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Software Project Management

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Software Project Management (CS615)
2. Software Development Fundamentals
Technical Fundamentals
Quality Assurance Management
According to American Heritage Dictionary, quality is defined as "an inherent or
distinguishing characteristic or a property".
The distinguishing characteristics of a software product are the cyclomatic
complexity, cohesion, function points, and lines of code. These characteristics of
a software product define the quality of the product.
The US DOD (1988) defines software quality rather simply as:
The ability of a software product to satisfy its specified requirements.
The British Standards Institution (1986) has stated that:
"Quality is in the eye of the beholder, a matter, of the client's judgment."
Quality Standards and Procedures
The quality of software is said to be high if it meets the standards and procedures,
defined for the product. Standards are criteria to which the products are compared.
For example, there may be standards that govern the quality review process.
Documentation standard design standard and code standard are the three types of
standards that software projects usually follow.
Documentation standard specifies the form and content for planning, control, and
product documentation. Design standards provide rules and methods for
translating the software requirements into software design. The design standards
are specified in the form and content of the product design.
Unlike documentation standard, code standard defines the language in which code
should be written. The standard clearly mentions the structures, style conventions,
and rules for data structures and interfaces that will be implemented in the project.
Software Project Management (CS615)
Procedures are criteria to which the development and control processes are
compared. Procedures are explicit steps followed in a process. Procedures need to
be properly documented because they are needed for configuration management,
nonconformance reporting, corrective action, testing, and formal inspections.
Proper documentation of procedures is necessary because SQA activities rely on
them for project compliance. Organizations normally enforce quality standards
with the help of checklists, common error lists, and standards and guidelines.
Product quality depends on its conformance to software requirements,
development standards, and implicit requirements.
During software development, the quality of a product depends on the quality of
the design.
The quality of product design, in turn, depends on how effectively the product
designer captures the client requirements and specifications. At times, the client
has some implicit requirements that are not captured in the requirements
document. There are three things that guide requirements: want, desire, and wish.
Usually, wants are captured explicitly in the requirements documents. However, if
you manage to capture desires and wishes, the product becomes a great success.
The product designer needs to state these implicit requirements clearly during
analysis. The adherence to these implicit requirements is the key attribute that sets
one product apart from another.
The product quality also depends on how strictly, and to what degree the
developer adheres to design specifications. This is what the concept quality is
meeting or exceeding our client's needs and requirements' means.
The product quality is said to be high if the product is manufactured according to
design specifications.
Quality Control
Quality control is a series of review activities, such as:
Reviews and
Tests, used throughout the SDLC of the software product
The objective of quality control is to find problems as early as possible and fix
Quality control ensures that the software product meets the requirements defined
at every stage in its development.
Software Project Management (CS615)
There is provision for feedback mechanism during quality control. Any slippage
in meeting the requirements during the development process is communicated to
the development team immediately.
Feedback ensures that errors or misses found during quality control are rectified
as soon as they are detected.
During software development, quality control plays a valuable role by evaluating
products against standards and specifications.
Quality control activities can be fully automated manual, or a combination of
these. Quality control involves monitoring specific project results to determine if:
They comply with relevant quality standards
Identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory results.
Project results include both:
Product results, such as deliverables, and
Project management results, such as cost and schedule performance.
Quality Factors
There are a number of factors that determine the quality of a software product.
These factors can be measured either directly or indirectly. McCall (MCC77) and
his colleagues proposed some software quality factors based on three most
important aspects of a software product:
1. Product operation
2. Product revision and
3. Product transition
1. Product Operation Factors
The product operation factors determine the quality of software when a
program is executed. Good quality software is not only correct and reliable
but also delivers correct performance in all circumstances. Some of the factors
of product operation are correctness, reliability, efficiency, integrity, and
usability. You can look at the factor description in Table 1.
Table 1: Product Operation Factors
Accuracy of the program and the extent to which it fulfills design specifications
Extent to which the program is secure and its ability to recover quickly from failure.
Software Project Management (CS615)
Performance of the program and its ability to perform tasks within a time frame
Ability of the program to take care of security and the extent to which it can prevent
Ease with which a user can learn, operates, and uses the program.
2. Product Revision Factors
Product revision factors focus on the ease of maintenance of the software
product. Maintenance tasks could be either correcting faults in the original
design or making improvements to adapt the functionality to changing
environments. Product revision covers the following factors: maintainability,
flexibility, and testability. These factors are described in Table 2.
Table 2: Product Revision Factors
Maintainability Ease with which a program is debugged.
Ease with which a program is modified.
Ease with which a program is tested.
3. Product Transition Factors
The product transition factors determine the quality of programs that are
designed for open systems. Here the focus is more on the portability and
reusability of a software product. To help a system run on different platforms,
certain parts of a system may be reused. The product transition factors are
portability, reusability, interoperability, configurability, and expandability.
These factors are described in Table 3.
Table 3: Product Transition Factors
Efficiency with which a program runs on different platforms or operating systems
Extent to which the program can be used in more than one program or system
Interoperability Effort needed to transfer a program to another system
Ability of the program to be installed at more than one location with different
features at each location
Ability of the program to support an increase in data and users
Table of Contents:
  1. Introduction & Fundamentals
  2. Goals of Project management
  3. Project Dimensions, Software Development Lifecycle
  4. Cost Management, Project vs. Program Management, Project Success
  5. Project Management’s nine Knowledge Areas
  6. Team leader, Project Organization, Organizational structure
  7. Project Execution Fundamentals Tracking
  8. Organizational Issues and Project Management
  9. Managing Processes: Project Plan, Managing Quality, Project Execution, Project Initiation
  10. Project Execution: Product Implementation, Project Closedown
  11. Problems in Software Projects, Process- related Problems
  12. Product-related Problems, Technology-related problems
  13. Requirements Management, Requirements analysis
  14. Requirements Elicitation for Software
  15. The Software Requirements Specification
  16. Attributes of Software Design, Key Features of Design
  17. Software Configuration Management Vs Software Maintenance
  18. Quality Assurance Management, Quality Factors
  19. Software Quality Assurance Activities
  20. Software Process, PM Process Groups, Links, PM Phase interactions
  21. Initiating Process: Inputs, Outputs, Tools and Techniques
  22. Planning Process Tasks, Executing Process Tasks, Controlling Process Tasks
  23. Project Planning Objectives, Primary Planning Steps
  24. Tools and Techniques for SDP, Outputs from SDP, SDP Execution
  25. PLANNING: Elements of SDP
  26. Life cycle Models: Spiral Model, Statement of Requirement, Data Item Descriptions
  27. Organizational Systems
  28. ORGANIZATIONAL PLANNING, Organizational Management Tools
  29. Estimation - Concepts
  30. Decomposition Techniques, Estimation – Tools
  31. Estimation – Tools
  32. Work Breakdown Structure
  33. WBS- A Mandatory Management Tool
  34. Characteristics of a High-Quality WBS
  35. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  36. WBS- Major Steps, WBS Implementation, high level WBS tasks
  37. Schedule: Scheduling Fundamentals
  38. Scheduling Tools: GANTT CHARTS, PERT, CPM
  39. Risk and Change Management: Risk Management Concepts
  40. Risk & Change Management Concepts
  41. Risk Management Process
  42. Quality Concept, Producing quality software, Quality Control
  43. Managing Tasks in Microsoft Project 2000
  44. Commissioning & Migration