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LESSON 42
PROJECTMANAGEMENT THROUGHLEADERSHIP
BROADCONTENTS
Leadership
Transformational leadership
Vision
Leadershipgrid & managerialgrid
42.1
Leadership
Leadership is a process of getting things done through people. The quarterback moves the team toward a
touchdown.The senior patrol leader guides the troop to a high rating at the camporee.The mayor gets
the people to support new policies to make the city better. Theseleaders are getting things done by
workingthrough people -- footballplayers, Scouts, and ordinary citizens. They have used the process of
leadership to reach certain goals.
Leadership is not a science. So being a leader is an adventure because you cannever be sure whether
youwill reach your goal -- at least this time. Thetouchdown drive may end in a fumble. The troopmay
have a bad weekend during the camporee. Or the city's citizens may not be convinced that the mayor's
policiesare right. So these leaders have to try again, usingother methods. But theystill use the same
processthe process of good leadership.
Leadershipmeans responsibility. It'sadventure and often fun, but it always means responsibility.The
leader is the guy the others look to to get the job done. So don't thinkyour job as a troop leader or a staff
memberwill be just an honor. It's more than that. It meansthat the other Scouts expect you to take the
responsibility of getting the job done. If youlead, they will do the job. If you don't, they may expect you
to do the job all by yourself.
That's why it's important thatyou begin right now to learn what leadership is allabout.
Wear your badge of officeproudly. It does notautomatically make you a good leader. But it identifies
you as a Scout who others want to follow -- if you'll let them by showing leadership.
You are not a finished leader. No one ever is, not even a president or prime minister. But youare an
explorer of the human mind because nowyou are going to try to learn how to get things done through
people.This is one of the keys to leadership.
You are searching for the secrets of leadership. Many of them lie lockedinside you. As youdiscover
them and practice them, you will join a special group of people-skilledleaders.
Goodexploring -- both in thishandbook and with the groups youwill have a chance to lead.
The Tasks of Leadership
In this section, we will consider several common statements about the peoplewho serve in leadership
positionsthroughout our world. Afteryou have read the statement, decide for yourself whether youfeel
it is true or false and why youthink it is.
Here is the first one. True or false?
Theonly people who leadhave some kind of leadershipjob, such as chairman, coach, or king.
Do you think that's true? Don'tyou believe it. It's true that chairmen, coaches, and kingslead, but people
whohold no leadership position alsolead. And you canfind some people who have a leader's title and
ought to lead. But theydon't.
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In other words, you are not a leader because you wear the leader's hat or because you wear the patrol
leader'sinsignia on your uniform. You are a leader only when youare getting things done through other
people.
Leadership,then, is something peopledo. Some people inherit leadership positions, such as kings, or
nobles, or heads of family businesses.Some are elected: chairman, governor,patrol leader. Someare
appointed,such as a coach, a city manager, or a den chief. Or they may just happen to be there when a
situationarises that demands leadership. A disaster occurs, or a teacherdoesn't show up whenclass
begins, or a patrol leader becomes sick on a campout.
Trythis statement. Is it true or false?
Leadership is a gift. If you are born withit, you can lead. If you are not, youcan't.
Somepeople will tell youthat. Some really believeit. But it's notso.
Leadershipdoes take skill. Noteveryone can learn all the skills of leadership as well as anyoneelse. But
mostpeople can learn some of them -- and thus develop theirown potential.
You don't have to be born withleadership. Chances are, youweren't. But you were bornwith a brain. If
youcan learn to swim or playcheckers or do math, you canlearn leadership skills.
Howabout this statement. True or false?
"Leader" is another word for "boss."
Well,what do you mean by "boss"? A guy who pushes and ordersother people around? No, a leader is
notone of those. (But somepeople try to lead thisway.)
Or do you mean a boss is somebody who has a job to do and works with other people to get it done?
This is true. A leader is a boss in thatsense.
True or false?
Being a leader in a Scout troop is like being a leader anywhereelse.
This one is true. When you lead in a Scout troop, you will do many of the same things as any leader
anywhere.
Theimportant thing now is Scouting gives you a chance to lead. You can learnhowto lead in Scouting.
You can practice leadership in Scouting. Thenyou can lead other groups, too. The skills youwill need
arevery much the same.
Whatdoes a leader dealwith?
Every leader deals with just twothings. Here they are: the joband the group.
Thejob is what's to be done. The "job"doesn't necessarily mean work. It could be playing a game. It
could be building a skyscraper. It could be getting across an idea.
A leader is needed to get the job done. If there were no job, there would be no needfor a leader.
Thegroup, such as a patrol, is the people who do the job. And in many cases, the group continues after
the job is done. This is where leadinggets tough, as you'll seelater.
Thinkabout this situation. Markhas a lot of firewood to split. There he is, allalone with his ax.He's got
a job to do. Is he a leader?
We have to say in this situationthat Mark won't be leading.Why? No group. There'snobody on the job
butMark.
Here's another example. Danny and three of his friends are on theirbikes. They have no place to go.
They'rejust riding slowly, seeinghow close they can get to each other.
Is Danny -- or any one of the others -- a leader?
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Fromwhat we know, we have to sayno. Why? No job. There's a group of friends, butnothing special to
be done. You don't need a leader forthat. (You don't need a group, either.)
TheJob of a Leader
A leader works with twothings: a job and a group. You can always tell when a leader succeeds,
because:
1. The job gets done.
2. The group holdstogether.
Let's see why it takesboth.
Frankwas elected patrol leader.That same week, the patrol had a job cleaning up an old cemetery.
It was Frank's first leadership position, and he wanted it to go right. In his daydream he could see the
Scoutmasterpraising him for the great cleanup job. So, when Saturday morning came, Frank and the
patrolwent over to the cemetery, and Frankstarted to get the job done.
He hollered. He yelled. He threatened. He called them names. He workedlike a tiger himself. It was a
roughday, but the cemetery got cleaned up.
Frankwent home sort of proud, sort of mad, and very tired.
"How'dthings go, Frank?" the Scoutmaster asked a few dayslater.
"Good."
"Noproblems?"
"No."Frank wondered what he meant by that.
"Oh!Well, a couple of the boys in yourpatrol asked me if theycould change to another patrol. I thought
maybe something had gone wrong...."
Andthat was how Frank learned that getting the job done isn't all there is to leadership. He had really
given the group a hard time, and now they wanted to breakup.
Almostanybody with a whip and a mean temper can get a job done. But in doing it, theyusually destroy
the group. And that's notleadership. The group must go on.
Anothernew patrol leader called a meeting at his house.Everybody seemed to be hungrywhen they
came. So they got some snacksfrom the kitchen. Thenthey tossed a footballaround. It began to get
dark, and one by one they went home. Everybody had fun. But the patrol meeting -- the job -- never
started.
One of the following statements is the message of this section. Whichone?
a. Nice guys finish last.
b. Mean guys finish last.
c. Leaders get the job done and keep the group going.
d. Leaders have a special title or badgethat makes others like to follow.
We'lltake the third one. Willyou?
Whataffects leadership?
Leadership is not magic that comes out of a leader's head. It'sskill. The leader learns how to get the job
done and still keep the grouptogether.
Doesthis mean that the leader does the same things in every situation? No. Here'swhy.
Leadershipdiffers with the leader, the group, and the situation.
Leaders-- like other people areall different. No leader cantake over another leader'sjob and do it the
sameway.
Groupsaredifferent, too. A great footballcoach might have difficultyleading an orchestra. A good
sergeantmight be a poor Scoutmaster. So when a leader changes groups, he changes the way he leads.
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Situationsdiffer,too. The same leader with the same group must changewith conditions. A fellow
leading a group discussion needs to change his style of leadership when a fire breaks out. As a Scout
leader,you probably can't lead the group in the rain the same as you do in the sunshine.
An effective leader, then, must be alert at all times to the reaction of the members of the group; the
conditions in which he may findhimself; and be aware of hisown abilities and reactions.
Leadership Develops
Picture a long scale like a yardstick. On the low end, there are no leadership skills. On the other end,
there is a complete set of leadership skills.
Everyone is somewhere between those ends!
Where do you find yourself at thistime? Unknowingly, you may be further up the scale thanyou
realize. As a staff member you'll now have the opportunity to findout.
TenCharacteristics of a Leader
Aftersome years of carefullyconsidering Greenleaf's originalwritings, I have identified a set of ten
characteristics of the leader that I view as being of critical importance--central to the development of
leaders. My own work currentlyinvolves a deepening understanding of the following characteristics
and how they contribute to the meaningful practice of leadership. These ten characteristics include:
Listening: Leaders have traditionally beenvalued for theircommunication and decisionmakingskills.
Althoughthese are also importantskills for the leader, theyneed to be reinforced by a deepcommitment
to listening intently to others. The leader seeks to identify the will of a group and helps to clarifythat
will. He or she listens receptively to what is being said and unsaid. Listeningalso encompassesgetting
in touch with one's owninner voice. Listening,coupled with periods of reflection, are essential to the
growth and well-being of the leader.
Empathy: The leader strives to understand and empathize with others. People need to be acceptedand
recognized for their special and uniquespirits. One assumes thegood intentions of co-workers and
colleagues and does not reject them as people, even when one may be forced to refuse to acceptcertain
behaviors or performance. The most successfulleaders are those who have become skilled empathetic
listeners.
Healing: The healing of relationships is a powerful force fortransformation and integration. One of the
great strengths of leadership is the potentialfor healing one's self and one's relationship to others. Many
people have broken spirits and have sufferedfrom a variety of emotional hurts. Although this is a part
of being human, leaders recognize thatthey have an opportunity to help make whole thosewith whom
theycome in contact. In his essay,TheServant as Leader, Greenleaf writes, "There is something subtle
communicated to one who is being served and led if, implicit in the compact between leader and led, is
the understanding that the searchfor wholeness is somethingthey share."
Awareness: General awareness, andespecially self-awareness, strengthens the leader. Awareness
helps one in understanding issues involving ethics, power and values. It lends itself to being able to
viewmost situations from a more integrated, holistic position. As Greenleaf observed: "Awareness is
not a giver of solace--it is just the opposite. It is a disturber and an awakener. Able leaders areusually
sharply awake and reasonably disturbed. Theyare not seekers aftersolace. They have their owninner
serenity."
Persuasion: Another characteristic of leaders is a reliance on persuasion, rather than on one's positional
authority, in making decisions within an organization. The leader seeks to convince others, rather than
coercecompliance.  This particular element offers one of the clearest distinctions between the
traditionalauthoritarian model and that of leadership. The leader is effective at building consensus
within groups. This emphasis on persuasionover coercion finds its roots in the beliefs of the Religious
Society of Friends (Quakers)--the denominational body to which Robert Greenleafbelonged.
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Conceptualization: Leaders seek to nurturetheir abilities to dream great dreams. Theability to look
at a problem or an organization from a conceptualizing perspective means that one must think beyond
day-to-dayrealities. For many leaders,this is a characteristic that requires discipline and practice. The
traditional leader is consumed by the need to achieve short-term operational goals. The leader who
wishes to also be a leader must stretchhis or her thinking to encompassbroader-based conceptual
thinking.Within organizations, conceptualization is, by its very nature, the properrole of boards of
trustees or directors.  Unfortunately, boardscan sometimes becomeinvolved in the day-to-day
operations--somethingthat should always be discouraged--and, thus, fail to provide the visionary
conceptfor an institution. Trusteesneed to be mostly conceptual in theirorientation, staffs need to be
mostlyoperational in their perspective, and the most effective executiveleaders probably need to
developboth perspectives withinthemselves. Leaders arecalled to seek a delicatebalance between
conceptual thinking and a day-to-day operational approach.
Foresight: Closely related to conceptualization, the ability to foresee the likely outcome of a situation
is hard to define, but easier to identify. One knowsforesight when oneexperiences it. Foresight is a
characteristic that enables the leader to understand the lessons from the past, therealities of thepresent,
and the likely consequence of a decisionfor the future. It is alsodeeply rooted within the intuitive
mind.Foresight remains a largelyunexplored area in leadership studies,but one most deserving of
carefulattention.
Stewardship:  Peter Block (author of Stewardshipand TheEmpowered Manager) hasdefined
stewardship as "holding something in trust foranother." Robert Greenleaf's view of all institutions was
one in which CEO's, staffs, and trusteesall played significant roles in holding their institutions in trust
for the greater good of society. Leadership,like stewardship, assumes firstand foremost a commitment
to serving the needs of others. It alsoemphasizes the use of openness and persuasion, rather than
control.
Commitment to the growth of people: Leaders believe that people have an intrinsic valuebeyond
theirtangible contributions as workers. As such, the leader is deeply committed to the growth of each
and every individual within his or her organization.  The leader recognizes the tremendous
responsibility to do everything in his or her power to nurture the personal and professionalgrowth of
employees and colleagues. In practice, this caninclude (but is not limitedto) concrete actions such as
makingfunds available for personal and professional development, taking a personal interest in the
ideas and suggestions from everyone,encouraging worker involvement in decisionmaking, and actively
assistinglaid-off employees to find otherpositions.
Buildingcommunity: The leader senses that much hasbeen lost in recent human history as a result of
the shift from local communities to large institutions as the primaryshaper of human lives.This
awarenesscauses the leader to seek to identifysome means for buildingcommunity among thosewho
workwithin a given institution.Leadership suggests thattrue community can be created among those
whowork in businesses and otherinstitutions. Greenleaf said, "All that is needed to rebuildcommunity
as a viable life form forlarge numbers of people is for enough leaders to show the way,not by mass
movements, but by each leader demonstrating his or her unlimited liability for a quite specific
community-relatedgroup."
These ten characteristics of leadership are by no means exhaustive.  However,they do serve to
communicate the power and promise that thisconcept offers to those whoare open to its invitation and
challenge.
Interest in the meaning and practice of leadership continues to grow. Hundreds of books, articles, and
papers on the subject have now been published.Many of the companies named to Fortunemagazine's
annuallisting of "The 100 Best Companies to Work For" espouse leadership and have integrated it into
their corporate cultures. As more and more organizations and people have sought to put leadership into
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practice, the work of The Greenleaf Center for Leadership, now in its36th year, continues to expand in
order to help meet thatneed.
Leadershipcharacteristics often occur naturallywithin many individuals; and, like many natural
tendencies,they can be enhanced throughlearning and practice. Leadership offers great hope for the
future in creating better, more caring,institutions.
Leadership vs. Management
What is the difference between management and leadership? It is a question that hasbeen asked more
thanonce and also answered in different ways. The biggest difference between managers and leaders is
the way they motivate the peoplewho work or follow them, andthis sets the tone formost other aspects
of what they do.
Manypeople, by the way, areboth. They have managementjobs, but they realizethat you cannot buy
hearts,especially to follow them down a difficult path, and so act as leaders too.
Managers have subordinates
By definition, managers have subordinates - unless their title is honorary and given as a mark of
seniority, in which case the title is a misnomer and their power over others is other than formal
authority.
Authoritarian,transactional style
Managers have a position of authority vested in them by the company, and their subordinates work for
them and largely do as they aretold. Management style is transactional, in that the managertells the
subordinatewhat to do, and the subordinate doesthis not because theyare a blind robot, butbecause
they have been promised a reward (atminimum their salary) fordoing so.
Workfocus
Managersare paid to get things done (they are subordinates too),often within tight constraints of time
andmoney. They thus naturallypass on this work focus to their subordinates.
Seekcomfort
An interesting research findingabout managers is that theytend to come from stable home backgrounds
and led relatively normal and comfortable lives. Thisleads them to be relatively risk-averse and they
willseek to avoid conflict where possible. In terms of people, theygenerally like to run a 'happy ship'.
Leadershave followers
Leaders do not have subordinates - at least notwhen they are leading.Many organizational leaders do
have subordinates, but only becausethey are also managers.But when they want to lead, they have to
give up formal authoritarian control,because to lead is to have followers, and following is always a
voluntaryactivity.
Charismatic,transformational style
Tellingpeople what to do does notinspire them to follow you. You have to appeal to them, showing
howfollowing them will lead to their hearts' desire. Theymust want to follow youenough to stop what
theyare doing and perhaps walkinto danger and situations thatthey would not normally consider
risking.
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Leaderswith a stronger charisma find it easier to attract people to theircause. As a part of their
persuasionthey typically promise transformationalbenefits, such that theirfollowers will notjust
receive extrinsic rewards but willsomehow become betterpeople.
Peoplefocus
Althoughmany leaders have a charismatic style to some extent, this doesnot require a loudpersonality.
Theyare always good withpeople, and quiet stylesthat give credit to others(and takes blame on
themselves)are very effective at creating the loyalty that great leaders engender.
Althoughleaders are good withpeople, this does notmean they are friendlywith them. In order to keep
the mystique of leadership, they oftenretain a degree of separation and aloofness.
Thisdoes not mean thatleaders do not pay attention to tasks - in fact they areoften very achievement-
focused. What they do realize,however, is the importance of enthusingothers to work towards their
vision.
Seekrisk
In the same study that showedmanagers as risk-averse, leaders appeared as risk-seeking, althoughthey
arenot blind thrill-seekers.When pursuing their vision,they consider it natural to encounter problems
and hurdles that must be overcome along the way. They are thuscomfortable with risk andwill see
routesthat others avoid as potential opportunities for advantage and will happily break rules in order to
get things done.
A surprising number of these leadershad some form of handicap in their lives which they had to
overcome. Some had traumaticchildhoods, some had problems such as dyslexia, others were shorter
than average. This perhaps taught them the independence of mind that is needed to go out on a limb and
notworry about what othersare thinking aboutyou
Managerversus Leader
Both a manager and a leader mayknow the business well. Butthe leader must know it better and in a
differentway. S/he must grasp the essential facts and the underlyingforces that determine thepast and
presenttrends in the business, so thats/he can generate a vision and a strategy to bring about itsfuture.
Onetelling sign of a good leader is an honest attitude towards the facts, towards objective truth. A
subjective leader obscures the facts for the sake of narrow self-interest, partisan interest or prejudice.
Effectiveleaders continually ask questions, probing all levels of the organization forinformation,
testingtheir own perceptions, and rechecking the facts. They talk to their constituents. They want to
knowwhat is working and what is not. They keep an open mindfor serendipity to bring them the
knowledgethey need to know what is true. An important source of information for this sort of leader is
knowledge of the failures and mistakes thatare being made in theirorganization.
To survive in the twenty-first century, we are going to need a newgeneration of leaders -- leaders,not
managers.The distinction is an important one. Leaders conquer the context -- the turbulent, ambiguous
surroundings that sometimes seem to conspire against us and will surely suffocate us if we let them --
whilemanagers surrender to it.
Leadersinvestigate reality, taking in the pertinent factors and analyzing them carefully. On thisbasis
they produce visions, concepts, plans, and programs. Managers adopt the truthfrom others and
implement it without probing for the facts that revealreality.
There is profound difference -- a chasm -- between leaders and managers. A good manager does
thingsright. A leaderdoes the right things. Doing the right things implies a goal, a direction, an
objective, a vision, a dream, a path, a reach.
Lots of people spend their livesclimbing a ladder -- and thenthey get to the top of the wrongwall.
Mostlosing organizations are over-managed and under-led. Their managers accomplish the wrong
thingsbeautifully and efficiently. Theyclimb the wrong wall.
Managing is about efficiency. Leading is about effectiveness. Managing is abouthow. Leading is about
what and why. Management is aboutsystems, controls, procedures,policies, and structure. Leadership
is about trust -- aboutpeople.
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Leadership is about innovating and initiating.Management is about copying,about managing the status
quo.Leadership is creative, adaptive, and agile. Leadership looks at the horizon, not just the bottom
line.
Leadersbase their vision, their appeal to others, and theirintegrity on reality, on the facts, on a careful
estimate of the forces at play, and on the trends and contradictions.They develop the meansfor
changing the original balance of forces so that their vision can be realized.
A leader is someone who has the capacity to create a compellingvision that takes people to a new place,
and to translate that vision intoaction. Leaders draw otherpeople to them by enrolling them in their
vision.What leaders do is inspirepeople, empower them.
Theypull rather than push. This"pull" style of leadership attractsand energizes people to enroll in a
vision of the future. It motivates people by helping them identify with the task and the goal rather than
by rewarding or punishing them.
There is a profound difference between management and leadership, andboth are important "To
manage" means "to bring about, to accomplish, to have charge of or responsibilityfor, to conduct."
"Leading" is "influencing, guiding in direction,course, action, opinion."The distinction is crucial.
Managementis....
Leadership is....
Copingwith complexity
Copingwith and promotingchange
Planning and Budgeting
Setting a Direction
Organizing and Staffing
Aligning People
Controlling and Problem Solving
Motivatingand Inspiring People
EffectiveAction
MeaningfulAction
Both are necessary andimportant.
Managersare people who do thingsright and leaders are peoplewho do the right thing. Thedifference
may be summarized as activities of visionand judgment -- effectiveness--versusactivities of
mastering routines -- efficiency.The chart below indicates key words thatfurther make the distinction
between the two functions:
 Themanager administers; the leader innovates.
 Themanager is a copy; the leader is an original.
 Themanager maintains; the leader develops.
 Themanager accepts reality; the leader investigates it.
 Themanager focuses on systemsand structure; the leader focuses on people.
 Themanager relies on control; the leader inspires trust.
 Themanager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective.
 Themanager asks how andwhen; the leader asks whatand why.
 Themanager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader has his or her eye on the
horizon.
 Themanager imitates; the leader originates.
 Themanager accepts the statusquo; the leader challenges it.
 Themanager is the classic goodsoldier; the leader is his or her ownperson.
 Themanager does things right;the leader does the rightthing.
Themost dramatic differences between leadersand managers are found at the extremes: poorleaders
aredespots, while poor managersare bureaucrats in the worstsense of the word. Whilst leadership is a
human process and management is a process of resource allocation, both have their place and managers
mustalso perform as leaders. All first-class managers turn out to have quite a lot of leadership ability.
TopTen Characteristics of a GreatManager
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1. Time Management
Supervisorypositions can be verystressful and overwhelming whenspecific deadlines need to be met.
Leadersneed to be able to handletasks and assignments in a timely manner. Time is similar to finances
and both need to be budgeted wisely.
2. Communication Skills
Communication is fundamental in any aspect of life, especially formanagement teams and among
employeerelations. Supervisors need to be capable of communicating clearly withfellow managers,
employees, other businesses, and customers.Confidence and personalityplays a major role in a
manager'sability to communicate. Managers should be experienced with speaking both to groups and
individuals.
3. Conflict Resolution
Conflictoccurs just about everyday in personal and career basedenvironments. Managers need to be
able to listen, identify an issue,agree on the issue, discusssolutions, agree on the solution,and follow
up.Conflict between employees may causeawkward tension within the office which can result in
slacking or bitterness. Employees should feelcomfortable approaching managersregarding conflictand
confidentthat a resolution will be found. Managers will alsoneed to be able to resolveconflict with
customerswhen the time arises. Oftenclients will becomefrustrated if something goes wrong and
managersneed to be able to handle the situation appropriately. It'salso important for a follow up check
to ensure there are no further problems.
4. Personal Traits
Thebusiness industry expects a lot from managers andpersonality traits are a major aspect.Managers
need to be creative, adaptable, charismatic, understanding,confident, mentally stable, toleratestress
well, great listener, and willingness to learn.Management positions are noteasy to fill because of all the
keyqualities necessary and noteveryone will possess all of them. I firmly believe certainpersonality
traitsare one of the most importantaspects required to run a successful organization.
5. Experience
Let's face it, not everymanager has previoussupervisory experience. Generally eachmanager wasn't
immediatelypromoted to their position and had to climb their way up the totempole. Many companies
overlookpotential managers becausethey don't have previous leadership experience. Experience should
be based off their knowledge of their job title, howmany years they have worked in their field, and
performance appraisals. Experience is something everyemployer looks at regardless of what position
andit's important for people to realize sometimes they have to start lower than expected in order to earn
theirposition.
6. Goal Setting
Goalsetting goes hand-in-handwith time management.Managers need to managetheir time wisely and
focus on specific goals. Managers alsoneed to be able to assigncertain tasks to employees by giving
them a goal as well.
7. Responsibility
Being responsible in the workplace is veryimportant. Managers need to ensure assignments, tasks,and
deadlines are met. It's also the responsibility of a manager to hireappropriate people forspecific
positions.Managers are expected to be able to handle a lot and being responsible about every situation
will be beneficial in the end.
8. Organization
Managersneed to be well organizedfor many different reasons and in many different areas.Keeping a
clean and well organized officewill impress others andalso make it easier to work.Managers need to
encourage employees to also keep their personal space clean and neat. Organizing projects, assignments,
and documents is a great way to find them quickly and withease.
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9. Leadership Skills
Managersare leaders in the workplace and need to possess the basicskills. Generally managers were
onceleaders in other aspects of their life. They might have led youth groups, school projects, plays,and
other groups. Being able to handle a group of people and lead them in the right direction is very
important.
10.Objective Views
Managersneed to remain objective towards their employees, fellow managers,customers, and theirown
personal work. A manager should not be bias towards a certain group or person. He/she shouldalways
remainnon-judgmental and give everyone a chance to prove themselves.Having a "favorite"employee
shouldnot happen because it's notfair to other employees. Managersshould also be able to remember
thatyou should view staffmembers and customers in a professionalmanner rather than as a close
personal friend.
Sevenpersonal qualities found in a goodleader
A good leader has an exemplary character. It is of utmost importance that a leader is trustworthy to lead
others. A leader needs to be trusted and be known to live their life withhonestly and integrity. A good
leader "walks the talk" and in doing so earns the right to have responsibility for others. Trueauthority is
bornfrom respect for the goodcharacter and trustworthiness of the personwho leads.
A good leader is enthusiastic about theirwork or cause and also abouttheir role as leader. People will
respond more openly to a person of passion and dedication. Leaders need to be able to be a source of
inspiration, and be a motivator towards the requiredaction or cause. Although the responsibilities and
roles of a leader may be different, the leader needs to be seen to be part of the team working towards the
goal.This kind of leader will not be afraid to roll up theirsleeves and get dirty.
A good leader is confident. In order to lead and set direction a leader needs to appear confident as a
person and in the leadership role. Such a person inspires confidence in others anddraws out the trust
andbest efforts of the team to complete the task well. A leader who conveys confidence towards the
proposed objective inspires the best effortfrom team members
A leader also needs to function in an orderly and purposeful manner in situations of uncertainty. People
look to the leader during times of uncertainty and unfamiliarity and find reassurance and security when
the leader portrays confidence and a positive demeanor.
Goodleaders are tolerant of ambiguity and remain calm, composed and steadfast to the main purpose.
Storms, emotions, and crises come and go and a good leader takes these as part of the journey andkeeps
a cool head
A good leader, as well as keeping the main goal in focus, is able to think analytically.Not only does a
good leader view a situation as a whole,but is able to break it downinto sub parts forcloser inspection.
Whilekeeping the goal in view, a good leader can break it down into manageable steps and make
progress towards it
A good leader is committed to excellence. Second best does notlead to success. The good leader not
onlymaintains high standards,but also is proactive in raising the bar in order to achieve excellence in
allareas.
Theseseven personal characteristics arefoundational to good leadership. Somecharacteristics may be
more naturally present in the personality of a leader. However, each of these characteristics canalso be
developed and strengthened. A good leader whetherthey naturally possess thesequalities or not, will be
diligent to consistently develop and strengthen them in their leadership role
42.2
Transformational Leadership
Views of school leadership are changing largelybecause of current restructuringinitiatives and the
demands of the 90s. Advocates for school reform also usually advocate altering powerrelationships.
Theproblem, explain DouglasMitchell and Sharon Tucker (1992), is that we have tended to think of
leadership as the capacity to take chargeand get things done. Thisview keeps us from focusing on the
importance of teamwork and comprehensive school improvement.Perhaps it is time, they say, to stop
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thinking of leadership as aggressive action and more as a way of thinking--about ourselves, ourjobs,
and the nature of the educational process. Thus, "instructional leadership" is "out" and "transformational
leadership" is "in."
Howhas the term"transformational leadership" evolved andwhat does it mean?
Theidea of transformational leadership wasfirst developed by JamesMcGregor Burns in 1978 and later
extended by Bernard Bass as well as others. Neither Burns nor Bassstudied schools but rather based
their
work
on
political
leaders,
Army
officers,
or
business
executives.
Forexample, there has been a shift in businesses awayfrom Type A to Type Z organizations. Type Z
organizationsreduce differences in status between workers and managers, emphasizeparticipative
decision-making,and are based on a form of "consensual" or "facilitative" power that is manifested
through  other  people  instead  of  over  other  people  (Kenneth  Leithwood  1992).
Although there have been few studies of such leadership in schools and the definition of
transformational leadership is still vague, evidence showsthat there are similarities in transformational
leadership whether it is in a school setting or a business environment (NancyHoover and others1991,
KennethLeithwood and Doris Jantzi1990, Leithwood). "The issue is more than simply whomakes
whichdecisions," says Richard Sagor (1992). "Rather it is finding a way to be successful in
collaborativelydefining the essential purpose of teaching and learning and thenempowering the entire
school community to become energized and focused. In schools where such a focus hasbeen achieved,
we found that teaching and learning became transformativefor everyone."
Howdoes this differ from otherschool leadershipstyles?
Instructionalleadership
Instructional leadership encompasses hierarchies and top-down leadership, where the leader is supposed
to know the best form of instruction and closelymonitors teachers' and students'work. One of the
problems with this, says MaryPoplin (1992), is that great administrators aren't always great classroom
leadersand vice versa. Anotherdifficulty is that this form of leadership concentrates on the growth of
studentsbut rarely looks at the growth of teachers. Since shebelieves that education now calls on
administrators to be "the servants of collectivevision," as well as "editors,cheerleaders, problem
solvers, and resource finders,"instructional leadership, she declares,has outlived itsusefulness.
Transactionalleadership
Transactional leadership is sometimes called bartering. It is based on an exchange of services(from a
teacher, for instance) for variouskinds of rewards (such as a salary) that the leader controls, at least in
part.
Transactional leadership is often viewed as beingcomplementary with transformational leadership.
ThomasSergiovanni (1990) considerstransformational leadership a first stageand central to getting
day-to-dayroutines carried out.However, Leithwood says it doesn't stimulate improvement.Mitchell
and Tucker add that transactionalleadership works only whenboth leaders and followers understand
and are in agreement about whichtasks are important.
What are the goals of transformationalleadership?
Leithwoodfinds that transformationalleaders pursue three fundamental goals:
Helpingstaff develop and maintain a collaborative, professional school culture: Thismeans staff
membersoften talk, observe, critique, and plan together. Norms of collective responsibility and
continuousimprovement encourage them to teacheach other how to teachbetter. Transformational
leadersinvolve staff in collaborativegoal setting, reduce teacherisolation, use bureaucratic mechanisms
to support cultural changes, share leadership with others by delegatingpower, and actively
communicate the school's norms and beliefs.
Fosteringteacher development
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One of Leithwood's studies suggeststhat teachers' motivationfor development is enhancedwhen they
internalize goals for professional growth.This process, Leithwoodfound, is facilitated whenthey are
stronglycommitted to a school mission. Whenleaders give staff a role in solving nonroutine school
improvement problems, they should makesure goals are explicit and ambitious but notunrealistic.
Helpingteachers solve problems moreeffectively
Transformational leadership is valued by some, saysLeithwood, because it stimulates teachers to
engage in new activities and putforth that "extra effort"(see also Hoover and others,Sergiovanni,
Sagor). Leithwood found thattransformational leaders usepractices primarily to helpstaff members
work smarter, not harder. "These leadersshared a genuine belief thattheir staff members as a group
coulddevelop better solutionsthan the principal couldalone," concludesLeithwood.
Whatstrategies do transformational leadersuse?
Hereare specific ideas, culledfrom several sources on transformational leadership (Sagor, Leithwood,
Leithwoodand Jantzi, Poplin):
Visiteach classroom every day;assist in classrooms; encourageteachers to visit oneanother's
classes.
Involve the whole staff in deliberating on school goals, beliefs, and visions at the beginning of the
year.
Helpteachers work smarter by actively seeking differentinterpretations and checkingout
assumptions; place individual problems in the larger perspective of the whole school;avoid
commitment to preconceived solutions; clarify andsummarize at key pointsduring meetings; and
keep the group on task but do not impose your own perspective.
Useaction research teams or school improvement teams as a way of sharing power. Give everyone
responsibilities and involve staff in governance functions. For those notparticipating, ask them to
be in charge of a committee.
Find the good things that arehappening and publicly recognize the work of staff and studentswho
have contributed to school improvement. Writeprivate notes to teachers expressing appreciation for
special efforts.
Survey the staff often about theirwants and needs. Be receptive to teachers' attitudesand
philosophies.Use active listening and show people you truly careabout them.
Letteachers experiment with newideas. Share and discussresearch with them. Proposequestions
forpeople to thinkabout.
Bring workshops to your school where it'scomfortable for staff to participate. Get teachers to share
their talents with one another. Give a workshop yourself and shareinformation with staff on
conferencesthat you attend.
Whenhiring new staff, let them know you want them activelyinvolved in school decision-making;
hireteachers with a commitment to collaboration. Give teachersthe option to transfer if theycan't
whollycommit themselves to the school'spurposes.
Havehigh expectations for teachers and students, but don't expect 100 percent if you aren't also
willing to give the same. Tellteachers you want them to be the best teachers they possiblycan be.
Use bureaucratic mechanisms to support teachers,such as finding money for a project or providing
timefor collaborative planningduring the workday. Protect teachersfrom the problems of limited
time,excessive paperwork, and demandsfrom other agencies.
Letteachers know they are responsible for all students,not just their ownclasses.
What are the results of this kind of leadership?
Evidence of the effects of transformational leadership, according to Leithwood, is "uniformlypositive."
He cites two findings fromhis own studies:
 Transformational leadership practices have a sizable influence on teacher collaboration,and
 Significantrelationships exist between aspects of transformational leadership and teachers'own
reports of changes in both attitudestoward school improvement and alteredinstructional behavior.
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Sergiovannisuggests that student achievement can be "remarkably improved" by suchleadership.
Finally,Sagor found that schools where teachers and students reported a culture conducive to school
successhad a transformational leader as itsprincipal.
However,Mitchell and Tucker conclude thattransformational leadership should be seen as only one
part of a balanced approach to creating high performance in schools. Leithwood agrees:"While most
schoolsrely on both top-down and facilitative forms of power,finding the right balance is the problem.
Forschools that arerestructuring, moving closer to the facilitative end of the power continuumwill
usuallysolve the problem."
42.3
VISION
A good Vision serves three important purposes.
Clarifying"General direction forChange"
Motivates People to take action in rightdirection, even if initial stepsare personallypainful.
Helpscoordinate action of differentpeople, even thousand & thousands of individuals, in a
remarkably fast & efficient way.
Characteristics of Effective Vision
Imaginable:It conveys a picture of what the futurecould look like. Thevision must be ambitious
enough to force people out of theircomfort zones. The God we serve created the universe; He can do
great things!
Desirable: It appeals to the long-term interests of most of the organization's stakeholders. In contrast,
poorvisions tend to ignore the legitimateinterests of some groups, or to exploitother groups.
Realistic: Goodvisions are not"pie-in-the-sky" fantasies with no chance of realization.Christian
leadersmust be careful not to let a cavalier "all things are possible with God" attitude to substitute for a
legitimatevision that is, at once,faith-filled yet realistic.Moreover, good visions willtake advantage of
fundamental trends. Finally, to be realistic, the vision should be linked to the core competencies of the
organization.
Focused:Goodvisions are clear enough to motivate action. They shouldnot be vague or ambiguous.
Flexible:Goodvisions must be flexibleenough to allow initiative.Bad visions are sometimestoo
specific or do not allow formodification. As the change proceeds, the vision itself will oftenchange! So
it must be flexible to beginwith.
Communicable:An effective vision can be explained successfully within five minutes. Unintelligible
visionsare ineffective. The trumpetmust sound a clear andcompelling call. Vision articulates what is
important,unique & exciting aboutwhat organization do. It guides for decision rules employees make
aboutbehavior.
Vision Statement
VisionStatement Encompasses the desired futurefor your company. A VisionStatement provides a
basis on which you & your teammembers can focus & work towards. Some vision statementslook
aheadonly a year or two, whileother vision statements maylook ahead ten years.Whatever time frame,
a vision statement is essentialfor giving drives to everyemployee in your company. A good vision
shoulddraw up a `picture' of what an individual or a group has in mind & cause those thatread it to
`see' the intended outcome.
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42.4
The Leadership Grid & the ManagerialGrid
Leadershipmodel that focuses on task(production) & employee (people)orientations of Managers as
well as combinations of concerns between twoextremes. Developed by Robert R. Blake and Jane S.
Mouton,The Leadership Grid provides a framework for understanding types of leadership. The grid
consists of two behavioral dimensions:
 Concern for production
 Concern for people
Blakeand Mouton characterize fivedifferent leadership styles according to the varying emphasis on
each of these two dimensions (with a range of 1 to 9 on each continuum), as illustrated in the table
below.They suggest that mosteffective leadership is characterized by the combination of highconcern
forproduction with high concernfor people.
Developed by the founders of our company, Drs. Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton, TheManagerial
Gridgraphicbelow is a very simpleframework that elegantly defines seven basic styles that
characterizeworkplace behavior and the resulting relationships. Theseven managerial Grid styles are
based on how two fundamentalconcerns (concern for peopleand concern for results) are manifested at
varyinglevels whenever peopleinteract.
Figure42.1: ManagerialGrid
TheSeven Managerial Grid Styles:
9,1Controlling (Direct & Dominate)
I expect results and take control by clearly stating a course of action. I enforce rules that sustainhigh
results and do not permitdeviation.
1,9Accommodating (Yield & Comply)
I support results that establish and reinforce harmony. I generateenthusiasm by focusing on positive and
pleasingaspects of work.
5,5Status Quo (Balance & Compromise)
I endorse results that arepopular but caution against taking unnecessary risk. I test my opinions with
othersinvolved to assure ongoingacceptability.
1,1Indifferent (Evade & Elude)
I distance myself from takingactive responsibility forresults to avoid gettingentangled in problems. If
forced, I take a passive or supportiveposition.
PAT Paternalistic (Prescribe andGuide)
I provide leadership by defininginitiatives for myself and others. I offer praise and appreciation for
support, and discourage challenges to my thinking.
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OPPOpportunistic (Exploit & Manipulate)
I persuade others to support resultsthat offer me privatebenefit. If they alsobenefit, that's even better in
gaining support. I rely on whatever approach is needed to secure an advantage
9,9Sound (Contribute andCommit)
I initiate team action in a way that invites involvement and commitment. I explore allfacts and
alternativeviews to reach a sharedunderstanding of the bestsolution
Grid Relationship Skills
TheGrid theory translates intopractical use through Gridstyle relationship skillsthat people experience
day in and day out when theywork together. Theserelationship skills depict the typical and vital
behaviorsfor each style thatmake relationships effective or ineffective. Some behaviors strengthen and
motivateteams while others obstruct progress.
Critique- Learning from experience by anticipating and examining how behavior and actions affect
results
Initiative- Taking action to exerciseshared effort, drive, and support for specificactivities
Inquiry- Questioning, seeking information, and testing forunderstanding
Advocacy- Expressing attitudes, opinions, ideas, and convictions
Decision-Making- Evaluating resources, criteria, and consequences to reach a decision
ConflictResolution - Confronting and working throughdisagreements with otherstoward resolution
Resilience- Reacting to problems, setbacks, and failure, and understanding how these factors influence
the ability to moveforward
Gridtheory makes behaviors as tangible and objective as anyother corporate commodity. By studying
each of the seven Leadership Grid styles and the resulting relationship skillbehaviors, teams can
examine, in objective terms, howbehaviors help or hurt them. They can explore types of critique that
workbest for them and why. Theycan openly discuss how to improve decision-making and conflict
resolutionskills. These and othersubjects usually considered "offlimits" in terms of productivityare the
verysubjects that usually impede productivity. The Grid approach makes these subjects notonly
"discussable" but measurable in objectiveterms that generate empathy,motivation to improve, and
creativity.
Leadersmay be concerned for theirpeople and they alsomust also have some concernfor the work to
be done. The question is, howmuch attention to they pay to one or the other? This is a modeldefined by
Blakeand Mouton in the early 1960s.
Figure42.2: Leadership Grid
Impoverished management
Minimumeffort to get the work done. A basicallylazy approach that avoids as much work as possible.
Authority-compliance
Strong focus on task, but with littleconcern for people. Focus on efficiency, including the elimination of
peoplewherever possible.
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CountryClub management
Care and concern for the people,with a comfortable and friendlyenvironment and collegial style.But a
low focus on task may givequestionable results.
Middle of the road management
A weak balance of focus on both people and the work. Doing enough to get things done, but notpushing
the boundaries of what may be possible.
Team management
Firing on all cylinders: people arecommitted to task and leader is committed to people (as well as task).
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Broad Contents, Functions of Management
  2. CONCEPTS, DEFINITIONS AND NATURE OF PROJECTS:Why Projects are initiated?, Project Participants
  3. CONCEPTS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT:THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM, Managerial Skills
  4. PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES:Systems, Programs, and Projects
  5. PROJECT LIFE CYCLES:Conceptual Phase, Implementation Phase, Engineering Project
  6. THE PROJECT MANAGER:Team Building Skills, Conflict Resolution Skills, Organizing
  7. THE PROJECT MANAGER (CONTD.):Project Champions, Project Authority Breakdown
  8. PROJECT CONCEPTION AND PROJECT FEASIBILITY:Feasibility Analysis
  9. PROJECT FEASIBILITY (CONTD.):Scope of Feasibility Analysis, Project Impacts
  10. PROJECT FEASIBILITY (CONTD.):Operations and Production, Sales and Marketing
  11. PROJECT SELECTION:Modeling, The Operating Necessity, The Competitive Necessity
  12. PROJECT SELECTION (CONTD.):Payback Period, Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
  13. PROJECT PROPOSAL:Preparation for Future Proposal, Proposal Effort
  14. PROJECT PROPOSAL (CONTD.):Background on the Opportunity, Costs, Resources Required
  15. PROJECT PLANNING:Planning of Execution, Operations, Installation and Use
  16. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Outside Clients, Quality Control Planning
  17. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Elements of a Project Plan, Potential Problems
  18. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Sorting Out Project, Project Mission, Categories of Planning
  19. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Identifying Strategic Project Variables, Competitive Resources
  20. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):Responsibilities of Key Players, Line manager will define
  21. PROJECT PLANNING (CONTD.):The Statement of Work (Sow)
  22. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE:Characteristics of Work Package
  23. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE:Why Do Plans Fail?
  24. SCHEDULES AND CHARTS:Master Production Scheduling, Program Plan
  25. TOTAL PROJECT PLANNING:Management Control, Project Fast-Tracking
  26. PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT:Why is Scope Important?, Scope Management Plan
  27. PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT:Project Scope Definition, Scope Change Control
  28. NETWORK SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES:Historical Evolution of Networks, Dummy Activities
  29. NETWORK SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES:Slack Time Calculation, Network Re-planning
  30. NETWORK SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES:Total PERT/CPM Planning, PERT/CPM Problem Areas
  31. PRICING AND ESTIMATION:GLOBAL PRICING STRATEGIES, TYPES OF ESTIMATES
  32. PRICING AND ESTIMATION (CONTD.):LABOR DISTRIBUTIONS, OVERHEAD RATES
  33. PRICING AND ESTIMATION (CONTD.):MATERIALS/SUPPORT COSTS, PRICING OUT THE WORK
  34. QUALITY IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Value-Based Perspective, Customer-Driven Quality
  35. QUALITY IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT (CONTD.):Total Quality Management
  36. PRINCIPLES OF TOTAL QUALITY:EMPOWERMENT, COST OF QUALITY
  37. CUSTOMER FOCUSED PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Threshold Attributes
  38. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT TOOLS:Data Tables, Identify the problem, Random method
  39. PROJECT EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH ENHANCED PRODUCTIVITY:Messages of Productivity, Productivity Improvement
  40. COST MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN PROJECTS:Project benefits, Understanding Control
  41. COST MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN PROJECTS:Variance, Depreciation
  42. PROJECT MANAGEMENT THROUGH LEADERSHIP:The Tasks of Leadership, The Job of a Leader
  43. COMMUNICATION IN THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Cost of Correspondence, CHANNEL
  44. PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT:Components of Risk, Categories of Risk, Risk Planning
  45. PROJECT PROCUREMENT, CONTRACT MANAGEMENT, AND ETHICS IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT:Procurement Cycles