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Principles of Management

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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Lesson 12.35
OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y were developed by Douglas McGregor and describe two distinct
views of human nature.
1.
Theory X was the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, seek to avoid responsibility,
and must be coerced to perform.
2.
Theory Y was the assumption that employees are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise
self-direction.
3.
Theory X assumed that lower-order needs (Maslow's) dominated individuals, and Theory Y
assumed that higher-order needs dominated.
Motivation-hygiene theory is the theory developed by Frederick Herzberg that suggests that intrinsic
factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, and extrinsic factors are associated with job
dissatisfaction. The basis of Herzberg's theory is that he believed that the opposite of satisfaction was not
dissatisfaction. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job would not necessarily make the job
satisfying. Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory states that there are only two categories of needs.
Hygiene factors are factors that eliminate dissatisfaction. They include things such as supervision,
company policy, salary, working conditions, security and so forth--extrinsic factors associated with job
context, or those things surrounding a job.
Hygiene factors are necessary
to keep workers away from feeling dissatisfied. There are several hygiene
factors.
a.
Pay
b.
Working conditions
c.
Supervisors
d.
Company policies
e.
Benefits
Motivators are factors that increase job satisfaction and hence motivation. They include things such as
achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement and so forth--intrinsic factors associated with job
content, or those things within the job itself.
Motivator factor can only lead workers to feel satisfied and motivated.
a.
Achievement
b.
Responsibility
c.
Work itself
d.
Recognition
e.
Growth and achievement
Clayton Alderfer's ERG theory combines Maslow's five needs into three need levels: existence, relatedness
and growth.
1.
Existence needs include the various forms of material and physiological desires,
such as food and water, as well as such work-related forms as pay, fringe benefits
and physical working conditions.
2.
Relatedness needs address our relationships with significant others, such as
families, friendship groups, work groups and professional groups.
Growth needs impel creativity and innovation, along with the desire to have a
3.
productive impact on our surroundings.
4.
ERG needs differ in concreteness, i.e. the degree to which their presence or
absence can be verified.
5.
The satisfaction-progression principle is a principle that states that satisfaction
of one level of need encourages concern with the next level.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
6.
Besides disagreeing as to the number of need levels that might exist, the ERG
theory differs from Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in three other significant
ways:
a.
Although the general notion of a hierarchy is retained, Alderfer's theory
argues that we can be concerned with more than one need category at the
same time.
b.
ERG theory is more flexible in acknowledging that some individuals'
needs may occur in a somewhat different order than the posited by the
ERG framework.
c.
ERG theory incorporates a frustration regression principle which states
that if we are continually frustrated in our attempts to satisfy a higher-
level need, we may cease to be concerned about that need.
McClelland's acquired-needs theory argues that our needs are acquired or learned on the basis of our life
experience.
1.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) measures the needs for achievement,
affiliation, and power.
2.
The need of achievement (nAch) is the desire to accomplish challenging tasks
and achieve a standard of excellence in one's work.
3.
The need for affiliation (nAff) is the desire to maintain warm, friendly
relationships with others.
4.
The need for power (nPow) is the desire to influence others and control one's
environment.
a.
Personal power is the need for power in which individuals want to
dominate others for the sake of demonstrating their ability to wield
power.
b.
Institutional power is the need for power in which individuals focus on
what they can do to solve problems and further organizational goals.
5.
The need profile of successful managers in competitive environments appears to
include:
a.
A moderate-to-high need for institutional power.
b.
A moderate need for achievement to facilitate individual contributions
early in one's career and a desire for the organization to maintain a
competitive edge as one moves to higher levels
c.
At least a minimum need for affiliation to provide sufficient sensitivity for
influencing others.
d.
Need for achievement may actually be more important than need for
power in running small or large, decentralized companies.
6.
It may be possible to foster the needs for achievement and for institutional power
through training.
Significance for Managers
Many aspects of need theories are of value to managers.
1.
Need theories are compatible in pointing out the importance of higher-level needs
as a source of motivation.
2.
Research indicates that it is more likely that individuals differ in the makeup of
their need structures than that the need structures of individuals are basically the
same.
3.
The frustration-regression aspect of ERG theory may have serious implications
for organizations.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Cognitive Perspectives
Equity Theory, developed by J. Stacey Adams, says that an employee perceives what he or she got from a
job situation (outcomes) in relation to what he or she put into it (inputs) and then compares the inputs-
outcomes ratio with the inputs-outcomes ratios of relevant others and finally corrects any inequity.
1.
The referents are the persons, systems, or selves against which individuals compare themselves to
assess equity.
2.
Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned with their absolute rewards as well as the
relationship of those rewards to what others receive.
3.
What will employees do when they perceive an inequity?
a.
Distort either their own or others' inputs or outcomes.
b.
Behave in some way to induce others to change their inputs or outcomes.
c.
Behave in some way to change their inputs or outcomes.
d.
Choose a different comparison person.
e.
Quit their job
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Table of Contents:
  1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
  2. MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
  3. MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
  4. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
  5. MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
  6. MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
  7. CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
  8. ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
  9. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
  10. QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
  11. SYSTEMíS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
  12. ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  13. 21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
  14. UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
  15. DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
  16. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
  17. NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
  18. NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
  19. GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
  20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
  21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
  22. PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
  23. PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
  24. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
  25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  27. LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTERíS MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
  28. ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
  29. ORGANIZING
  30. JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
  31. SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
  32. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
  33. LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
  34. MASLOWíS NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
  35. OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  36. EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
  37. MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
  38. BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
  39. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
  40. UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  41. GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
  42. UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  43. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  44. CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
  45. CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY