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Leadership and Team Management

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Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
Lecture 39
Lecture 39 is a second review and is mainly to review what ever we covered so far from lectures 25 to
38. Second part of our course was mainly focusing the team dynamics part. We tried to understand
group, team and their dynamics.
We started our lecture number 25 with group dynamics.
Group - two or more people with common interests or objectives.
Team - a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common mission,
performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
A team is a formal work group in which there is a high level of interaction among group members who
work intensely together to achieve a common goal. A group whose members work intensely with each
other to achieve a specific, common goal or objective is known as Team. All teams are groups but not
all groups are teams.
­  Teams often are difficult to form.
­  It takes time for members to learn how to work together.
A group/team is effective when it satisfies three criteria:
o  Production output: the product of the group's work must meet or exceed standards of quality
and quantity
o  Member satisfaction: membership in the group must provide people with short-term
satisfaction and facilitate their long-term growth and development
o  Capacity for continued cooperation: how the group completes a task should maintain or
enhance the group's ability to work together; groups that don't cooperate cannot survive
Groups versus Teams:
All teams are groups
Some groups are just people assembled together
Teams have task interdependence whereas some groups do not..
Why Rely on Teams? Because as compared with individuals working alone, teams tend to
o  Make better decisions
o  Make better products and services due to more knowledge and expertise
We also discussed different development stages of group formation.
Stages of Group Development: five stage of group development are
o  Forming
o  Storming
o  Norming
o  Performing
o  Adjorning
Types of Teams
o  Problem-Solving
o  Self-Managed
o  Cross-Functional
o  Virtual
Benefits of Teams
Synergy: The creation of a whole greater than or equal to the sum of its parts.
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
Why Teams Are Good for Organizations
o  More resources for problem solving
o  Improved creativity and innovation
o  Improved quality of decision making
o  Greater commitments to tasks
o  Increased motivation of members
o  Better control and work discipline
Characteristics of High Performance Teams
o  Clear goals
o  Results-driven structure
o  Competent team members
o  Unified commitments
o  Collaborative climate
o  Standards of excellence
o  Leadership
Team: A team is a formal work group in which there is a high level of interaction and interdependence
among group members who work intensely together to achieve a common goal.
Teamwork: is the process of people actively working together to accomplish common goals.
Advantages and disadvantages of having team.
o  Blocking
o  Wider range of knowledge, expertise
o  Dominant people
and ideas
o  Status differential
o  Effective way to build consensus
o  Groupthink
o  Effective  way  to  communicate
complex information
How Do We Measure Team Effectiveness? Effective teams have confidence in themselves and
believe they can succeed--this is team efficacy. Success breeds success. Management can increase
team efficacy by helping the team to achieve small successes and skill training.
Small successes build team confidence. The greater the abilities of team members, more the likelihood
that the team will develop confidence and the capability to deliver that confidence. We can measure the
team effectiveness by measuring their...
o  Productivity
o  Cohesion
o  Learning/ growth & development
o  Integration with the rest of the organization.
Leaders need to put extra efforts to convert individuals into a performing team.
Turning Individuals into Team Players:
It starts with the selection of right type of people, training them and linking the performance with
proper reward system.
o  When teams operate effectively, they can solve more problems, make better decisions and be
more creative.
o  "Team are unique; dynamic, complex and ever changing." - Ken Blanchard, author of "the one
minute manager".
Leadership success requires: An understanding of group behavior. The ability to tap the constructive
power of teams
Team Building
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
o  Get the right people.
o  Determine the Challenge.
o  Prepare the Team Leader.
o  Train.
o  Add value.
o  See the Big picture.
Build and Support the Team
o  Leadership Skills
o  Team Building Strategies
o  Team Logistics
Team Building:-The Team Leader's Responsibility
A good team leader
o  Fosters communication among team members
o  Seeks to build bonds among team members (work together, meet together, get to know
each other)
o  Creates positive environment for collective problem solving and support; creates
atmosphere in which differing opinions are valued but in which clear decisions can be
o  Is alert to cliques, bickering, etc. and acts to address them; maintains atmosphere in which
sexual, racial, ethnic, national or other harassment is not acceptable
o  Monitors individual staff members for signs of stress and provides basic support
o  Models good individual stress management practices
o  Seeks to base expatriate/staff interactions on mutual respect, transparency, and partnership
Team Building:-The Organizational Responsibility
o  The Organization identifies team-building skills as an essential qualification for prospective
o  The Organization trains staff and managers in team work skills (e.g., conflict management)
o  The Organization helps build team cohesion (e.g., through common experiences such as
safety and security training)
o  The Organization regularly reviews team functioning and has policies for addressing the
problems of dysfunctional teams and of staff members who have difficulty functioning in
their team
Strategies for Team Building
o  Establish common goals
o  Understand each others role in the Team
o  Find occasions to celebrate
o  Recognise effort
o  Improve communication
Factors Affecting Teams
o  Work Design
o  Team Composition
o  Context
o  Process
Team Based Organization
Based on the belief that organizational goals will be achieved not by individuals working together
separately, but by groups of people who share responsibility for outcomes and who work efficiently and
effectively in teams.
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
Characteristics of Traditional Vs Team-based Organizations
Individual command structures
Collective structures
Manager controls
Team monitors
Vertical hierarchy
Horizontal integration
Stability and uniformity
Change and flexibility
One best way to organize
Managers manage
Self-managing teams
Benefits of Teams in Organizations:
Enhanced Performance: Teams may take many forms, i.e. including improved productivity,
quality, and customer service such the enhancements result from pooling individual efforts in
new ways and continuously striving to improve for the benefit of the team.
Employee Benefits: Teams always provide the sense of self-control, human dignity,
identification with work, and sense of self-worth and self-fulfillment for which current workers
seem to strive.
Reduced Costs: Through empowered teams, an organization can reduce scrap, make fewer
errors, file fewer worker compensation claims, and reduce absenteeism and turnover. They
resulting in significant cost reductions.
Organizational Enhancements: Teams improvements in team results a move from a
hierarchically based, directive culture to a team-based culture include increased innovation,
creativity, and flexibility in the organization.
Benefits of Team-based Organization:
Profitability and long term viability organization is increased due to its working as team based
organization. Other benefits of team based organizations are listed bellow.
o  Efficient Process
o  Flexible Response to change
o  Improve Effectiveness
o  Reduce Cost
o  Increase Innovation
o  Customer Involvement
o  Employee commitment
o  Skill utilization
Possible Pitfalls in the Introduction of Team Based Organization (TBO)
o  Introducing teams regardless of need
o  Introducing teams without changing systems
o  Failing to train for TBO
o  Not providing expert support
o  Failure of communication within, with and between teams
o  Failure to establish and support TBO objectives
Roles of a Leader in the Team-Based Organization
o  Defining the team's mission
o  Building trust and inspiring teamwork
o  Coaching team members and group members toward higher levels of performance
o  Serving as a model of teamwork, including power sharing
o  Facilitating and supporting team's decisions
o  Expanding the team's capabilities
o  Creating a team identity
o  Emphasizing pride in being outstanding
o  Anticipating and influencing change
o  Inspiring the team toward higher levels of performance
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
o  Enabling and empowering group members to accomplish their work
o  Selecting team-oriented members
o  Using technology that facilitates teamwork
Decision Making and Decision Making Process:
A decision is a choice made from two or more alternatives. The decision-making process is
recognizing and defining the nature of a decision situation, identifying alternatives, choosing the "best"
alternative, and putting it into practice. An effective decision is one that optimizes some set of factors
such as profits, sales, employee welfare, and market share. Managers make decisions about both
problems and opportunities.
Problem Solving Vs Decision Making
Problem solving: finding the root cause of a deviation (cause analysis)
Decision making: choosing from alternative courses of action (choice analysis)
Problem solving --------------- Decision making
Types of Decisions:
Programmed Decisions: A decision that is a fairly structured decision or recurs with some frequency
or both. Example: Starting your car in the morning.
Non-programmed decisions: A decision that is relatively unstructured and occurs much less often than
a programmed decision. Example: Choosing a vacation destination.
Intuitive decision making: Managers also regularly use their intuition. Intuitive decision making is a
subconscious process of making decisions on the basis of experience and accumulated Judgment.
Making decisions on the basis of gut feeling doesn't necessarily happen independently of rational
analysis; the two complement each other.
Although intuitive decision making will not replace the rational decision-making process, it does
play an important role in managerial decision making
Roadblocks to Good Decision Making
Human Cognition
o  Our mental ability to comprehend and understand something
Human Perception
o  Difficulty isolating problems
o  Tend to think of only narrow range of possible solution
Human Bias
o  Tendency to shape responses based on stereotypes, memory, and current position
Decision-Making and Technology: In today's completive world Information technology can also help
and support the decision-making. Different decision making tools are available for manager and leaders
to use in practical life.
Team Decision Making:
Use Individual Decision Making When:
o  You have the information to make a good decision
o  The situation is urgent
o  Subordinates are already committed or their commitment doesn't matter
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
Use Team/Group For Decision Making When:
o  No one knows the answer or the expertise is in the group
o  You want to increase the commitment of subordinates
o  The situation is not urgent in the sense that it requires an immediate response
o  You, as manager/leader, can live with choice
Group/Team Decision Making
The process takes longer, so it is more
More information & knowledge are
More alternatives are likely to be
indecisiveness may emerge
One person may dominate the group
More acceptance of the final decision
Groupthink may occur
is likely
Enhanced  communication  of  the
decision may result better decisions
Methods of Group/Team Decision Making (Johnson & Johnson, 1991)
Decision by authority without discussion
Expert member
Average of member's opinions
Decision by authority after discussion
Majority control
Minority control
Decisions made in groups can be made by one of four main methods.
o  Unilaterally by an individual
o  By simple majority vote
o  By consensus ­ everyone agreeing to support the conclusion
o  Subgroup of team
Which one is the best? There is no "best". Different types fit best for different situations.
Remember. Some decisions will be good! Some decisions will be bad! BUT You will learn something
from every decision you make!!!
Communication is the process by which a person, group, or organization (the sender) transmits some
type of information (the message) to another person, group or organization (the receiver) using some
medium (Channels).
Communication encompasses both interpersonal communication (between two or more people) and
organizational communication (all the patterns, networks, and system of communication within an
Communication and Leadership: The importance of effective communication cannot be
overemphasized because everything a manager/leader does involves communicating. Effective leaders
are also effective communicators. To be effective, the leader must synchronize verbal and nonverbal
behavior Technology has had also a meaningful impact on leaders' communication and coordination.
o  Effective leaders are also effective communicators
o  To be effective, the leader must synchronize verbal and nonverbal behavior
o  Technology has had a meaningful impact on leaders' communication and coordination
Guidelines to Team Communication:
o  Be specific: include facts and details to avoid being unclear
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
o  Be accurate: as much as possible be sure that the information you are giving is true and reliable.
o  Be honest: be truthful with those you are communicating with and do not use questionable
o  Be logical: make sure messages are easy to follow
o  Be complete: give all needed information in regards to your ideas.
o  Be concise: be brief- not unnecessarily wordy.
o  Be relevant: stay on task and give information that is needed.
o  Ask for feedback: have recipients give comments on information.
Responsibilities of Team Members
o  Open minded
o  Listen to what is being said
o  Give feedback to what is being said
o  Make sure all team members have a chance to communicate their ideas.
o  If decisions need to be made discuss pros and cons, and decide best option for TEAM.
o  Take ownership for what you say.
o  Take responsibility for making sure you are heard and understood.
o  Use terminology and examples that your audience understands.
o  Be aware of body language.
o  Always work to maintain the trust and confidence of those with whom you are
Conflict in Team: The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or
negatively affected by another party.
o  Perceived by the parties
o  Parties are in opposition to one another
o  At least one party is blocking the goal attainment of the other party
o  Goals can be tangible or psychological
o  Money
o  Task Achievement
o  Happiness
There are several common themes which underlie most definitions:
o  The parties to it must perceive conflict.
o  Commonalties in the definitions are opposition or incompatibility and some form of
Many people and organizations view conflict as a negative, or something to be avoided. Yet conflict,
differences, or disagreements are a natural result of people working together. Also, without conflict,
teams can become complacent and not perform at optimum levels. The challenge then becomes, how
should the team be prepared for this stage of their existence, and how should the team leader facilitate
through it?
Sources of Conflict
o  Goal Incompatibility
o  Different Values and Beliefs
o  Task Interdependence
o  Scarce Resources
o  Ambiguity
o  Communication Problems
o  Perceived personal threats
o  Perceived threat to the organization
o  Personal, social, cultural differences
o  Others...
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
Types of Conflict:
o  Emotional ­ is personal, defensive, and resentful. Also known a A-type or affective.
o  Cognitive - is largely depersonalized, it consists of argumentation about the merits of
ideas, plans, and projects. Known as C-type. Often an effective stimulate to creativity.
We can have a different type of conflict classification with reference to organizational setup.
Task conflict: Conflict over content and goals of the work. Low to moderate levels can be
Relationship conflict: Conflict based on interpersonal relationships. Almost always
Process conflict: Conflict over how work gets done. Low levels can be acceptable
We can also have relationship conflict (A-type conflict) and task conflict (C-type conflict). We need to
put efforts for transforming relationship into task conflict. This can be done through.
o  Agree on common goal or shared vision
o  Create a place for conflict and get it out in the open
o  Training in task conflict
We can also have conflicts known as;
o  A person having tension or stress within...
o  often due to over competing roles
o  between 2 or more people,
o  disagreement, values or styles don't match
o  Miscommunication occurs
o  Arises within one group
o  arises between groups over issues/goals/solutions
The Conflict Process:
Four Stages
o  Potential opposition
o  Cognition and personalization
o  Behavior
o  Outcomes
Steps to Resolve Conflict
o  Identify the Problem: separate it from the people involved--use cause and effect analysis
o  Gather and Analyze Data: fact-based management
o  Clarify the Interests of Parties: as opposed to the positions of parties
o  Determine Objective Criteria to Evaluate Fairness of Outcomes boundary conditions
o  Identify New and Creative Options: to resolve the conflict
o  Choose an Option: using team decision-making tools.
People Factors That Affect the Development of the Conflict:
o  Needs and wants
o  Self-concept
o  Past experience
o  Health
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
Other Factors That Affect the Development of the Conflict:
o  Management culture
o  Stage of development of the organization
o  Organizational structures
o  State of business
o  Weather
Consequences of Conflict
Positive Consequences
Negative Consequences
Leads to new ideas
Diverts energy from work
Stimulates creativity
Threatens psychological well-being
Motivates change
Wastes resources
Promotes organizational vitality
Creates a negative climate
Helps individuals & groups establish identities
Breaks down group cohesion
Serves as a safety valve to indicate problems
Can increase hostility & aggressive
Conflict Resolution Techniques:
Withholding or withdrawing
Smoothing over/reassuring
Three Styles of Resolving Conflict:
Win-Lose: strategies used are power, dominance, forcing.
Lose-Lose: common strategy used is compromise.
Win-Win: strategies used are integration, collaboration, and problem-solving.
Characteristics of High Performing Teams:
o  Common Purpose
o  Crystal Clear Roles
o  Accepted Leadership
o  Effective Processes
o  Solid Relationships
Effective Communication
The 3-Cs and 3-Rs of Conflict Resolution are-
o  Commitment
o  Cooperation
o  Compromise
o  Respect
o  Rights
o  Responsibility
Training and Learning of Team
The HRM view of training: Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the
skills they need to perform their jobs. Training today plays a key role in the performance management
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
process, which is a key process for employers to ensure that employees are working toward
organizational goals.  Overall, training has a fairly impressive record of influencing organizational
effectiveness, scoring higher than appraisal and feedback, and just below goal setting in its effect on
o  Employees recruited for a flexible working role rather than a `job' and for their ability to learn
rather than for pre-existing skills
o  Employees expected to re-train periodically
o  Training seen as an investment not a cost
o  Learning is an ongoing process in the organisation, which is integrated with working
o  Performance, appraisal and development are seen as part of a single process
Purpose of Training:
Effective training can raise performance, improve morale, and increase an organization's potential.
Poor, inappropriate, or inadequate training can be a source of frustration for everyone involved. To
maximize the benefits of training, managers must closely monitor the training process. Training ensures
that Team/Organization meets current and future performance objectives set by top management.
Training also helps in continuous improvement of performance of individuals and teams, and
maximizing people's potential for growth (and promotion).
o  Ensure Team/Organization meets current and future performance objectives by...
o  Continuous improvement of performance of individuals and teams, and...
o  Maximizing people's potential for growth (and promotion)
Learning Principles
o  Participation
o  Repetition
o  Relevance
o  Transference
o  Feedback
Phases of Learning Cycles
Understand and frame problem
o  Create a shared understanding
o  What is the problem (or opportunity)?
o  What are we trying to do?
o  How are we going to do it?
o  Starts out being general but becomes more defined as you proceeds
Key Characteristics of Successful Learning Teams
o  Clear (and shared) sense of purpose
o  Good communication
o  Freely shared information
o  Shared leadership
o  Interdependence of team members
o  Utilization of members' strengths
o  Mutual encouragement of risk taking
o  Adaptive ­ able change/modify plans when new information and/or circumstances emerge
o  Pride in team identity
Learning Organization?
"A learning organization is one in which people at all levels, individually and collectively, are
continually increasing their capacity to produce results they really care about". Learning organization is
Creating, acquiring, interpreting, transferring, and retaining knowledge. Purposefully modifying its
behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
"Learning Organization" is a Hot Topic:
Levels of Learning
Managers/leaders need to encourage learning at four levels:
o  Individual
o  Group
o  Organizational
o  Inter-organizational
The Basis of the Learning Organization Strategy need to be
o  Transfer Knowledge, not just information.
o  Knowledge leads to better, safer decisions.
o  Better-informed.
o  Knowledgeable.
o  Wiser decisions.
Organizations Must Learn Faster & Adapt to the Rapid Changes in the Environment otherwise they will
be history.
The Bottom Line: Any organization that has a culture and structure that promotes learning at all
levels to enhance its capabilities to produce, adapt and shape its future.
The Knowledge Management Cycle
o  Create knowledge
o  Capture knowledge
o  Refine knowledge
o  Store knowledge
o  Manage knowledgee
o  Disseminate knowledge
What Will a Learning Organization Achieve for You?
o  Develop effective leadership skills
o  Gain skills in working as a team
o  Improve professional development
o  Understand change management skills
o  Overcome staff inertia
o  Link theory and practice to solve organizational problems
o  Create a non-threatening environment
Through learning, we:
o  Re-create ourselves
o  Become able to do things we never were able to do before
o  Re-perceive the world and our relationship to it
o  Extend our capacity to create, to be part of the generative process of life
Why is there a Need for a New Managerial Mindset?
o  Change
o  Globalization
o  New technology
o  Need for strategic flexibility
o  Need for non-linear thinking
o  Need to see the whole
o  Need for changed mental models
Building, Maintaining & Sustaining the Learning Organization
Reward and Recognition Systems
o  Team-based reward and recognition systems can promote teamwork
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
o  Focus should be rewarding teams for achieving specific goals
Why People Leave Their Jobs?
o  They feel they do not make a difference.
o  They do not get proper recognition.
o  They are not learning anything new or growing as a person.
o  They do not like their coworkers.
o  They want to earn more money.
People leave organization due to many reasons but one of them might be the improper compensation
Compensating Teams:
Reasons for tailoring compensation to individuals:
o  Motivation comes from within the individual as opposed to the group.
o  The development of skills and behaviors is an individual undertaking.
o  Fairness in dealing with teams does not mean equal pay for all.
o  Team compensation is not a payoff but a means of nurturing behavior that benefits the team.
Rewards and other Employee Behaviors
Starting from attracting the good team members/employees to retain every thing is revolving on the
reward system of organization. Three important HR related behaviors like turnover, absenteeism and
attendance is directly linked with the reward system of organizations.
With better reward system we can minimize the turnover, absenteeism and attendance and vice versa.
Reward is also used to reinforce positive behavior and reduces the undesirable behaviors.
Total compensation comprises of direct like wages, salary, commission, gain sharing etc while indirect
benefits, vacation, insurance, etc. Even positive behavior of manager/leader also play important role in
modifying the behaviors of the team member/employees. We can see a wide range of benefits
organization use to attract, and retain the employees.
Objectives of Reward Systems
o  Attraction and retention (employees compare to other firms in the market)
o  Motivating performance (contingent on expectancy & equity)
o  Getting employees to gain skills and knowledge
o  Reinforce the organization's culture
o  Not cost the firm too much!!
Designing Rewards
o  Always remember your basic motivational theories
o  Options for reward systems
o  Objectives of reward systems
o  How rewards impact organizational effectiveness
o  Implementing a reward system
o  Appropriate rewards practices sometimes vary between countries
Individual or Team Rewards?
Individual rewards
o  fosters independent behavior
o  may lead to creative thinking and novel solutions
o  encourages competitive striving within a work team
Team rewards
o  emphasize cooperation & joint efforts
o  emphasize information sharing
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
Both have same purpose.
Types of Team Pay
o Incentive pay
o Recognition
o Profit sharing
o Gain sharing
A Virtual Team is known as a Geographically Dispersed Team (GDT) ­ is a group of individuals who
work across time, space, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by webs of
communication technology. They have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose,
have interdependent performance goals, and share an approach to work for which they hold themselves
mutually accountable. Geographically dispersed teams allow organizations to hire and retain the best
people regardless of location. A virtual team does not always mean Tele-workers. Tele-workers are
defined as individuals who work from home. Many virtual teams in today's organizations consist of
employees both working at home and small groups in the office but in different geographic locations or
during different shits/time.
Factors Driving Virtual Organizations
o  Organizational structure changing to meet the demands of the fast-paced, dynamic global economy
o  Many organizations are moving from a systems-based organizational model to a collaborative,
networked organizational model.
o  The virtuality of virtual organizations has been described as having two key features:
Creation of a common value chain between distinct entities and distributed
Information technology (IT) supported business processes (Seiber and Griese, 1997).
Communications in Virtual Organizations
Information technology is a primary mechanism for providing support and control to virtual forms.
Communication within virtual organizational forms is increasingly supported by information
Organizational Types
o  Permanent Virtual Organizations
o  Virtual Teams
o  Virtual Projects
o  Temporary Virtual Organizations
Why a virtual team?
o  Team members may not be physically collocated.
o  It may not be practical to travel to meet face-to-face.
o  Team members may work different shifts.
o  Organization-wide project not in the same location.
o  Alliances with organizations.
Benefits of virtual teams
People can work from anywhere at anytime.
People can be recruited for their competencies, not just physical location.
Many physical handicaps are not a problem.
Expenses associated with travel, lodging, parking, and leasing or owning a building may
be reduced and sometimes eliminated.
Apply most appropriate resources (from anywhere) to job
Can schedule to follow-the-sun/around-the-clock
Can build ongoing relationships/networks across business
Cost reduction
Downside of virtual teams
o Time zones
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
o "You can't see me" attitude
o No constant direction
o Keeping that motivation and commitment
o How do you celebrate a success?
Characterizations of virtual teams (Henery and Hartzler,1998)
o Members are mutually accountable for team results.
o Members are dispersed geographically (nationally or internationally).
o Members work apart more than in the same location.
o The team solves problems and makes decisions jointly.
A successful virtual team
A unified commitment by all team members
Defined and agreed roles and responsibilities
Clear concise deliverables
Strict meeting schedules
Effective lines of communication
Committed, enthusiastic leadership - ALWAYS!
Setting Up Virtual Teams
Establish communication norms ­ procedures to reconcile differences in communication
Develop templates for using technology -- e.g., store documents on web pages, expert
Set procedures, responsibilities
Establish leadership that provides procedural justice
Hold an initial face-to-face startup meeting
Have periodic face-to-face meetings, especially to resolve conflict and to maintain team
Establish a clear code of conduct and protocols for behavior
Recognize and reward performance
Use visuals in communications
Recognize that most communications will be non-verbal ­ use caution in tone and language
Success Factors in Virtual Teams
o High levels of trust among team members
o Effective use of technology
o Clear implementation of team concept
o Effective individual performance
Effective teamwork depends on trust
In a virtual environment, trust is more ability/task based than interpersonal relationship
o  Level of member performance over time results in building or denial of trust
Like in case of other team, trust is even more essential in the effectiveness of virtual team.
Building Trust Virtually: Establish trust through performance consistency
o Rapid response to team members (return emails, task completion)
o Set strong norms around communication
o Team leader role in reinforcing interactions
Virtual Team Member Competencies:
o Self-disciplined?
o Strong communicator?
o Good collaborator?
o Organized?
o  Document your work well?
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
Implementation of Virtual Teams:
o  Must set out a clear business reason for the team
o  Team must understand its mission/purpose
o  Team members must develop a sense of interdependence
o  Must have accountability and rewards for team members
Challenges to Virtual Team Success:
o  Building trust within virtual teams
o  Maximizing process gains & minimizing process losses on virtual teams
o  Overcoming feelings of isolation & detachment associated with virtual teamwork
o  Balancing technical & interpersonal skills among virtual team members
o  Assessment & recognition of virtual team performance
Virtual Team Competencies
o The right technology
o Shared work space & processes
o Established ground rules
o Acceptance of cultural, style & preference differences
o Effective group dynamics
o Clear identity
o Teamwork skills
o Leadership
o True trust
Virtual Leadership
Virtual leadership is about how to pull the people on a worldwide assignment together into one
cohesive partnership. Leadership is about making things happen and getting things done. It just takes
more work in a virtual environment.
Key in Leading a Virtual Team
o Build trust
o Reward and recognize
o Communication
o Motivation
o Commitment
Virtual Team Leadership Competencies
o  Make the invisible, visible
o  Make the intangible, tangible
o  Create & foster a climate of trust
o  Establish & constantly model standards of accountability
o  Communicate clearly, constantly & effectively within each receiver's realm
o  Delegate responsibilities
Virtual Leadership Key Traits
o  Everyone gets core information at the same time.
o  Everyone has equal input.
o  Everyone's ideas are weighed against the alignment tool, not out of preference.
o  Everyone's ideas are never judged or rejected at the onset.
o  Everyone has equal opportunity to shine.
o  Everyone is rewarded or publicly recognized for contributions to the project.
o  The leader socializes equally with people near and far.
o  Even appearances or suggestions of favoritism break trust.
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
Team Meetings
Team meetings keep members informed and provide a forum for problem solving, decision-making,
and innovation. Meetings, when productive, are also one of the primary ways to develop team member
relationships, enthusiasm, and spirit.
Effective Meetings at Work: Focused, Crisp and Short
Types of Meetings
Leadership/Management: to review the overall organization performance, setting up new
goals and targets, headed by CEO, or Chairman.
Department Specific: to review the departmental performance, headed by the head of
Project Management: to review the overall project performance, headed by Project Director
or Project Manager.
Other Meetings
o  Quarterly Business Review: to review the quarterly progress report of all the
departments in the organization.
o  Client Specific: to meet with specific client/customer to discuss the business matters
o  Functional Team: meeting with in the department between different teams exist in one
o  Special Project: meeting on special project
o  Performance Review (1-1): to review the performance
Others: a number of unscheduled meetings has also arranged on different level of organization.
Meeting Techniques:
o  Ask yourself, "Is this meeting really necessary?"
o  Have a goal for the meeting. What do you want to accomplish?
o  Have an agenda with clearly stated items and the amount of time to be allotted each one. Send
out the agenda at least one day ahead of the meeting.
o  Limit attendance and appoint a leader.
o  Stay focused on the agenda. If a new topic is introduced, add it to the list of future agenda items
or negotiate with the group if it should be discussed now. Have a clock in the room.
o  Strive to get everyone involved in the discussion, avoid domination by one or two members.
o  Foster rigorous debate and brainstorming, while respecting each other's opinions.
o  Use visual aids. Have a flip chart and use it.
o  Keep minutes of the key points raised and actions to be taken, then follow up.
o  Do a two-minute evaluation of the meeting. Ask everyone what went well... what could be
The Meeting Process
o  Plan
o  Start
o  Conduct
o  Close
o  Follow Up
Leading Team
Having the leading position or higher score in a contest; "he is ahead by a pawn"; "the leading team in
the pennant race".
Attributes of High Performing Teams:
o  Performance outcomes
Leadership & Team Management ­ MGMT 623
o  Specific, shared purpose and vision
o  Mutual, internal accountability
o  Coordinated, shared work roles
o  Inefficiency leading to efficiency
o  Extraordinarily high quality
o  Creative continuous improvement
o  High credibility and trust
o  Clarity of core competence
o  Participative leadership
o  Shared responsibility
o  Aligned on purpose
o  High communication
o  Future focused
o  Focused on task
o  Creative talents
o  Rapid response
Principles of Leadership Effectiveness
o  Do not avoid risks.
o  Believe in yourself.
o  Take the offense rather than the defense.
o  Know the ways of disagreement and the means of compromise.
o  Be a good follower. Effective leaders lead as they would like to be lead.
Material presented during this course is taken from different books, presentations and work done by
great peoples in this field to make the material understandable for a common person and purely for
learning purpose. Material/work used from different sources is highly acknowledged.
Table of Contents:
  2. FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS:People in the Process, Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce
  3. LEADERSHIP:Characteristics of Successful Leader, Why Study Leadership?
  4. LEADERSHIP (CONTD.):Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail, Why Leaders Fail?
  5. MANAGERS VS LEADERS:Characteristics, Effective Leadership, Respect for Diversity
  6. FOLLOWER-SHIP:Importance of Followers, Follower-ship Style
  7. LEADERSHIP PROCESS:Strategies for Cultivating Exemplary Followers, Important Traits of Leaders
  8. LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.):Qualities of Leaders, Self-Confidence, Integrity
  9. LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES:Personal Characteristics of Leaders, Managerial Grid
  10. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:The Fiedler Model, Situational Leadership Theory, Path-Goal Theory
  12. THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL:Personality, Situation, Heredity, Environment
  13. ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY:Job Satisfaction, Work Situation, Self - Monitoring
  14. BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI):Sub-Categories Defined, Information Gathering
  15. SITUATIONAL FACTORS:Social and psychological climate, Culture of the organization
  16. BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?:Mission Statement, Leading oneself
  17. BECOMING A LEADER:Elements of Leadership, CONCEPT OF POWER,
  18. UNDERSTANDING POWER:Sources of Power, Responses to the Use of Power, Managing Political Behavior
  19. LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE:Positional Power, Being an Effective Leader
  20. LEADERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT:Power sharing and Empowerment, Share Information
  21. MOTIVATION:Guidelines for Delegating, Human Resource Approach
  22. MOTIVATION AT WORK, MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:What Factors Diminish Motivation in the Workplace
  23. LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION:Communication & the Four Management Functions
  24. REVIEW-1:Organizational Performance, That is the Role of Management?, Leaders Vs Managers
  25. GROUP & TEAM CONCEPT:Groups versus Teams, Deciding When to Use a Team
  26. TEAM DYNAMICS:Stages of Group Development, Problem-Solving Teams, Benefits of Teams
  27. BUILDING THE TEAM:Leadership success requires, Strategies for Team Building
  28. A TEAM-BASED ORGANIZATION:Basic Steps, Span of Control, Categories of Decisions
  29. DECISION MAKING:Categories of Decisions, The Decision-Making Process
  30. TEAM DECISION MAKING:Team Problem Solving Techniques, Concept of QC
  31. EFFECTIVE TEAM COMMUNICATION:Team/Group Communications
  32. CONFLICT IN TEAM:Sources of Conflict, Scarcity of Resources, Dysfunctional Outcomes
  33. TRAINING/LEARNING OF TEAM:Training Methods, Phases of Learning Cycles
  34. LEARNING ORGANIZATION:A Litmus Test, Work Relations
  35. REWARDING & RECOGNIZING TEAMWORK:Compensating Teams, Individual or Team Rewards?
  36. MANAGING/LEADING VIRTUAL TEAMS:Communications in Virtual Organizations, Virtual Leadership
  37. EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETINGS:Better Meetings, Meeting Roles, Meeting Room Facilities
  38. LEADING TEAM:Team Leadership Structures, Leadership Demands and Duties, Leadership Direction
  39. REVIEW-II:Types of Teams, Characteristics of High Performance Teams, Sources of Conflict
  40. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP:Strategic Management, Determining Strategic Direction, Developing Human Capital:
  41. LEADING CHANGE:Dynamics of Change, Change Models, Unfreeze
  42. CREATIVE LEADERSHIP:Awaken Your Senses, How Might These Definitions Be Integrated
  43. ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP:Character Traits Reflect Ethics, Manifests Honesty
  44. LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: WHAT COMES NEXT:Benefits of Teams, Ethical Leadership,
  45. TEAMWORK: LEARNING FROM NATURE:Social Behavior, Termites, Learning from Nature