ZeePedia buy college essays online

Introduction to Public Administration

<<< Previous SELECTION AND TRAINING AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS:Performance Evaluation, Next >>>
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
At the end of lecture the student will be able to:
Understand the application of HRM concepts and principles in federal government
Identify the agencies of recruitment, selection, orientation and training in government
Examine performance evaluation in public organization
Examine training of public managers
The concepts and processes about HRM that we have studied in previous lectures will be examined
to see how these rules are applicable to public organization. We will begin by looking at recruiting
What is the Recruiting and Selection Organization?
In one of the previous lectures mention was made of Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC).
It is the recruiting and selection organization in the public sector. It announces the examination date every
year for examination to be held for recruitment of civil servants. Those who qualify exams are selected for
14 occupations in the All Pakistan Unified Grades. As you may recall that there are two methods of
recruitment in public organization. These are through examination and other through direct advertisement.
The FPSC now advertise positions of BS-15 and above. But the managerial position is from BS-17 and
recruitment for BS-17 is done through examination.
There are compulsory subjects and elective subjects. Those who pass examination have to undergo
interview (initial screening) and psychological testing.
Young graduates age not more than 26 years, can apply for the jobs in civil service. Those who are serving
in the government can apply up until the age 30.
A merit list of successful candidates is prepared. Generally around 150 to 200 candidates are
selected every year, depending on the vacancies available.
The selected candidate is assigned an occupational group and given job offer by the establishment division.
What is Establishment Division
Establishment Division is the Human Resource Management organization of the government.
It is expected to do planning for human resource in consultation with the FPSC, make job offer,
and provide for three levels of training:
Pre entry training
Mid career training
Senior level training
In addition to training Establishment Division maintains service record of all employees of all
occupational groups (13), their career planning, transfer, promotion, disciplinary action etc., is done by
Establishment Division.
In the government sector there are number of training institutions functioning to provide training
to civil servants.
The Civil service Academy at Lahore provides 10 months common training to all the candidates
who have been assigned to different occupational groups, after they clear examination and interview.
The National Institute of Public Administration (NIPA) provides training to middle level manager.
NIPA runs Advance course for BS-19 officers. This course is mandatory for officers to be promoted in BS-
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
20. NIPA also organizes short and specialized courses for BS-18 and BS-19 officers which are also
compulsory for them to attend.
Senior Civil servants (BS 20) receive training at Pakistan Administrative Staff College, Lahore for
their promotion in BS 21. The course at Staff College is compulsory for BS-20 officers. Training at Staff
College prepares civil servants for higher responsibility.
Other services have their respective training organizations. For example, Income Tax Training
Directorate, Custom training organization, Foreign Service Training Institute, Police Academy etc.
Performance Evaluation
The performance of civil servants is judged once a year and recorded on the Performa called the
Performance Evaluation Report (PER).
Main Objectives of PER
Following are the main objectives of Performance Evaluation Report:
It provides authentic record of the civil servant: An objectively written PER keeps good
records of performance of civil servant.
It is important for selection to new appointments: An objectively well written report
provides basis for promotion to next higher position. It can also be the basis for lay-off.
It envelops the other useful information about the individual like aptitude: The PER gives
other useful information like the interests of employees, aptitude etc.
Accountability of the Civil Servant
The civil servants are accountable to the government, the government is in turn accountable to
the legislature and the legislature is ultimately accountable to the people. Thus indirectly civil servants are
accountable to people. However, for the accountability of civil servants, there are two major types of
control. These are:
External control
Internal control
The external controls are:
Legislative Control is the control by the legislature.
Public Opinion: It is the opinion of public expressed through media.
The Judiciary: It is the control exercised by the judiciary.
The internal controls are exercised by the following methods:
The Service Tribunals: This Tribunal admits grievances of civil servants.
Conduct Rules: The conduct Rules delineate the behaviour and actions of civil servants.
Efficiency and Discipline Rules: These rules make civil servants action in office to be
questioned and scrutinized.
The Hierarchy: At each level the actions of manager are supervised and monitored;
because hierarchy itself is a mechanism of control.
The Mohtasib: The actions of civil servants that may cause harm to citizens are brought
before the Mohtasib who hears the grievances of citizens and decides whether the action
of civil servant was correct or otherwise.
How is HRM done in Public Service?
There is compendium of laws, rules and instructions relating to the terms and condition of the
civil servants. This compendium is called, `Esta Code: Civil Establishment Code'. The Esta Code is a book
that provides instruction on the placement, promotion, transfer, discipline and training of civil servants.
One of the law regulating appointments and service conditions is `Civil Servants Act 1973'. This
law defines civil servants as follows:
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
`Civil Servant' means a person who is member of All Pakistan Service or of a civil service of the
Federation, or who holds a civil post in connection with the affairs of the Federation, including any
such post connected with defence' But does not include:
A person who is on deputation to the Federation from any province or other Authority;
a person who is employed on contract, or on work-charged basis or who is paid from
a person who is `worker' or `workman' as defined in the Factories Act 1934
As you may recall that we defined civil servants in general sense, in which the civil servants were
defined as public servants. In that definition a civil servant was any person who works in government
department or autonomous organization. But the definition given here is specific definition as given in the
Civil Servant Act 1973.
In this lecture a broad framework of HRM in public sector was discussed. The main HRM
organizations in Federal government are Establishment Division and Federal Public Service Commission
(FPSC). The FPSC is recruiting organization, while Establishment Division is the placement, promotion,
transfer and career planning organization for the officers of All Pakistan Service. The EST Code on the
other hand provides laws, rules and instruction for the promotion placement, transfer, discipline and
conduct of civil servants.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management