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Introduction to Psychology

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Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
VU
Lesson 26
SECONDARY/ LEARNT/ PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES
·
Besides the basic biological needs, the expression of psychological needs is also of great significance:
through society and culture in which one lives.
·  Non-satisfaction of these motives may lead to mental illness.
Main psychological needs are:
i.  Achievement
ii.  Curiosity
iii.  Need for appraisal
iv.  Need for affiliation
v.  Need for power
vi.  Work as motive
1.Achievement
·  Self- actualization or attaining excellence in relevant domain is the characteristic feature of
this motive.
·  The need to achieve something, some object of desire, a goal, or position/status.
·  The source of satisfaction is not just the achievement of the goal, but the very act of striving
for it too.
·  The level of the need for achievement varies from person to person.
·  Some are high and some low achievers.
·  Competition is an important element of this need.
·  Achievement motivation is a significant variable in a competitive society.
·  People with high motivation: Take and overcome challenges in order to succeed rather than
finding an easy ways of achieving success.
·  People with low motivation: Tends to avoid failure, finding easy way outs, not desire to take
difficult tasks.
·  Methods of measuring achievement motivation:
·  Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is used; series of ambiguous pictures are presented to
the person and ask him to write a story on it.
·  Instructions are given as that the story must have a beginning, middle and an end along with
the title; who are the people, what they are thinking, feeling, wanting etc; what is going on
and what will happen____ all depicts the needs, desires and motivation to succeed/ achieve.
·  In short the subject describes the past, present and future along with the description of
characters and their thinking and motivation.
·  Factors Contributing to the Need for Achievement
o  Parents who are warm for their child as well as make high standards for their
child; encouragement is given on becoming independent.
o  Siblings who are high achievers in their own domain.
2. Curiosity
·  Think why a little child always wanting to break toys and things?
·  Why children always asks questions of things they saw on TV, read it or listen from any one
·  It is all their curiosity and need to explore in order to find answers of these puzzles.
·  It is a significantly inborn but learned also: found in both humans and animals.
·  Parents encourage their children's curiosity by satisfying their inquisitiveness.
·  School also plays an important role; the teaching methodology adopted may encourage or discourage
curiosity.
3.Symbolic Reward/ Appraisal
·
Appraisal is a powerful motive for everyone; especially for children and animals
·
Praising words, petting after doing well etc all serve as symbolic reward for the learner.
·
The presence and the attitude of the more liked serves as a social reward for the
learner e.g. child with his mother, dog with its caretaker etc.
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Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
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·
Parent's approval and disapproval, liking and disliking towards the child all are
included in symbolic rewards.
4. Need for affiliation
·
Urge/ desire to main a relationship with other people; making friends, social contact with other
people.
·
Less desire to be isolated or alone.
·
Studies showed that females spend a larger span of time among friends and peers as compared to
males.
·
Although the need for affiliation is a universal phenomenon, cultural differences do exist in its
expression; some cultures have more group cohesiveness than others.
5. Need for Power
·  Desire to influence, hold or ruling over others in order to be recognized as powerful individual.
·  These types of people prefer to work in big organizations, businesses and other influential
professions.
·  There also exists gender differences among males and females; men are more apt to take challenges
and respond quite aggressively irrespective of women who are socially restrained and traditional in
her behavior.
6. Work
·  Most of the people spent large span of time in their life at work; for this reason, psychologists take it
as another powerful motive
·  Work serves as a powerful motive because it satisfies other motives also such as biological motives of
hunger, shelter etc, sense of achievement, affiliation and decision-making.
Theories/Explanations of Motivation
i. Instinct Approaches
ii. Drive-reduction Approaches
iii. Arousal Approaches
iv. Incentive Approaches
v. Cognitive Approaches
vi. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Different approaches that focus upon the biological, social, cognitive, and psychological factors.
i. Instinct Theory
· There is a biologically determined behavior pattern that we are born with, known as instincts; biological
variables drive our behavior.
· All humans and animals exhibit certain innate tendencies, which are fixed, predetermined, and unlearned.
· Different behaviors are respective responses to specific instincts.
· Instincts are essential for the survival of the species.
· Instincts provide energy for action thus directing organism's behavior.
Shortcomings of Instinct Approaches
· Which are the primary and power instincts...18 as William Mc Dougall said or5759as Bernard proposed.
· If instincts are the main driving force, then how come different people behave differently under the
influence of the same instinct? e.g. hunger or heat.
.
ii.
Drive- Reduction Theory
· Our biological/ physiological needs create an aroused or tension producing state that motivates us to fulfill
them.
· When the basic biological requirements are lacking, and the need is unfulfilled, then drive/ arousal is
produced in the organism energizing it to obtain the requirement in order to satisfy the need.
Drive: An arousal or motivational tension that provides energy for action or behavior.
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Homeostasis: A stable, well-maintained state of internal biological balance is required for the proper
functioning of the body; homeostasis is the process whereby this balance is maintained.
Primary and Secondary Drives
Primary Drives: Entirely biological in nature i.e. hunger, thirst, sleep, sex, air etc
Primary drives are satisfied by reducing the underlying need e.g. hunger followed by food, thirst followed by
water.
Secondary Drives: These are psychological as well as social in nature. Prior learning and experiences are what
brings about such needs e.g. academic achievement.
Criticism
· What about behaviors directed towards maintenance, and even heightened, arousal?
· What about curiosity or risk-taking behavior?
· Is our behavior guided by drive-reduction alone, or by our goals too?
iii.
Arousal Theory
· A certain level of arousal and excitement is needed by our system.
· We try to maintain that level of stimulation and activity; the maintenance may require off and on reduction
or increase in the existing level, depending upon the circumstances.
· When our arousal state becomes too high, it needs to come down for optimal functioning and vice versa.
· Too high a motivational arousal may affect performance negatively; it may produce anxiety and irritability in
the organism.
· Similarly too low an arousal may also have adverse effect e.g. performance of a person suffering from
depression.
· A consistent, well balanced, and leveled arousal is needed for the optimal functioning e.g. in case of exams,
athletics, interviews.
iv.  Incentive Theory
· Motivational state of the organism is understood and explained in terms of positive or negative
environmental stimuli.
· As opposed to the drive- reduction and arousal theory, this theory explains motivation in terms of external
events that stimulates/ energizes the organism's behavior, rather than innate instincts or drives.
· Characteristics of the external environment are important variables in a person's motivation.
· Incentives are rewards that energize and drive our behavior.
· Any thing that provides us with a reward triggers motivation for action.
· Incentives may generate behavior even in the absence of an active, un satisfied, instinct or drive e.g. how
can we eat a bowl full of ice cream even.
· When our stomach is full after a heavy meal?
· But in many cases drives and incentives go together and have a deeper effect.
Criticism
· What about the motivational process when an individual tries to fulfill needs although there is no apparent
incentive present? E.g. working even when paid very little, and the job too is not matching with one's
aptitude.
· What about behaviors when there is no apparent incentive available, in fact threat is involved? e.g. helping
the people stranded in a house on fire.
v.  Cognitive Theory of Motivation
Theories that give importance to the cognitive processes of the individual in explaining motivational process;
thoughts, feelings, expectations, understanding and evaluating all are important when explaining the
motivation of the person.
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Expectancy- Value Theory
Two types of cognitive processes underlie human behavior.
I. Expectation: The expectation, hope, or anticipation that our behavior will help us attain a certain goal.
II. Value: The perception, appraisal, or understanding of the value of the goal to us.
· The level of expectation and the value attached to it, together, determine the level of motivation.
· In case of a high expectation along with high value, the motivation will also be higher.
· But if any of the two is weak or low, the corresponding motivation will also be low
· Can you see the two operating in your exam and study behavior?????
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Cognitive theories differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic motivation: Motivation from within, or Internal motivation that energizes the person to satisfy or
accomplish the goal; the goal is to attain enjoyment and personal satisfaction, in which no external tangible
reward is involved e.g. altruistic behavior.
Extrinsic motivation: Revolves around the tangible rewards such as money, social contacts.
· Studies shows that intrinsic motivation produces better results in terms of performance than the extrinsic
motivation.
· When extrinsic motivation is more for the desired behavior than the intrinsic one, and it remains like that
for long, then the intrinsic motivation eventually declines.
· e.g. a child has been given reward for doing neat and tidy homework, as he is less intrinsically motivated;
eventually the entire focus of the child in getting reward after doing tidy homework rather than doing it
otherwise.
· Teachers and parents should use extrinsic motivation, but with great care.
· Extrinsic motivation can be used to enhance the motivational level but not at the cost of intrinsic
motivation.
vi. Abraham Harold Maslow: 1908-1970
· American psychologist and leading exponent of humanistic approach
· Gave comprehensive theory of motivation.
· Found the prevalent psychology to be too pessimistic and negatively oriented.
Key Points of Maslow's Theory
· Psychology and the psychologist should look at the positive side of the human beings.
· There must be more to living than just being battered by a hostile environment, or by depraved instincts----
which may actually be leading to self-destruction.
· People's needs are not low level and base. We have positive needs that
may become neutral in the worst cases, but will not turn negative or
base.
· Human behavior does respond to needs but we will be wrong in
Self
saying that all our needs are only physiological in nature
Actualiza
· Needs motivate human action; such needs are very few in
tion
number.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Esteem
· Basically a stage theory.
· The needs at one level have to be met in order for one to
move on to higher order.
Love and Belongingness
· The needs at the lowest/primary/base level are the
physiological needs, whereas the highest order needs
are the self-actualization needs.
Safety
· Self-Actualization: Most advanced human need
based on the desire to grow and utilize one's
potential up to the optimal level.
Physiological Needs
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Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
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Categories of Needs
Metaneeds: based on a desire to grow rather than for meeting a deficiency: expressed in the need for self
actualization
Deficiency needs: The absence of the underlying requirements triggers these needs e.g. physiological needs,
love needs, or esteem needs
Interactions and needs of Behavior
Physiological needs: Fulfilled through: hunger/food; Pathology associated=over eating, anorexia
Safety needs: Fulfilled through: profession, job; Pathology associated= Phobias
Love and belongingness Fulfilled through: Marriage, friendship; Pathology associated= Antisocial personality
Esteem needs: Fulfilled through: Awards, honors, scholarships; Pathology associated =Depression
Self-actualization needs: Fulfilled through: Painting, writing,
singing:
Pathology
Associated
=Isolation, alienation, cynicism.
If expanded, Maslow's hierarchy would appear like this:
Transcendenc
Criticism against Maslow's theory
e:
Although a comprehensive and well formed
theory, it has been criticized at some
points:
· Can we actually, for all case,
Self-actualization: fulfilling
distribute and neatly order these
Potential, having meaningful
needs?
l
· There  is  little  empirical
Esthetic Needs: order,
evidence
to
support
Maslow's way of ranking
Cognitive
needs.
Esteem Needs
Attachment Needs
Safety Needs
Biological/Physiological Needs
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Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?:Theoretical perspectives of psychology
  2. HISTORICAL ROOTS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY:HIPPOCRATES, PLATO
  3. SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT:Biological Approach, Psychodynamic Approach
  4. PERSPECTIVE/MODEL/APPROACH:Narcosis, Chemotherapy
  5. THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH/ MODEL:Psychic Determinism, Preconscious
  6. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH:Behaviorist Analysis, Basic Terminology, Basic Terminology
  7. THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH AND THE COGNITIVE APPROACH:Rogers’ Approach
  8. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (I):Scientific Nature of Psychology
  9. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (II):Experimental Research
  10. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND NATURE NURTURE ISSUE:Nature versus Nurture
  11. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:Socio- Cultural Factor, The Individual and the Group
  12. NERVOUS SYSTEM (1):Biological Bases of Behavior, Terminal Buttons
  13. NERVOUS SYSTEM (2):Membranes of the Brain, Association Areas, Spinal Cord
  14. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland, Dwarfism
  15. SENSATION:The Human Eye, Cornea, Sclera, Pupil, Iris, Lens
  16. HEARING (AUDITION) AND BALANCE:The Outer Ear, Auditory Canal
  17. PERCEPTION I:Max Wertheimer, Figure and Ground, Law of Closure
  18. PERCEPTION II:Depth Perception, Relative Height, Linear Perspective
  19. ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS:Electroencephalogram, Hypnosis
  20. LEARNING:Motor Learning, Problem Solving, Basic Terminology, Conditioning
  21. OPERANT CONDITIONING:Negative Rein forcer, Punishment, No reinforcement
  22. COGNITIVE APPROACH:Approach to Learning, Observational Learning
  23. MEMORY I:Functions of Memory, Encoding and Recoding, Retrieval
  24. MEMORY II:Long-Term Memory, Declarative Memory, Procedural Memory
  25. MEMORY III:Memory Disorders/Dysfunctions, Amnesia, Dementia
  26. SECONDARY/ LEARNT/ PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES:Curiosity, Need for affiliation
  27. EMOTIONS I:Defining Emotions, Behavioral component, Cognitive component
  28. EMOTIONS II:Respiratory Changes, Pupillometrics, Glandular Responses
  29. COGNITION AND THINKING:Cognitive Psychology, Mental Images, Concepts
  30. THINKING, REASONING, PROBLEM- SOLVING AND CREATIVITY:Mental shortcuts
  31. PERSONALITY I:Definition of Personality, Theories of Personality
  32. PERSONALITY II:Surface traits, Source Traits, For learning theorists, Albert Bandura
  33. PERSONALITY III:Assessment of Personality, Interview, Behavioral Assessment
  34. INTELLIGENCE:The History of Measurement of Intelligence, Later Revisions
  35. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:Plato, Aristotle, Asclepiades, In The Middle Ages
  36. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR I:Medical Perspective, Psychodynamic Perspective
  37. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR II:Hypochondriasis, Conversion Disorders, Causes include
  38. PSYCHOTHERAPY I:Psychotherapeutic Orientations, Clinical Psychologists
  39. PSYCHOTHERAPY II:Behavior Modification, Shaping, Humanistic Therapies
  40. POPULAR AREAS OF PSYCHOLOGY:ABC MODEL, Factors affecting attitude change
  41. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:Understanding Health, Observational Learning
  42. INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:‘Hard’ Criteria and ‘Soft’ Criteria
  43. CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Focus of Interest, Consumer Psychologist
  44. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Some Research Findings, Arousal level
  45. FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY:Origin and History of Forensic Psychology