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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
At the end of the lecture the students will be able to understand:
The function and role of Planning organizations at the national level and provincial level
The Need for Planning
As we know at the time of independence Pakistan had inadequate social and physical infrastructure,
and there was need to develop roads, industry, schools, dams, power houses, hospitals and other
government structure.
In 1948 Development Board was created in Economic Affairs Division. The Board was to plan the
socio-economic development of the new country. The Board in 1950 prepared a Six- Year Development
In 1953 the Government created Planning Board with a purpose to `develop the resources of the
country as rapidly as possible to promote the welfare of people, provide adequate living standards, social
welfare services, and secure social justice and equality of opportunities to all.'
In 1958 the Planning Board was re-designated as Planning Commission. The objectives of the
Commission  were more or less the same as the board, but in addition it was to consult the Central,
Provincial and relevant agencies to prepare national plans, make assessment of human and material
resources. The Planning Commission was the highest body for making national plans.
Organization Chart Planning Commission & Planning Development Division
Figure 1
Deputy Chairman
Chief Economist
Member Production
Additional Secretary
Member Social
Jr. Chief
& Management
Projects Wing
Economist (Macro)
Sr. Chief
JCE (Operation)
Agri. & Food
Jr. Secretary
Figure 1 gives the organization chart of Planning Commission as it exist in 2003. The Planning
Commission is the highest planning body and it is head by Deputy Chairman
Following are the major functions of Planning Commission:
To prepare comprehensive national plan for socio-economic development of the country
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
To formulate within the framework of national plan, of annual plan and annual development
programme projects and programmes of national development.
Monitoring the implementation of all major development projects and programmes (which
are above Rs. 40 million)
Continuous evaluation of economic situation and coordination of economic policies
Examination  and technical appraisal  of development projects received from Federal
Ministries and Provincial Government for consideration of Central development working
Party (CDWP)/ Executive Committee of National Economic Council (ECNEC)
Relationship of Plan and Projects
There is a complementary relationship between plan and projects. Projects are to plan what bricks
are to building.
What does national plan comprise?
A national plan comprise number of small projects
What is a project? A Project is work undertaken to achieve goals in a given time period. It has
following characteristics:
Investment of resources: all projects require resources like capital, machinery & equipments.
It consumes inputs and gives outputs: when the projects start producing. These consume
inputs like raw material etc., to produce output
3. It has beginning and an end: A project is started and it gets completed after which it starts
producing output or service Examples: of project is Terbala Dam Project, School
construction Project, Highway Project (N-5).
Process of Project Completion
A project follows a sequential process of "beginning" and ending which is as follows:
1. Projects Identification
2. Project study (feasibility)
3. Project Preparation
4. Project Appraisal
5. Project Approval
6. Project Implementation and Monitoring
7. Project Evaluation
Project Identification: A project is identified by the representatives of the people, experts in the
field, survey, media, etc. Project identification means that there is a need felt by community to
have a project. For example the community may have the need for an X clean drinking water or,
need to have proper sewerage system. The community may then approach government to
provide clean drinking water by constructing a water reservoir.
Project Feasibility: It is in depth study of technical, financial and economic viability of project. It
is based on surveys and research studies. The technical, financial and economic study would see if
the project will be able to cover its cost and remain in demand or not.
Project Preparation: The details of the project study are put in a form called PC-I. It is a form of
Planning Commission. The forms requires such information as sponsoring organization, time of
completion, if the project is included in plan, cost of the project, location of the project, history,
source of financing, inputs, etc.
Project appraisal: It is careful checking of the basic data collected through survey, assumptions
and methodology used in project preparation. It is in fact review of the project data and
information. The appraisal is undertaken by the concerned technical section of Planning
Project approval: After appraisal the project goes to the approving body. Following are the
project approving bodies:
National Economic Council (NEC)
Executive Committee of NEC
Economic Coordination
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Committee of Cabinet
c.  Central Development Working Party: Approves all provincial schemes costing up to Rs. 100
d. Departmental Developing Working Party
e.  Provincial Development Working Party: each Province has a Provincial Development
Working Party. The Provincial Development Working Party scrutinise various projects for
inclusion in the Annual and Five Year Plans.
Project Implementation: The project becomes part of annual programme and receives allocation
annually from the budget, after which it is implemented and completed.
Project Evaluation: When the project is completed it is then evaluated i.e., it is assessed the
problems faced during implementation, whether the project is meeting the need for which it was
completed etc.
Provincial Planning Organization
At the provincial level there is Planning and Development Department. The P&D is headed by the
Chairman P&D. The Secretary P&D is the administrative head. The Chairman is assisted by a Chief
Economist and Members and Joint Chief Economist.
Members are assisted by Chief of Section. Each Chief of Section deals with one or more sectors of
the provincial economy i.e., agriculture, forestry, tourism, livestock, irrigation, industry, water supply, social
welfare, population planning education etc. The Chief of Section is either engineer, economist or generalist
The functions of P & D are as follows:
1. To prepare Annual Development Programme in coordination with other departments
2. To prepare Five Year and other development plans
3. To clear Schemes to be sent to ECNEC/CDWP
4. To coordinate External Capital Assistance
Approval Authority
The Planning Department is the Secretariat for PDWP and a clearing house of development
projects by different line departments. The PDWP ca approve projects ranging from Rs. 100 million to Rs.
1000 million
Planning organizations have evolved in Pakistan and are performing functions for the overall
development of the country. The process of planning is systematic and rational because there are
institutions and processes of planning.
it is a distinct activity which requires investment and has
beginning and end.
Project cycle:
project cycle is a sequential process of project identification,
feasibility, preparation, appraisal, approval, implementation &
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management