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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
At the end of the lecture the students will be able to understand:
Remaining types of plans
Discuss the logical steps involved in planning and see that this essentially is a
approach to setting objectives
In today's lecture will examine remaining types of plans which are:
7. Programmes
Programmes are a complex of goal, policies, rules, tasks, procedures, resources to be employed.
Programmes have a time period and these are for specific purpose. Example: Rural Support Programmes,
Employees Development Programme, Tawana Pakistan Programme
8. Budgets
Budget is a statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms. It is referred to as a
`numberized' plan. For private sector organization financial operating budget is called a `profit plan'.
For public sector organization a budget of an organization is an expression of income and
expenditure. It expresses the effectiveness of organization in accomplishing its goals and objectives. The
Federal, Provincial and Districts Budgets express the policies of respective governments in providing public
Planning Process
There are eight steps in planning process. These are:
Recognizing the need for planning;
Determining the objectives;
Forecasting the future;
Determining alternatives
Evaluating Alternatives
Selecting a course of action
Implementing the plan
Revising the plan
1. Recognizing the Need for Planning
This precedes planning and starts with intention of either solving problem or to attain some
objectives. Organizations have need for planning to use scarce resources efficiently, and make best use of
opportunities and prepare for threats. This is because plans are considered as future course of action. The
organizations have to look ahead to solve their problems.
2. Determining Objectives
The second step in the planning process is establishing objectives for the organization and then for
each subordinate/employee. Objectives specify expected results and indicate end point of what is to be
done by the organization and by its employees.
Objectives are to be accomplished by the network of strategies, policies, procedures, rules, budget
and programmes.
1. To increase literacy by 5% from the last year,
2. To open schools in 5 villages of the province
3. To increase profits by 2%
All the above are examples of objectives.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
3. Forecasting the future
Forecasting is based on certain assumptions about the future in which the plan is to be carried out.
The basis of forecasting is the understanding of markets, the prices? what services needs to be provided?,
what technological change there will be? What population changes will there be?
Government publishes documents like `Economic Survey', State Bank of Pakistan Report, Bureau
of Statistics Census etc. used by social scientists to forecast economic and social trends in the country.
4. Determining Alternatives
This involves examining alternative course of action. There would hardly be a plan for which
alternatives do not exist.
Example: What are the alternatives to increase literacy? The alternatives could be:
To open new schools or
To have more shifts in the existing schools or
To ask the private sector to open schools
The government may adopt one of the alternative or combination of objectives.
5. Evaluating Alternatives
Each alternative is evaluated or examined in terms of cost and benefits. One course of action may
have large investment and little benefits in the short run. Other alternative may be risky and have more
To open new schools. This alternative may require more money.
To have more shifts in the existing schools. This alternative may be require less money
compared to alternative 1 because of use of existing facilities.
To ask the private sector to open schools. This alternative may not require money from the
government at all.
In evaluation of alternatives the estimation of cost and benefits is very important because on its
basis the decision is taken.
6. Selecting one Alternative
At this point the decision has to be taken to adopt an alternative from the various alternatives. The
choice could be to pick one or more than one alternatives, depending on the emphasis on objectives to be
achieved and the cost. At this stage the plans are made part of the budget. Budgets become means of tying
up the plans
7. Implementing Plan
Implementation of a plan is the most crucial aspect. The implementation determines whether the
plan was able to achieve the objectives or not.
8. Revising plan
Planning as Rational Process
As indicated by the planning process, it is a rational approach to accomplish objectives. This
process is illustrated in the following graph:
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
The Planning Process
t -n
In this diagram progress (high profits, more services etc.) are shown on vertical axis and time on
the horizontal axis. X indicates where we are (to) and y where we want to be at future time (tn). Often we
do not have all the data but we start planning and we may start our planning at x1. The arrows shown
around the line X and Y are the assumptions that we make ability the future. When we plan we are in fact
charting an unknown territory. The line XY is the decision path.
If the future was completely certain the line XY would be relatively easy to draw. But since future is
uncertain we make assumptions about future.
Three principles of plans
There are three principles of the plan. These are:
Time horizon: There are long term and short term plans. The question is how the long
term plans can be coordinated with long term plans? What is the duration of plan? These
questions suggest multiple horizons of plans.
Commitment Principle:  The key to choosing right planning periods seems to be in
commitment principle logical planning encompasses a future period of time necessary to
fulfil series of action the commitment in decisions made today
Coordination of short term and long term plans: Often short term plans are make without
reference to long-range plans. There is a need to integrate the short and long term plans.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Figure 2
Hierarchy of Objectives
Board of Directors
Bottom Up
Top management
Top Down
Overall objectives of
Middle management
Organization (strategic)
More specific objectives
Division Objectives
Lower level Management
Department or branch or unit objectives
Individual Objectives: 1. Performance, 2. Personal objectives
In figure 2 above is the hierarchy of objectives, which are a kind of plan, and provide guide for
planning. The objectives start from the top of the organization and these objectives are formulated by the
Board of Directors of the organization. These are then translated into the overall objectives of the
organization, which in turn are made more specific. Lower level management objective are performance
related and personal development objectives. So plans are formulated based on the socio-economic purpose
of the organization which is translated to the lowest level.
Alternative plans:
various options that is available.
Rational process:
logical sequential process of setting goals and choosing on best
a programme is a complex of goal, sub task and resource.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management