ZeePedia buy college essays online

Introduction to Public Administration

<<< Previous PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities Next >>>
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
At the end of the lecture the students will be able to :
-  Understand the concept of Public Finance,
-  The various components of Public Finance and
The difference between Private and Public Finance
In the previous lectures distinction was between public and private sector by explaining that public
goods are non excludable (i.e. the use by one person cannot exclude other person) whereas private goods
are excludable. Similarly public goods are non-divisible (the use cannot be divided) and private goods are
divisible. e.g. parks and roads are non excludable and non divisible. Whereas the use of motorbike is
excludable and non divisible.
In the production of goods finance is required. For example if parks are to be made available then
in developing parks, finance or money is required. Similarly if motor bike is to be produced money is
required by the producer. The distinction between production of public and private goods makes us think
that how finances are raised by public sector. This leads us to understand public finance.
Public finance is related to the financing of government activities i.e. how government raises
money to produce goods and services. It a subject discusses financial operation of the fisc or public
treasury. Public finance is a subject and is taught as a semester course. But since than this is introductory
course. We will only touch upon this subject in few lectures.
Public finance has undergone repeated revision in line with development in state and government
activities. At one time, it was said that the role of the government was not to interfere with the market
forces but to limit its activities to the barest minimum, therefore, it should perform its conventional
functions of law and order, defence and collect taxes and to create infrastructural facilities like roads,
bridges etc.
Concept & Definition
`Public finance deals with the finance of the government. The finances of the government include
the raising and disbursement of government fund' or public fund.
Carl Plehm says that the term public finance has come to be confined to the study of funds raised
by government to meet the cost of the government activities and responsibilities.
The subject matter of public finance deals with not only the way in which public treasury operates, it also
deals with the repercussions of policies adopted.
Musgrave calls the government sector as `public household'. The objective of this household are:
1.  Allocation of resources: It means that government will tax rich people and spend money in areas
where private sector will not invest. For example private sector will not develop parks and road.
2.  Distribution of income and wealth: Government redistributes income by taxing rich and spending
on welfare programme for the poor. It will reduce income inequalities in society by subsidising
food items.
3.  Stabilization of prices and employment: Government will stabilize prices by controlling the prices
of food items and will invest so that people are employed.
Components of Public Finance
The government operates at three levels, i.e., Federal, provincial and Local. The subject of public
finance looks into financial problems and policies of government at these three levels and studies inter
governmental financial relation. The area of public finance also sees that how the 3 government raise and
share resources.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Following are the main components of public finance:
(1) Public revenue: sources of government income are:
a. Taxation and its effect on economy
b. Non-tax revenues such as fee, fines, grants, interest receipt etc.
c. Public debt problems: public debt is a source of income
(2) Public Expenditure: through public expenditure government participates and contributes to
the financial flows of the economy. It is also a tool for implementing welfare and other
policies. The expenditure that government makes affects the economics because government
expenditure is inflow to the economy.
(3) Financial Administration: It involves issues of financial administration including public budget,
its approval, financial implementation, control systems and audit. Without the study of
financial administration the subject of public finance remains incomplete.
(4) Federal finance: It studies the multilayer (the 3 levels of government) system of government
which necessitates a division of function and resources between the layers of government and
inter-governmental relations. We will deal with each of these areas separately.
Similarities & Dissimilarities between Public and Private Finance
Private finance means the financial problems of individual economic unit, i.e., a household, a shop,
a firm etc. Private finance does not form part of government. We will look at the similarities and
dissimilarities to develop analytical framework for public finance.
Modern economies are monetized, that is goods and services are exchanged through a medium of
money. In other words both public & private sector create and use financial claims. Both are engaged in
activities that involves purchase, sales and other transactions. Both are thus engaged in production of
goods and service, exchange goods & services, save capital and invest capital to further create money.
In order, to finance its operations and invest in projects government creates money (which is a
financial asset), raises loans, makes payment, etc. Similarly, private economic unit lends, borrows, receive
payments, make payments, etc. In this respect both are quite similar. So both sectors are engaged in
satisfying wants of society. Both have limited resources at their disposal and try to maximize decisions. But
the similarities are few.
The dissimilarities are many and are discussed one by one in the following paragraph:-
Private economic unit has to live within its means and its borrowing capacity is less then
government. Its deficit budgeting can be only for limited time period. It can accumulate
outstanding debt liabilities up to a certain amount. But the government can add to its outstanding
debt with every budget by borrowing from the banking sector or by floating bonds and bills. A
number of governments resort to instrument like bond and treasury bills to raise money.
It is not only the amount of borrowings over which government has control but also the forms,
interest paid on loans and other terms that government dictate. Government can borrow both
internally and externally i.e., from domestic banking sector and from international banking &
financial sector. The high creditworthiness of government enables it to borrow at lower rates
because it has the support of the Central Bank which serves as an agent and underwriter when
loans are floated in the market.
The government can create legal tender currency. That is it has the power to add to currency supply.
Governments have control over Central Bank & mints, therefore, the government decides how
much money has to be supplied to economy. Although there are formal technical restriction to the
supply of money, that is how much currency supply should be added, but restriction can be waived
if the government so wants.
The private finance follows the `market principle' or the principle of economic rationality but the
public finance follows the `budget principle'. The market principle is that private sector will invest
where there are profits. On the other hand budget principle means that investment will be made
not on the basis of profit but on the basis of redistribution of resources.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
The government is expected to take the long term and short term view of the economy, because
society is perpetual entity and for its welfare many activities are needed which have no immediate
economic return. For example education does not have short term returns.
The government has complete power to raise money through taxes, confiscation, borrowing and
printing notes; it has to use this power carefully because over borrowing by the government from
the banking sector can banking sector leave little money for the private sector. This is called
`crowding out'. Similarly excessive taxation can discourage savings and investment.
What can be said about public finance is that there are some fundamental differences between
public and private finance. But it is essential to remember that public sector is part of the total
economy. The activities of public and private sector affect each other because there is mutual
transferring of resources.
The Economic System and Public Finance
The public sector is the important sector and it can be operated in an effective way to improve the
performance of economy.
The classical economist believed that private sector was always efficient because it responded to
the market signals. And that market directs where to invest money. The market directs investment where
there is profit and that is the most efficient way to make decision. Classical economists were therefore,
against too much interference of government. They believed that if government would start spending
money in various sectors of the economy then government will have to borrow from banking sector. This
would lead to budget deficit. Budget deficit in their view was not good and government should try to
balance the budget.
On the other hand there is Keynsian view that government will have to invest to increase
employment and wages. Government investment will also correct market failures.
The borrowing by the government will lead to budget deficit and interfere with economy. It was
said that government should balance the budget.
Public finance:
that branch of finance that deals with raising of taxes and
expenditure by government.
Public debt:
government borrowings accumulated over a long period of time.
Public deficit:
the excess of expenditure over income in one budget period of
government i.e. one year.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management