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Introduction to Psychology

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Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
Behavior Modification
A therapeutic/intervention strategy used for modifying behavior in such a manner that the frequency of
desired behavior is increased up to the optimal level, and the frequency of undesired behavior is brought
down to the minimum...or to extinction level.
The intervention is based upon the principles of learning, specifically shaping.
Steps in Behavior Modification
·  Identification of goals in terms of target behavior.
·  Designing the intervention, issues involved and deciding its components.
·  Implementation of the planned program as well as careful monitoring.
· Successive approximations of a required/-desired response are reinforced until that response is fully
· In the beginning each and every success is reinforced with a reward, no matter how small the success.
· Once the desired response is learnt the reinforcer immediately follows it, every time it happens.
· Once learnt the behavior, in many cases, the organism may not need reinforcement since many
behaviors are self-reinforcing e.g. learning to play a musical instrument.
Usefulness of Behavior Therapy
Found to be effective with 50-90% of patients especially treating phobias, anxiety disorder and
other unwanted behaviors such as smoking and drug abuse.
Also helpful in the sense that it cal also be employed by non- professionals too.
Cheap and economical as it directly focused on the problem to be unlearn.
·Criticized also because it also give importance to the overt observable behavior and does not evaluate the
inner thoughts and experiences.
Cognitive Approach in Behavior Modification
Negative and unacceptable behavior is modified through constructive strategies
According to this theory, person's beliefs and attitudes affect his motivation and behavior.
In order to modify the behavior, reinforcement techniques are used.
For attaining the desired goal, realistic strategies are used with continuous feedback.
Steps in Behavior Modification
Identification of goals in terms of target behavior;
Recording the preliminary/background information concerning the behavior in question;
Designing the intervention, issues involved and deciding its components.
Implementation of the planned program as well as careful monitoring.
Recording the events, progress, and problems during the implementation phase
Evaluating the program and making alterations if required.
Altering the Belief System
· Psychologists are of the view that psychological problems arise due to the way people perceive
themselves in relation with the people they interact.
Main focus of the therapist is to alter the irrational belief system of a person.
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
Cognitive Theory for Depression
Aaron Beck formulated the therapy for depression patients.
Therapist helps the depressive person to change the faulty patterns of thinking through
problem- solving techniques.
Believed that depression reoccur in depressive patients because the negative thoughts occur
automatically from which they are unaware.
Four tactics are used by the therapist that unfounded depression
i. Challenging the patient's ill beliefs.
ii. Evaluating the cause of depression.
iii. Attributing the cause to the environmental situation/ event not to the person's in competencies.
iv. Finding the alternative and effective solutions for the complex problems.
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy
Developed by Albert Ellis (1962, 1977)
Focused on altering the irrational beliefs into more acceptable way.
Clients are forbidden to use "should", "must"," ought" etc.
Confrontation techniques are used which focused on changing the attitudes through rational
· Task is to protect the self worth, potential to be self-actualized by blocking the irrational thinking
Humanistic Therapies
Central Themes of Humanistic Approach
· Human beings are capable of shaping their own destiny.
· They can think and design their course of action and can follow it in the way they like
· People can overcome or minimize the environmental, and intrinsic influences.
· "Here and now" is important.
· "Wholeness" or "completeness" of the personality is important rather than its separate, disintegrated,
structural parts.
Humanistic approach emphasizes
· Individual's freedom in directing his future.
· Capacity for personal growth.
· Intrinsic worth, and,
· Potential for self-fulfillment.
Rogers' Approach
· Primarily a clinical theory, based on years of Roger's experience dealing with his clients.
· In its richness and maturity his theory matches that of Freud; a theory well thought-out and logical,
having broad application.
· The theory emphasizes on a single factor "force of life" which he calls the actualizing tendency i.e. built-
in motivation present in every life form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent possible.
To be fully functioning means experiencing:
i. Optimal psychological adjustment.
ii. Optimal psychological maturity.
iii. Complete congruence (a feeling of integration when the self and the ideal self match;
incongruence is a feeling of conflict or unease experienced in case of a mismatch between the two).
iv. Complete openness to experience. Humanistic Approaches to Therapy
· The approach suggesting that people are in control of their life.
· The person or the self, and personal growth and development are emphasized by the humanistic
· The humanistic approach includes a number of other theories with the same or similar
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
orientation e.g., `existential' and `phenomenological' psychology.
· Rogers maintained that the therapist must possess the following qualities:
i. Congruence -- genuineness, honesty with the client.
ii. Empathy -- the ability to feel what the client feels.
iii. Respect -- acceptance, unconditional positive regard towards the client
Carl Roger's Psychotherapy
· Carl Rogers is best known for his contributions to therapy known as "person- centered/ Client-
centered therapy/ Non- directive therapy.
· Also known as the Rogerian Therapy".
· His main technique "Reflection"__ mirroring of emotional experiences.
· Therapy in which the therapist's role is to reflect back the patient' statement in such a manner
that the patient finds solutions to his/ her problems.
· Aim of the therapy: To help a person grow and self-actualize.
Other Approaches
Existential Therapy
Contrary to humanistic approach to therapy that focuses on unique freedom and potential as
positive force, existential therapy is based on the notion that when an individual becomes
unable to deal with his/ her freedom, it will result in anguish, fear, and concern.
The goal of life, according to this therapy is to properly grip and use one's freedom effectively
with value systems one has in his/ her life.
Therapy also focuses on the individual's responsibilities that he must take in order to make free
choices about his lives.
Therapist's job is to probe and challenge the patient's views of the world around.
In the same way, a strong bond is developed between the patient and the therapist so that the
patient feels comfortable while interacting. Also both are experiencing the same difficulties and
Gestalt Therapy
The Gestalt therapy focuses on integrating the patient's thoughts and feelings into an integrate
This can be done through by placing oneself in that position as mother or father and then his/
her own position in order to experience different parts of a conflict.
The aim of the therapy is to express whatever is frustrating and conflicting to the person such
as kicking the things around when angry, yelling out while frustration etc
This sort of activities encouraged the person to act out/ express the things that are conflicting
and frustrating.
Group Therapy
A form of therapy in which people discuss problems and difficulties with the group members.
Several unrelated people work with the therapist and discuss their psychological problems with
him; in some cases the therapist is active and directed towards the problem and sometimes the
group takes up an issue and determines how to proceed.
People often discuss issues like smoking, alcoholism, or lacking social skills.
·The other members of the group provide emotional support and suggestions so that the it can also be
helpful to them in similar circumstances.
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
Family Therapy
The therapy, which involves members of the family for finding solutions to problems.
Therapist considers family members as a unit in which each member serves as a contributor in
order to gain an understanding of " how" they interact with one another.
Family therapists believe that problems arise in the family due to the rigid roles and
conventions exhibited by the family and the solution of their problems lies in adopting new and
constructive roles and patterns of behavior.
Biomedical Therapies
Lifestyle changes
Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?:Theoretical perspectives of psychology
  3. SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT:Biological Approach, Psychodynamic Approach
  4. PERSPECTIVE/MODEL/APPROACH:Narcosis, Chemotherapy
  5. THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH/ MODEL:Psychic Determinism, Preconscious
  6. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH:Behaviorist Analysis, Basic Terminology, Basic Terminology
  8. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (I):Scientific Nature of Psychology
  9. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (II):Experimental Research
  11. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:Socio- Cultural Factor, The Individual and the Group
  12. NERVOUS SYSTEM (1):Biological Bases of Behavior, Terminal Buttons
  13. NERVOUS SYSTEM (2):Membranes of the Brain, Association Areas, Spinal Cord
  14. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland, Dwarfism
  15. SENSATION:The Human Eye, Cornea, Sclera, Pupil, Iris, Lens
  16. HEARING (AUDITION) AND BALANCE:The Outer Ear, Auditory Canal
  17. PERCEPTION I:Max Wertheimer, Figure and Ground, Law of Closure
  18. PERCEPTION II:Depth Perception, Relative Height, Linear Perspective
  19. ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS:Electroencephalogram, Hypnosis
  20. LEARNING:Motor Learning, Problem Solving, Basic Terminology, Conditioning
  21. OPERANT CONDITIONING:Negative Rein forcer, Punishment, No reinforcement
  22. COGNITIVE APPROACH:Approach to Learning, Observational Learning
  23. MEMORY I:Functions of Memory, Encoding and Recoding, Retrieval
  24. MEMORY II:Long-Term Memory, Declarative Memory, Procedural Memory
  25. MEMORY III:Memory Disorders/Dysfunctions, Amnesia, Dementia
  26. SECONDARY/ LEARNT/ PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES:Curiosity, Need for affiliation
  27. EMOTIONS I:Defining Emotions, Behavioral component, Cognitive component
  28. EMOTIONS II:Respiratory Changes, Pupillometrics, Glandular Responses
  29. COGNITION AND THINKING:Cognitive Psychology, Mental Images, Concepts
  31. PERSONALITY I:Definition of Personality, Theories of Personality
  32. PERSONALITY II:Surface traits, Source Traits, For learning theorists, Albert Bandura
  33. PERSONALITY III:Assessment of Personality, Interview, Behavioral Assessment
  34. INTELLIGENCE:The History of Measurement of Intelligence, Later Revisions
  35. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:Plato, Aristotle, Asclepiades, In The Middle Ages
  36. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR I:Medical Perspective, Psychodynamic Perspective
  37. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR II:Hypochondriasis, Conversion Disorders, Causes include
  38. PSYCHOTHERAPY I:Psychotherapeutic Orientations, Clinical Psychologists
  39. PSYCHOTHERAPY II:Behavior Modification, Shaping, Humanistic Therapies
  40. POPULAR AREAS OF PSYCHOLOGY:ABC MODEL, Factors affecting attitude change
  41. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:Understanding Health, Observational Learning
  42. INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:‘Hard’ Criteria and ‘Soft’ Criteria
  43. CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Focus of Interest, Consumer Psychologist
  44. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Some Research Findings, Arousal level
  45. FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY:Origin and History of Forensic Psychology