, Staff Manager
  11. LEGAL CONTEXT OF HR DECISIONS:Doing the Right Thing, Affirmative Action, Unintended Consequences
  12. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP):Benefits of HR Planning, Forecasting Human Resource Availability
  13. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND HRIS:HR’s Strategic Role, Human Resource Information System, Common HRIS Functions
  14. JOB ANALYSIS:Purposes of the job Analysis, Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
  15. JOB ANALYSIS:Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information, Observation, Source of Data
  16. JOB ANALYSIS (CONTD.):SURPLUS OF EMPLOYEES FORECASTED, Diversity through Recruiting Efforts
  17. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT, Quantity of the Applicants, Quality of the Applicants
  18. SELECTION:Initial Screening, Advantages of Successful Screening
  19. SELECTION TESTS:Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests, Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
  20. SELECTION PROCESS… CONTD:Background Investigations, Physical Exam, Selecting Managers
  21. SOCIALIZATION:Compensation and Benefits, Team Membership, Stages in socialization Process, Training and Development Trends
  22. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:Learning, Phases of Training, Why Transfer of Training Fails
  23. MAXIMIZING LEARNING:Following up on Training, Repetition, Feedback, Purposes of T & D
  24. CAREER MANAGEMENT:Individual career planning, Career Planning and Development Methods
  25. PERFORMANCE:Determinants of Job Performance, Why is performance measured?, Performance Management
  26. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:What to Evaluate, The Appraisal Interview, PROBLEMS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
  27. JOB EVALUATION AND PRICING:THE APPRAISAL PERIOD, Ranking method,
  28. COMPENSATION SYSTEM:Pay, Job Pricing, Compensation: An Overview, Compensation Surveys
  29. BENEFITS:Total Compensation, Discretionary Benefits (Voluntary), Workplace Flexibility
  30. ROLE OF MONEY IN PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES:Types of Pay-for-Performance Plans, Empower Employees
  31. MOTIVATION:The Motivation Process, Motivational Theories, Challenges of motivating employees
  32. OCCUPATION, HEALTH & SAFETY:Physical Conditions, Accident Investigation, Smoking in The work place
  33. STRESS MANAGEMENT:Symptoms of Stress, Managing Stress,
  34. COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATION:Burnout, Social Support at Work & Home, Communication in organization, Meetings
  35. TRADE UNIONS:Collective Bargaining, The HRM Department in a Nonunion Setting, Phases of Labor Relations
  36. CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION:Transitions in Conflict Thought, Individual Conflict Management Styles
  37. POWER AND POLITICS:Sources of Power, Advantages and Disadvantages of PowerPower and Politics in Context
  38. EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND DISCIPLINE:Contractual Rights, Management Rights, Disciplining Employees,
  39. DISCIPLINE (CONT...):Factors to Consider when Disciplining, Disciplinary Guidelines, Employee Separations
  40. LEADERSHIP:The Leader’s Behavior, Situational Theories of Leadership, Becoming a Leader
  41. REVISION (LESSON 12-21):Plans, Job Specification, Human resource planning, Selection Process, Corporate Culture
  42. REVISION (LESSON 22-26):Training, Case Study Method, Training, Performance
  43. REVISION (LESSON 27-35):Classification Method, Compensation, Empowerment, Mediation
  44. INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF HRM:Global Corporation, Type of staff members, Approaches to Global Staffing
  45. CONCLUSION & REVIEW:Strategies for Gaining Competitive Advantage, High-performance Work System