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Project Management

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LESSON 27
PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT
BROAD CONTENTS
Scope
Project Scope Management
27.1
SCOPE:
The term "scope" refers to:
Product Scope:
This includes work to deliver a project's product/service with specific features and
functions. The result can be a single product or you can have several components. The
features, functions, and characteristics to be included in a product are measured against set
product requirements and are managed throughout the lifecycle.
Project Scope:
Project scope refers to the work that must be done in order to deliver a product, service,
result with specified features and functions. Project scope has a start and end date, possesses
unique characteristics or attributes, and produces specific results during the lifecycle.
27.2
PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT:
Scope management is concerned with defining and controlling the scope of a project. It includes
product description, any known constraints and assumptions. Project scope is defined in project
charter. It serves as a basis for development of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). It must be
verified and controlled throughout the life of the project.
Project scope management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all
the work required to complete the project successfully. It is primarily concerned with defining
and controlling what is or is not included in project.
Figure 27.1: Scope Management Process
The scope management process comprises of the following:
 Project initiation: Approve Business case, feasibility, budget
 Scope planning: Gather requirements
 Scope definition: Create scope components, scope divide work
 Scope verification: Get approval from all stakeholders
 Scope change control: Manage scope change requests
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Figure 27.2: Managing Project Scope Phases
27.2.1 Initiation Phase:
As described in the previous lecture, it is the process of formally recognizing that a new
project exists or that an existing project should continue into its next phase
Figure 27.3: Initiation Phase
27.2.2 Project Scope Planning:
It refers to creating a project scope management plan that documents how project scope
will be defined, verified, controlled and how the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
will be created and defined.
Process of developing a written scope statement as the basis for future project decisions
including, in particular, the criteria used to determine, if the project phase completed
successfully.
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Figure 27.4: Scope Planning
27.2.2.1Applying the Process Model:
Figure 27.5: Process Model
1.
Define Scope: I
It is always essential to know what the goals of the project are.
This needs to be defined in exact and quantitative terms:
What the project is supposed to achieve
o
What the project is not supposed to achieve
o
This is achieved through the definition and management of the
project scope.
2.
Identify Project Environment and Characteristics:
Identify what processes are already in place. If process is
fundamental to achieving organization's goals? Is there high
risk involved in business? What the problem areas are? Also
what type of an organizational culture exists (is it easily
adaptable or adverse to change)? Lastly, identify what the
requirements are?
3.
Solicit Inputs:
The requirements for project are a major driver. The affected
parties should be involved in the process. These people ensure
resulting processes are:
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a)
Feasible /useful
b)
Possible, including feedback of previous projects
4.
Select Processes, Activities and Tasks:
Identify and prioritize processes or parts of process within the
standards that will be implemented. It is useful to include
"mapping current processes" practices and/or methods to
processes activities and tasks. Mapping must be used to verify
and to identify gaps between the current situation and target
situation.
5.
Document Decisions and Rationale:
Document refers to the mapping of defined processes, activities
and tasks to determine relationships and reasons for adopting
this approach. This document should be included into the
Project Management Plan".
27.2.3 Project Scope Definition:
This involves subdividing major project deliverables (as identified in scope statement)
into smaller, more manageable components.
Figure 27.6: Scope Definition
The benefit of scope definition is to improve accuracy of estimated cost, time, and
resources. The baseline for performance, measurement and control is defined. It
facilitates clear responsibility and assignments.
27.2.3.1Work Breakdown Structure (WBS):
Deliverable oriented grouping of project elements that organizes and
defines the scope of the project that work not in Work Breakdown
Structure (WBS) is outside the scope of project.
As with the scope statement, Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is
often used to develop or confirm a common understanding of project
scope.
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Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed description of
project elements.
Figure 27.7: Model Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is normally presented in chart
form. Each item in it is generally assigned a unique identifier often
known collectively as "code of accounts". Items at lowest level of
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) are known as work packages.
27.2.4 Scope Verification:
It is the process of formalizing acceptance of the project scope by stakeholders
(sponsor, client, customer, etc.).
Figure 27.8: Scope Verification
27.2.4.1Formal Acceptance:
It is the documentation of the product, project or phase acceptance by
the client and/or sponsor. It must be prepared and distributed. Such
acceptance must be conditional, especially at the end of every phase.
27.2.5 Scope Change Control:
It defines procedures by which project scope must be changed. It includes paperwork,
tracking systems, and approval levels necessary for authorizing changes. Scope change
control system should be integrated with overall change control system. In particular,
with any system in place to control product scope.
Scope change control is concerned with:
a)
Influencing factors which create scope changes to ensure that changes are
beneficial.
b)
Determining that a scope change has occurred.
c)
Managing the actual changes when and if they occur.
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Figure 27.9: Scope Change Control
Figure 27.10: The Cost of Scope Change
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Broad Contents, Functions of Management
  2. CONCEPTS, DEFINITIONS AND NATURE OF PROJECTS:Why Projects are initiated?, Project Participants
  3. CONCEPTS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT:THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM, Managerial Skills
  4. PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES:Systems, Programs, and Projects
  5. PROJECT LIFE CYCLES:Conceptual Phase, Implementation Phase, Engineering Project
  6. THE PROJECT MANAGER:Team Building Skills, Conflict Resolution Skills, Organizing
  7. THE PROJECT MANAGER (CONTD.):Project Champions, Project Authority Breakdown
  8. PROJECT CONCEPTION AND PROJECT FEASIBILITY:Feasibility Analysis
  9. PROJECT FEASIBILITY (CONTD.):Scope of Feasibility Analysis, Project Impacts
  10. PROJECT FEASIBILITY (CONTD.):Operations and Production, Sales and Marketing
  11. PROJECT SELECTION:Modeling, The Operating Necessity, The Competitive Necessity
  12. PROJECT SELECTION (CONTD.):Payback Period, Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
  13. PROJECT PROPOSAL:Preparation for Future Proposal, Proposal Effort
  14. PROJECT PROPOSAL (CONTD.):Background on the Opportunity, Costs, Resources Required
  15. PROJECT PLANNING:Planning of Execution, Operations, Installation and Use
  16. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Outside Clients, Quality Control Planning
  17. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Elements of a Project Plan, Potential Problems
  18. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Sorting Out Project, Project Mission, Categories of Planning
  19. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Identifying Strategic Project Variables, Competitive Resources
  20. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Responsibilities of Key Players, Line manager will define
  21. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):The Statement of Work (Sow)
  22. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE:Characteristics of Work Package
  23. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE:Why Do Plans Fail?
  24. SCHEDULES AND CHARTS:Master Production Scheduling, Program Plan
  25. TOTAL PROJECT PLANNING:Management Control, Project Fast-Tracking
  26. PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT:Why is Scope Important?, Scope Management Plan
  27. PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT:Project Scope Definition, Scope Change Control
  28. NETWORK SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES:Historical Evolution of Networks, Dummy Activities
  29. NETWORK SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES:Slack Time Calculation, Network Re-planning
  30. NETWORK SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES:Total PERT/CPM Planning, PERT/CPM Problem Areas
  31. PRICING AND ESTIMATION:GLOBAL PRICING STRATEGIES, TYPES OF ESTIMATES
  32. PRICING AND ESTIMATION (CONTD.):LABOR DISTRIBUTIONS, OVERHEAD RATES
  33. PRICING AND ESTIMATION (CONTD.):MATERIALS/SUPPORT COSTS, PRICING OUT THE WORK
  34. QUALITY IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Value-Based Perspective, Customer-Driven Quality
  35. QUALITY IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT (CONTD.):Total Quality Management
  36. PRINCIPLES OF TOTAL QUALITY:EMPOWERMENT, COST OF QUALITY
  37. CUSTOMER FOCUSED PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Threshold Attributes
  38. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT TOOLS:Data Tables, Identify the problem, Random method
  39. PROJECT EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH ENHANCED PRODUCTIVITY:Messages of Productivity, Productivity Improvement
  40. COST MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN PROJECTS:Project benefits, Understanding Control
  41. COST MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN PROJECTS:Variance, Depreciation
  42. PROJECT MANAGEMENT THROUGH LEADERSHIP:The Tasks of Leadership, The Job of a Leader
  43. COMMUNICATION IN THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Cost of Correspondence, CHANNEL
  44. PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT:Components of Risk, Categories of Risk, Risk Planning
  45. PROJECT PROCUREMENT, CONTRACT MANAGEMENT, AND ETHICS IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Procurement Cycles