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Conflict Managment

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Conflict Management ­HRM624
Lesson 4
An ounce of mediation is worth a pound of arbitration and a ton of litigation.
Joseph Grynbaum
The courts of this country should not be the places where the disputes end after alternative methods of
resolving disputes have been considered and tried.
Justice Sandra Day O'Connor
This lecture deals with the discussion about the misperceptions about conflict. Before we proceed the
following points regarding conflict must be clear in mind. We have discussed them in the previous lectures.
Interpersonal conflict is all around us. We confront interpersonal conflict when we decide who will do the
house work, attend staff meetings, negotiate for a raise, or discipline a child. Any time we deal another
person, the possibility of incompatible goals raises the possibility of conflict. We must remember that
·  Conflict is not the opposite of the order
·  Interpersonal conflict is to be distinguished from inner conflict
·  Conflict is an escalated but natural competition between two or more parties.
·  Conflict is an unusual occurrence
·  Extreme form of conflict is violence and violence generally hurts weaker parties.
Misperception in Interpersonal Conflict
There are certain misperceptions about interpersonal conflict
a. Ubiquitous and invisible
b. Importance of recognizing
Impairs our ability to respond to conflict
Impairs our ability to choose ADR processes and providers
Pedagogical development
The craft metaphor of pedagogical development
·  Narrow experiences create narrow beliefs and assumptions
·  Bronfenbrenner's theory (bioecological systems theory) defines complex "layers" of environment,
each having an effect on the development of persons and their consequential disagreements or
·  Development of knowledge base in favour of ADR and clarify the advantages of non-adversarial
Pressures against Innovation ­ Social Ecology
·  Macro system reflects dominant values and perceptions
·  Individuals gain practice and proficiency
·  Individuals transmit dominant values and perceptions to children
·  Efficacy of dominant values and perceptions seems "obvious"
·  Individuals perpetuate dominant values and perceptions
Bio-ecological Systems Theory
Bronfenbrenner, an eminent developmental psychologist, named the overall social structure that acts as a
source of blueprints for individuals the macrosystem. The macrosystem includes the important institutions
in which we operate- the court system, the governmental structure and so on. In his influential theory of
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Social Ecology, Bronfenbrenner postulated that there is a synergistic relationship between the macrosystem
and the individual.
This theory looks at a child's development within the context of the system of relationships that form his or
her environment.
Bronfenbrenner's theory defines complex "layers" of environment, each having an effect on a child's
development. This theory has recently been renamed "bioecological systems theory" to emphasize that a
child's own biology is a primary environment fueling her development. The interaction between factors in
the child's maturing biology, his immediate family/community environment, and the societal landscape
fuels and steers his development. Changes or conflict in any one layer will ripple throughout other layers.
To study a child's development then, we must look not only at the child and her immediate environment,
but also at the interaction of the larger environment as well.
The macro system is structured to reflect the cultural belief systems of its inhabitants-that is because a
society is composed of its individual members, and their collective efforts maintain the macro system. The
macro system's structure generates situations in which individuals, to survive and do well, must adopt
blueprints and use tools consistent with the overall cultural belief systems.
Components of Mastery of Environment
Following are the components of mastery
·  Idea, plan or roadmap.
·  Skills, strategies, tool (a tool box of mastery).
·  Proficiency-the ability to competently apply the right tools (skills and means) to a given situation to
execute the plan of action.
·  Apparent superiority of status quo.
a.  Practice creates high degree of efficiency
b. Testing new ways will necessarily lack efficiency
c.  The failures of innovations are taken as the inferiority of innovation over the existing
practice, rather than to the lack of efficiency.
Pressures against Innovation
Here are some pressures against Innovation.
a. We lack proficiency in using new ways and tools.
b. Poor and inefficient outcomes result.
c. Poor and inefficient outcomes likely to be attributed to the innovative ideas or means.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONFLICT:Dispute, Legal Dispute, Call the police
  2. DISPUTE RESOLUTION 1:Positive affect in Negotiation, Alternative Dispute Resolution
  3. DISPUTE RESOLUTION II:Adjudication, Litigation, Mediation-Arbitration
  4. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT I:Pedagogical development, Pressures against Innovation
  5. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT II:Cultural beliefs about interpersonal conflict, Why strategies of change fail
  6. CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS:Who Needs to Know About Conflict Diagnosis?, Steps in Conflict Diagnosis
  7. RECURRENT THEMES IN CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS I:The Seven Steps of Social Behavior, Seven steps to diagnose conflict
  9. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT I:Description of Conflict, Identifying Interpersonal Conflict
  10. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT II:Step 1 for Conflict Diagnosis, interpersonal or intrapersonal
  11. SOURCES AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT I:Main Sources of Conflict, Discussing major sources of conflict
  13. INTEREST ANALYSIS I:Analyzing your interests, Analyzing the other disputant’s interests
  14. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:What are interests?, Tips for Interest Trees
  15. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:Principles and values, Basic Human Needs
  16. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT I, Premises of Deutsch’s Theory
  17. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT II:Techniques to transform competitive conflict into cooperative
  18. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE I:What is Mistrust,Trust and business,Three levels of trust
  19. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE II:Advantages of high trust level, Building of trust
  20. ASSESSING IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT I:Motivation to seek vengeance, Mistrust
  21. ASSESSING THE IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVING THE CONFLICT II:Disempowered Disputant, Unpleasant Disputant
  22. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE I:Dual Concern Model, Dominating or competition style
  23. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE:Dual Concern Model, Tactics Used In Integrating
  24. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS:Conflict and Power, Kinds of power in the Relationship Domain
  25. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS II:Sources of Relationship Power, Context and Power
  26. POWER, CONFLICT, AND BATNA III:Role of Third Party in BATNA, Dealing with Power Imbalance
  27. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT I:Stereotyping, Stereotyping in Interpersonal Conflict
  28. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT:Categories of Diversity Issues, Seven Mental Processes to Prove Stereotypes
  29. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY AND CONFLICT III:Individual Difference and Social Category, Cultural differences in values
  30. MEDIATION I:When is mediation required, Processes Related to Mediation, Product of Mediation
  31. MEDIATION II:Important distinguishing factors, More Advantages and Disadvantages of Pure Mediation
  32. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION I:Efficiency Consideration, Conflict Management and Prevention
  33. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION II:Quality of Consent, Effects on the parties to mediation
  34. PROCESS OF MEDIATION:Stages of Mediation, Facilitative tactics in mediation
  35. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION I:Characteristics of mediation, Confidentiality
  36. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION II:Role of ethics in mediation, 8 Dimensions of Ethics in Mediation
  37. ARBITRATION I:Ways to Resolve Conflict, Advantages of Arbitration, Disadvantages of Arbitration
  38. ARBITRATION II:Varieties of Arbitration, Process of Arbitration, Contents of Arbitration Act
  39. NON BINDING EVALUATION:Disadvantage, Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation
  40. NON BINDING EVALUATION II:Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation, Advantages and disadvantages of Non-binding Evaluation
  41. MIXED AND MULTIMODAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION:Six System Design Principles, Extensions of Dispute Systems Design
  42. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS I:Introduction, Necessity of conflict diagnosis, Using conflict diagnosis
  43. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS II:Proposed Contents of a Clients’ Interview, Impediments to use facilitative mediation
  44. PANCHAYAT, LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM, AND ADR, Definitions of Panchayat, Definition of Jirga
  45. SUMMARY AND MESSAGE OF THE COURSE:Definitions of conflict, Negotiation, Meditation, Adjudication